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1.
Rev. crim ; 63(1): 155-171, 20/04/2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251671

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo indagar sobre el conocimiento, las características y la utilidad de la técnica de perfilación criminológica dentro de una muestra de actores judiciales en Colombia, quienes, por sus funciones profesionales en la investigación criminal, se encontraban en posibilidad de aplicar la técnica. La metodología incluyó la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas a 155 funcionarios pertenecientes a las principales instituciones de administración de justicia colombiana (Fiscalía, Policía Nacional, Defensoría del Pueblo, Instituto Nacional Penitenciario y Carcelario, y miembros de la rama judicial). Entre los resultados se encuentra que los actores judiciales consideran útil la técnica por la noción de cientificidad que tienen sobre ella. Asimismo, aunque se percibe útil, es poco usada debido al desconocimiento general derivado del poco entrenamiento recibido para su ejecución. Estos resultados se discuten frente a la historia reciente del estudio en materia criminológica en el país, la formación de sus profesionales y las brechas entre la investigación académica y su uso en la práctica de investigación criminal. Se concluye que la técnica en el contexto colombiano está aún en desarrollo, actualmente cuenta con algunas guías y protocolos al interior de cada institución y requiere de mayores ejercicios de evaluación de impacto y análisis exhaustivos de su relevancia y cientificidad.


Abstract This research study's objective was to explore the knowledge, characteristics and usefulness of the criminal profiling technique within a sample of judicial actors in Colombia who, due to their professional functions in criminal investigations, could possibly apply the technique. The methodology included performing semi-structured interviews on 155 officials belonging to Colombia's main institutions for the administration of justice (Prosecutor's Office, National Police, Ombudsman's Office, National Penitentiary and Prison Institute, and members of the judicial branch). Among the results, it was observed that judicial actors consider the technique useful due to the scientific notion they have regarding it. Furthermore, although it is perceived as being useful, it is seldom used because of a general lack of knowledge derived from scant training for its execution. These results are discussed in light of the recent criminological study carried out in the country, its professionals' education and the gaps in academic research and its use in criminal investigations. It was concluded that the technique is still being developed in the Colombian context. It currently have some guides and protocols within each institution, and requires more impact assessments and comprehensive analyses regarding its relevance and scientific nature.


Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa foi indagar sobre o conhecimento, as características e a utilidade da técnica de perfil criminológico dentro de uma amostra de atores judiciais na Colômbia que, devido às suas funções profissionais na investigação criminal, são capazes de aplicar a técnica. A metodologia incluiu a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 155 funcionários pertencentes às principais instituições de administração de justiça colombiana (Procuradoria, Polícia Nacional, Defensoria do povo, Instituto Nacional Penitenciário e Carcerário, e membros do poder judiciário). Entre os resultados, encontra-se que os atores judiciais consideram a técnica útil devido à noção de cientificidade que possuem sobre ela. Da mesma forma, embora seja percebida como útil, é pouco utilizada por causa do desconhecimento geral derivado do pouco treinamento recebido para sua execução. Esses resultados são discutidos à luz da história recente do estudo da criminologia no país, da formação de seus profissionais e as brechas entre a pesquisa acadêmica e sua utilização na prática da investigação criminal. Conclui-se que a técnica, no contexto colombiano, ainda está em desenvolvimento. Atualmente possui alguns guias e protocolos dentro de cada instituição e requer maiores exercícios de avaliação de impacto e análise exaustiva de sua relevância e cientificidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Criminal Psychology , Research , Elements
2.
Rev. SOBECC ; 26(1): 12-20, 31-03-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177557

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar as especificações técnicas em processos de licitação para aquisição de autoclaves com mais de 90 L, com base na normatização relacionada. Método: Pesquisa descritiva, documental, com abordagem quantitativa, baseada em processos de licitação disponíveis online. Resultados: Foram analisados 112 processos, dos quais 106 (94,6%) foram provenientes do Brasil e seis (5,4%) do México, Honduras, El Salvador, Panamá e Paraguai. Os documentos foram analisados de acordo com aspectos construtivos, ciclos de esterilização, itens opcionais, itens de segurança e ferramentas de gestão. Conclusão: As especificações técnicas, em sua maioria, estão desatualizadas, em alguns casos comprometendo a segurança no processo de esterilização.


Objective: To analyze technical specifications in bidding processes for the acquisition of autoclaves with more than 90 L, based on the related standards. Method: Descriptive, documentary research, with a quantitative approach, based on bidding processes available online. Results: 112 bidding processes were analyzed, of which 106 (94.6%) came from Brazil and six (5.4%) from Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama and Paraguay. The documents were assessed according to construction aspects, sterilization cycles, optional items, safety items and management tools. Conclusion: Most of the technical specifications are outdated, in some cases compromising safety in the sterilization process.


Objetivo: Analizar las especificaciones técnicas en los procesos de licitación para la adquisición de autoclaves con más de 90 L, en base a la estandarización relacionada. Método: Investigación descriptiva, documental, con enfoque cuantitativo, basada en procesos de licitación disponibles online. Resultados: Se analizaron 112 casos, de los cuales 106 (94,6%) procedían de Brasil y seis (5,4%) de México, Honduras, El Salvador, Panamá y Paraguay. Los documentos fueron analizados según aspectos constructivos, ciclos de esterilización, opcionales, elementos de seguridad y herramientas de gestión. Conclusión: La mayoría de las especificaciones técnicas están desactualizadas, en algunos casos comprometiendo la seguridad en el proceso de esterilización.


Subject(s)
Humans , Organization and Administration , Sterilization , Technical Specifications , Research , Safety , Elements
3.
Soc. sci. med. (1982) ; 291(114512)2021.
Article in English | RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353234

ABSTRACT

Interactions between healthcare users and providers are an essential but often problematic element in therapeutic processes. In many settings worldwide, there has been a general recognition of the importance of adopting care approaches that understand patients as active agents, moving away from traditional paternalistic forms of interaction. Research shows that improving the quality of communication in therapeutic encounters fosters mutual understanding and cooperation in healthcare processes, helping to create the grounding conditions for building trusting relationships. But what are the communicative mechanisms through which trust in healthcare providers is cultivated? Going beyond the traditional 'doctor-patient' dyad analysis, and using data from a mixed-method study on medicine use in Maputo, Mozambique, this paper explores healthcare users' experiences and interpretations of their interactions with public healthcare professionals (medical doctors and prescribing nurses) and community pharmacy workers (pharmacists, technicians and other attendants). The analysis evolves around various communicative and relational aspects, emphasised by users as meaningful and underpinning different qualities of care, competence, integrity and trustworthiness. These attributes were assessed based on a combination of verbal conversation and information exchange, together with the use of other (non-verbal) situationally valued artefacts such as biomedical tools and communicative rituals performed by providers. This study shows that despite healthcare providers' different attributes of competence and authority, it is mainly their communicative performances during interactions that influence whether (symbolic) trust has the space to evolve or crystallise. Moreover, while performing certain rituals may be an effective form of communication, the lack of other (verbal and non-verbal) communicative elements during the interaction may compromise patient trust in what is being prescribed or advised. Efforts to improve the quality and responsiveness of healthcare services centred around citizens' needs should take users' perspectives into account and pay particular attention to these communicative and relational dimensions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Communication , Patients , Bioethics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Ceremonial Behavior , Health Personnel , Information Dissemination , Trust , Drug Interactions , Elements , Medicine , Mozambique , Nurses
4.
Espaç. saúde (Online) ; 22(1): [774], 2021. ilust, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284495

ABSTRACT

Escalas e questionários podem participar do rastreio, diagnóstico e acompanhamento de condições médicas, por isso são importantes na prática clínica. Para que sejam utilizados em um país diferente do de origem, estes devem passar por um processo de adaptação cultural, visando garantir a validade e confiabilidade iguais ao instrumento original. Embora não exista um modelo padrão-ouro a ser seguido, quatro passos são essenciais e recomendados para este processo: tradução, tradução reversa, revisão por um comitê de juízes e pré-teste. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar quais são os processos reconhecidos cientificamente realizados para a validação de instrumentos de pesquisa direcionados à língua portuguesa do Brasil. Os artigos foram identificados na base de dados PubMed, através dos descritores validation studies AND translation AND adaptation AND cross-cultural AND Brazil. Foram selecionados 16 artigos para esta revisão, publicados entre 2017 e 2019. As metodologias de validação foram variadas, sendo que cada trabalho apresentou elementos metodológicos complementares e particulares às populações estudadas. A compilação destas metodologias permitiu evidenciar os pontos comuns que podem ser seguidos na elaboração de futuras pesquisas, buscando a construção de um roteiro unificado que permita sua utilização universal na validação e adaptação transcultural de instrumentos de pesquisa.


Subject(s)
Research , Weights and Measures , Construction Industry , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adaptation , Diagnosis , Elements , Subject Headings , Tongue , Translating
5.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 319-323, jul.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mitral valve aneurysm is a rare and uncommon complication of infective endocarditis leading to a weakened mitral tissue. The most feared mitral valve aneurysm's complications are: perforation and severe mitral regurgitation. Multiple mechanisms have been suggested to explain the development of mitral valve aneurysm in aortic infective endocarditis including: local extension of the infection, the mitral kissing vegetation and aortic regurgitation. We report the case of a 29-year-old man who had infective endocarditis of a native aortic valve and the sub-aortic diaphragm complicated by a perforated mitral valve aneurysm diagnosed only by transesophageal echocardiogram. The patient had no sign of heart failure. We hypothesized that all those mechanisms lead to the developing of the mitral valve aneurysm in this case, but also the presence of the diaphragm favored the spread of the infection.


Resumen Una de las complicaciones poco comunes e inusuales de la endocarditis infecciosa son los aneurismas de la válvula mitral. Las complicaciones más temidas de estos últimos son la perforación y la insuficiencia mitral severa. Diferentes mecanismos pueden explicar el desarrollo de dicha insuficiencia en el contexto de una endocarditis infecciosa, incluyendo una extensión local, una vegetación sobre la válvula mitral y una insuficiencia aórtica. Nuestro caso clínico es el de un joven de 29 años diagnosticado de endocarditis infecciosa sobre su válvula aortica nativa con un diafragma subaortico complicado con un aneurisma de la válvula mitral perforado. El paciente no presentaba signos de insuficiencia cardíaca. Hemos supuesto que todos los mecanismos que hemos evocado anteriormente han llevado al desarrollo de dicho aneurisma, junto con la presencia del diafragma, elemento en favor de la diseminación de la infección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Elements , Endocarditis/complications , Aneurysm , Mitral Valve , Aortic Valve , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Mitral Valve Insufficiency
6.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(1): 36-40, ene.-feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1138751

ABSTRACT

Resumen La onda P en el electrocardiograma representa exclusivamente la despolarización de las aurículas puesto que la repolarización auricular queda oculta en el QRS. Sin embargo, cuando la repolarizacón auricular se hace evidente en el electrocardiograma se convierte en un elemento clave para el diagnóstico de algunas enfermedades. Diferente sucede en la repolarización ventricular; la repolarización auricular adopta el mismo sentido de la despolarización ya que sigue un sentido cráneo-caudal y se da desde el epicardio hacia el endocardio.


Abstract The P wave on the electrocardiogram exclusively represents atrial depolarisation, since atrial repolarisation is hidden in the QRS complex. However, when atrial repolarisation becomes evident in the electrocardiogram, it is a key element for the diagnosis of some diseases. Unlike what happens in ventricular repolarisation, atrial repolarisation adopts the same direction as depolarisation since it follows a craniocaudal course and it goes from the epicardium towards the endocardium.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Heart Atria , Pericardium , Elements , Endocardium
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190489, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142502

ABSTRACT

Abstract The soil tillage practiced over a long period of time impacts soil quality. The first step in soil quality assessment is to select which indicators should be used. The objective of this study was to identify the soil attributes that discriminate soil tillage systems and can be used as indicators for soil quality assessments. Sixteen soil physical and chemical attributes were evaluated: macroporosity (MaP), microporosity (MiP), total porosity (TP), bulk density (BD), field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), soil resistance to penetration (SRP), pH (H2O), pH (CaCl2), aluminium (Al), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), available phosphorus (P), total organic carbon (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation (BS), of a very clayey Red Latosol, cultivated for a long period in no-till (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT). The soil attributes (indicators) were selected using canonical discriminant analysis. MiP, Kfs, pH (CaCl2), Ca, Mg, CEC e BS were the most efficient indicators to discriminate soil tillage systems. In the indicator interpretation step was sustained MiP as the indicator that represents the function of physical stability and support, Kfs as the indicator that represents the function of water relations, BS as the indicator that represents the function of nutrient cycling and pH (CaCl2) as the indicator that represents the function of filtering and buffering. These indicators can be used for future soil quality assessment and monitoring of tillage systems in similar regions and conditions.


Subject(s)
Soil Quality , Soil Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Indicators (Statistics) , Discriminant Analysis , Soil Characteristics/classification , Elements
8.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 30(2): e1335, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093068

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los principales elementos a considerar en el diseño de un observatorio. Para esto se analizaron 61 observatorios de diversas temáticas, en su gran mayoría del contexto iberoamericano. La metodología empleada se estructuró en tres etapas, que partieron del análisis conceptual y los componentes principales de los observatorios; le siguieron su clasificación y las regularidades. Se plantearon las recomendaciones y los elementos básicos a definir para el diseño de los observatorios, entre los que se encuentran el objetivo, el alcance, los actores, los procesos y las salidas. En estas etapas se utilizan un conjunto de métodos y herramientas del análisis de la información y las redes sociales que contribuyen al estudio de los observatorios(AU)


The purpose of the study was to identify the main elements to be considered when designing an observatory. To achieve such a goal, analysis was conducted of 61 observatories of various topics, most of them from the Ibero-American context. The method used was structured into three stages: conceptual analysis and main components of the observatories, classification and regularities. Recommendations were made and a list of basic elements was provided which should be defined when designing the observatories, among them the objective, scope, actors, processes and outputs. Throughout these stages, use is made of a number of methods and tools for information and social network analysis which contribute to the study of observatories(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Elements , Methodology , Fertilization , Goals
9.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(1): 63-70, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001079

ABSTRACT

Las enteroparasitosis poseen una distribución universal, tanto en zonas rurales como urbanas, y afectan principalmente a la población infantil, para la cual representan un problema muy frecuente en salud pública. El daño ocasionado en el aparato digestivo puede causar en los niños retardo de la maduración, alteraciones del estado nutricional y bajo rendimiento escolar. Respecto del diagnóstico etiológico, la aplicación de técnicas de concentración a las muestras fecales, previa a la observación microscópica, mejora la sensibilidad, debido a que la excreción de elementos parasitarios puede, en ocasiones, ser escasa o intermitente. Los métodos de sedimentación como el de Telemann son los más empleados en el diagnóstico parasitológico, aunque poseen la desventaja del uso de éter etílico, compuesto moderadamente tóxico. Con el objetivo de evaluar la eficiencia global diagnóstica del equipo Mini Parasep® SF, y su confiabilidad durante su empleo, se procesaron 148 muestras de materia fecal por los métodos de Telemann modificado y Mini Parasep® SF. Una vez aplicados los métodos convencionales, el diagnóstico microscópico fue realizado por dos observadores a través de una investigación a doble ciego. Del total de muestras analizadas (n=148) y desagregando aquellas positivas en resultados individuales cuando éstas tenían más de un agente etiológico (ntotal=234), el 65,8% (154/234) fueron positivas y el 34,2% (80/234) negativas. A partir de observaciones aleatorizadas y repetidas se estimó la acordancia de resultados intraoperador en 90,3% y entre operadores en 90,5%. A partir de las observaciones independientes, se obtuvo un índice de concordancia entre operadores, Kappa=0,83 (muy bueno). No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los valores de sensibilidad (S) y especificidad (E) estimados para cada uno de los observadores (O) con un IC95%, (S/O1) 94,8%; (S/O2) 97,4%; y (E/O1) 92,5%; (E/O2) 95,0%. La eficiencia global del test según operador fue 94,02% y 96,58 respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que ambas técnicas podrían ser empleadas para concentrar muestras fecales para investigar enteroparásitos. El método Mini Parasep® SF demostró ser sencillo, rápido y efectivo, y no necesitó éter como solvente orgánico, y por su eficiencia global, podría ser útil en aquellos laboratorios imposibilitados de utilizar las técnicas convencionales.


Enteroparasitoses have a universal distribution, both in rural and urban areas, and they affect mainly the infant population, for which reason they represent a very frequent problem in public health. The damage caused in the digestive system can give rise to retardation in children, changes in nutritional status and poor school performance. With respect to the etiological diagnosis, the application of concentration techniques to fecal samples, prior to microscopic observation, improves sensitivity, taking into account that the excretion of parasitic elements can sometimes be scarce or intermittent. Sedimentation methods such as Telemann, are the most widely used in the parasitological diagnosis, although they have the disadvantage of the use of ethyl ether, a moderately toxic compound. In order to evaluate the overall diagnostic efficiency of the Mini Parasep® SF kit, and its reliability during its use, 148 stool samples were processed by modified Telemann and Mini Parasep® SF methods. Once the conventional methods were applied, the microscopic diagnosis was made by two observers through double-blind research. Of the total samples analyzed (n=148) and disaggregating positive ones in individual results when they had more than one etiological agent (n total=234), 65.8% (154/234) were positive and 34.2% (80/234) negative. Based on randomized and repeated observations, the accordance of intraoperator results was estimated at 90.3% and between operators at 90.5%. From the independent observations, a concordance index between operators was obtained, Kappa=0.83 (very good). No statistically significant differences were observed between the values of sensitivity (S) and specificity (E) estimated for each of the observers (O) with an IC95%, (S/O1) 94.8%; (S/O2) 97.4%; and (E/O1) 92.5%; (E/O2) 95.0%. The overall efficiency of the test according to the operator was 94.02% and 96.58 respectively. The results obtained suggest that both techniques could be used to concentrate fecal samples to investigate enteroparasites. The Mini Parasep® SF method proved to be simple, fast and effective, and did not need ether as an organic solvent. Because of its overall efficiency, it could be useful in laboratories that are unable to use conventional techniques.


As enteroparasitoses têm uma distribuição universal, tanto em áreas rurais como urbanas, e afetam principalmente a população infantil, para as quais representam um problema muito frequente na saúde pública. Os danos causados no sistema digestivo podem causar retardamento em crianças, alterações no estado nutricional e baixo desempenho escolar. No diagnóstico etiológico, as técnicas de concentração de aplicação para amostras fecais, antes da observação microscópica, melhoram a sensibilidade, uma vez que a excreção de elementos parasitas pode por vezes ser pouco ou intermitente. Métodos de sedimentação, como Telemann, são os mais utilizados no diagnóstico parasitológico, embora tenham a desvantagem do uso de éter etílico, um composto moderadamente tóxico. Para avaliar a eficiência diagnóstica geral do kit Mini Parasep® SF e sua confiabilidade durante o uso, 148 amostras de fezes foram processadas pelos métodos modificado Telemann e Mini Parasep® SF. Uma vez que os métodos convencionais foram aplicados, o diagnóstico microscópico foi feito por dois observadores através de pesquisa duplo-cego. De todas as amostras testadas (n=148) e desagregando esses resultados positivos quando estes indivíduo tinha mais do que um agente etiológico (N total=234), 65,8% (154/234) foram positivos, e 34,2% (80/234) negativos. Com base em observações aleatórias e repetidas, a acordância dos resultados intraoperatórios foi estimada em 90,3% e entre os operadores em 90,5%. A partir das observações independentes, obteve-se um índice de concordância entre os operadores, Kappa=0,83 (muito bom). Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os valores de sensibilidade (S) e especificidade (E) estimados para cada um dos observadores (O) com IC95%, (S/O1) 94,8%; (S/O2) 97,4%; e (E/O1) 92,5%; (E/O2) 95,0%. A eficiência global do teste de acordo com o operador foi de 94,02% e 96,58, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que ambas as técnicas podem ser usadas para concentrar amostras fecais para investigar enteroparasitas. O método Mini Parasep® SF mostrou-se simples, rápido e efetivo, não necessitando de éter como solvente orgânico e, devido à sua eficiência global, pode ser útil em laboratórios incapazes de utilizar técnicas convencionais.


Subject(s)
Efficiency , Coliforms , Parasites , Parasitology , Population , Rural Areas , Double-Blind Method , Communicable Diseases , Observation , Diagnosis , Elements , Products Distribution , Academic Performance , Methods
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296517

ABSTRACT

We identified and quantified a variety of mineral elements in 18 tobacco samples purchased from a Tunisian market. In total, 25 mineral elements have been measured in cigarettes, water pipe tobacco, and smokeless tobacco using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy following microwave-assisted digestion. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSSTM, version 18.0. The lowest concentrations of all studied elements were observed in water pipe tobacco. Significantly higher concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, Cr, and Co were found in smokeless tobacco, while cigarettes brands contained the highest concentrations of K, Mn, Ni, Ba, and Sr. There was no significant difference between the mineral contents of local and foreign cigarettes and conventional and light cigarettes. Our findings demonstrated that local smokeless tobacco appears to be the most hazardous tobacco type. The concentration of minerals in light cigarettes was not significantly different from the concentration in conventional cigarettes.


Subject(s)
Elements , Tobacco , Chemistry , Tobacco, Smokeless
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311399

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the dietary zinc absorption in a Chinese elderly population and provide the basic data for the setting of zinc (Zn) recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for Chinese elderly people.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 24 elderly people were recruited for this study and were administered oral doses of 3 mg 67Zn and 1.2 mg dysprosium on the fourth day. The primary macronutrients, energy, and phytic acid in the representative diet were examined based on the Chinese National Standard Methods. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for zinc content, 67Zn isotope ratio, and dysprosium content.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mean (± SD) zinc intake from the representative Chinese diet was 10.6 ± 1.5 mg/d. The phytic acid-to-zinc molar ratio in the diet was 6.4. The absorption rate of 67Zn was 27.9% ± 9.2%. The RNI of zinc, which were calculated by the absorption rate in elderly men and women, were 10.4 and 9.2 mg/d, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This study got the dietary Zn absorption in a Chinese elderly population. We found that Zn absorption was higher in elderly men than in elderly women. The current RNI in elderly female is lower than our finding, which indicates that more attention is needed regarding elderly females' zinc status and health.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biological Availability , China , Diet , Dysprosium , Elements , Feces , Chemistry , Female , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Zinc , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Zinc Isotopes
13.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 48(2): 117-126, May-Aug. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-791372

ABSTRACT

Water is a key element for the human survival but unsustainable patterns of water consumption are still evident. Many factors influence water conservation but the existing literature investigating psychological determinants of water conservation have so far focused on cognitive or motivational factors. However, there is growing evidence for the important role of emotions as predictors of environmental engagement in general and water conservation in particular. The present article contributes to this recognition of the role of emotions by reporting two studies on the development and validation of a measure to access negative emotions regarding water wastage, the Rating Scale of Emotions towards Water Wastage (RSEWW). Results confirmed that this 12-item scale form a unidimensional measure that reliably predict participants' behavioral intention to participate in activities for the water conservation. Theoretical and practical implications from the findings are discussed in relation to the extant literature.


El agua es un elemento clave para la supervivencia humana, pero los patrones no sostenibles de consumo de agua siguen siendo evidentes. Muchos factores influyen en la conservación del agua, pero la literatura existente que investiga los determinantes psicológicos de la conservación del agua, hasta el momento, se han centrado en los factores cognitivos o motivacionales. Sin embargo, existe una creciente evidencia de la importancia del papel de las emociones como predictores de la participación en la conservación del medio ambiente en general y del agua en particular. El presente articulo contribuye a este reconocimiento del papel de las emociones en la exposición de 2 estudios sobre el desarrollo y validación de una medida para acceder a las emociones negativas con respecto a desperdicio de agua, la Escala de Evaluación de las Emociones hacia el Desperdicio de Agua (Rating Scale of Emotions towards Water Wastage [RSEWW]). Los resultados confirmaron que esta escala de 12 items forma una medida unidimensional que prevé de manera fiable la intención de conducta de los participantes para intervenir en las actividades para la conservación de agua. Implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos se discuten en relación con la literatura existente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Water , Waste of Water , Emotions , Survival , Elements
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 911-918, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727020

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L-1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Coal , Humic Substances/analysis , Biotransformation , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Elements , Environmental Microbiology
15.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (3): 597-600
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142180

ABSTRACT

To check the nutritional and mineral contents of four medicinal plants viz., Peganum hermla, Solanum nigrum, Mentha longifolia, Achryanthus aspera, which are used as medicine traditionally in Soon Valley Khushab, Pakistan. Proximate analysis of plant sample determined that protein [7.491%] and ash [22.79%] was highest in Mentha longifolia, carbohydrate [75.23%] in Peganum hermla, fats [12.595%] and moisture [6.82%] was highest in Achryanthus aspera. In comparative assessment of the various species, the results showed that Achryanthus aspera. is the most significant species having higher concentrations of fat, fibre values compared to the other species. Absorption Spectrometric method was used for the elemental analysis of essential elements such as Fe, Cd, Cu,Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Na in medicinal plants in different range.


Subject(s)
Food , Elements , Peganum , Solanum nigrum , Mentha
16.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 42(2): 18-24, jul. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-631800

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación trata sobre la determinación de germanio en exudado de hojas de zábila, mediante la técnica ana lítica espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). El exudado de las hojas de zábila es el líquido amarillo y de sabor amargo que emana de las hojas de la planta cortadas en la base. Es también conocido como zumo o látex. Ha sido utilizado en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones tales como: tratamiento de heridas, infecciones bucales, irritaciones de la piel, otras. El germanio es un oligoelemento que ha sido utilizado como inmunoestimulante y en pacientes con neoplasia. La concentración del germanio presente en el exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. fue de 7.42 ± 2.33 μg/g. La metodología empleada fue validada por estudio de recuperación, ubicándose en un valor promedio de 97.43 ± 2.22%. La desviación estándar relativa fue de 2.88%, lo que es un indicativo de la precisión. El método utilizado para la determinación del elemento en cuestión es exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.


The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of germanium in Aloe vera (zábila) from leaves exudated, using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technic (ETAAS). The exudated is a yellow and bitter liquid, used in wounds healing, skin irritations, mouth infections, etc. The germanium is a trace element used as immunestimulant in patients with tumour. A concentration of 7.42 ± 2.33 μg/g was found. The method for the determination of germanium was validated by recovery studies, a value of 97.43 ± 2.22% was obtained for germanium, and the relative standar deviation (RSD%) was 2.88%. The method was exact, precise and free from interferences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plants/classification , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , Aloe/physiology , Germanium/analysis , Public Health , Elements
17.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 41(2): 16-21, dic. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-631778

ABSTRACT

El Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zábila) es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na), calcio (Ca), magnesio (Mg) y potasio (k) por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS). Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p <0.05) entre los valores del material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el método aplicado en esta investigación. El promedio de la desviación estándar relativa (RSD) fue de 1.41%, lo que certifica la precisión del método empleado. Las concentraciones de los macro elementos encontradas fueron: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% p/p, k: 0.69 ± 0,13% p/p, Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% p/p y Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% p/p. El método empleado para determinar la concentración de Na, Ca, Mg y k en muestras de exudado de zábila por FAAS fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.


The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zabila). Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572) of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , Elements , Aloe/ultrastructure , Minerals/analysis , Public Health , Aloe/immunology , Metals/chemistry
18.
Asunción; s.e; 2010.Oct. 37 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1018810

ABSTRACT

La construcción de estructura metálica de la Prótesis Parcial removible es tradicionalmente delegada al laboratorio protésico comercial en la práctica dental moderna; y las escuelas raramente suministran experiencias práctica en las técnicas de construcción de estructuras, dando como resultado que la mayoría de los odontólogos tienen poco conocimiento de los procedimientos requeridos para producir estructuras de calidad; con el propósito de presentar información actualizada que sirva como material de consulta tanto a profesionales docentes y estudiantes se planteó ésta revisión bibliográfica cuyo objetivo fue identificar los componentes de una prótesis parcial removible y describir las funciones de dicho elemento, la clasificación según Kennedy, requisitos indispensables para la construcción de una prótesis parcial removible. Todos estos factores conducen a una situación donde el odontólogo no debería delegar al laboratorio dental el diseño y la construcción de la prótesis parcial removible, sino más bien trabajar en conjunto para la obtención de una prótesis parcial removible óptima que cumpla con los principios básicos de retención, soporte y estabilidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Jaw, Edentulous, Partially/rehabilitation , Elements , Dentistry , Denture, Partial, Removable
19.
West Indian med. j ; 59(5): 479-485, Oct. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672662

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the relationships, if any, between elemental content of the placenta with age of mother, birthweight and the Apgar scores of a neonate. METHODS: Placental samples were collected, stored at -20ºC and then dried and analysed using neutron activation with the SLOWPOKE II reactor at the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS). A questionnaire was administered at the time of delivery to determine the level of fish consumption, numbers of dental amalgam fillings and use of cough syrups. Placental concentrations of bromine, calcium, chlorine, iron, mercury, potassium, rubidium, selenium, sodium and zinc were determined. RESULTS: The placentae of 52 Jamaican mothers with a mean age 29 years (range 18-42 years) delivering singleton neonates with a mean birthweight of 3.1 kg (1.3 - 5.5 kg) at term were collected. With the exception of iron and bromine, all results for elemental determinations are very similar to those found elsewhere. Correlation was observed for Apgar 2 (5 minutes), calcium and zinc with birthweight, with p-values of 0.002, 0.007 and 0.07, respectively. Negative correlation was observed for the Apgar 2 and potassium (p = 0.056) and age of mother at birth and bromine (p = 0.02). The mercury concentration in the measured placentae (7.29 ±9.1 µg/kg w/w) was slightly lower than the mean concentration found in the literature (8 µg/kg w/w). Approximately 93% of the measured placentae in this study are below the derived placentae upper limit of 22 µg/kg. Of the 7% above the upper limit none exceeded the conservative estimated limit of 115 /µg/kg at which neural developmental problems start. CONCLUSION: The significant associations noted are of unknown clinical relevance and need further study.


OBJETIVO: Investigar las relaciones que pudieran existir entre el contenido elemental de la placenta y la edad de la madre, el peso al nacer, y la puntuación Apgar del neonato. MÉTODOS: Muestras de placenta fueron recogidas, almacenadas a -20ºC y entonces secadas y analizadas usando la activación neutrónica con el reactor SLOWPOKE II del Centro Internacional de Ciencias Medioambientales y Nucleares (ICENS). A la hora del parto se aplicó una encuesta para determinar el nivel de consumo de pescado, el número de amalgamas dentales y el uso de jarabes para la tos. Se determinaron las concentraciones placentales de bromo, calcio, cloro, hierro, mercurio, potasio, rubidio, selenio, sodio y cinc. RESULTADOS: Se recogieron las placentas de 52 madres jamaicanas con una edad promedio de 29 años (rango 18-42 años) que parieron neonatos únicos con un peso promedio de 3.1 kg (1.3-5.5 kg) a término. Con la excepción del hierro y el bromo, todos los resultados para las determinaciones elementales son muy similares a los hallados en otras partes. Se observó una correlación de Apgar 2 (5 minutos), el calcio y el cinc con el peso al nacer, los valores p de 0.002, 0.007 y 0.07 respectivamente. Se observó una correlación negativa de Apgar 2 y el potasio (p = 0.056) y la edad de la madre a la hora del alumbramiento, con el bromo (p = 0.02). La concentración de mercurio en las placentas medidas (7.29 ± 9.1 w/w de µg/kg) fue ligeramente más baja que la concentración promedio hallada en la literatura (8 µg/kg w/w). Aproximadamente 93% de las placentas evaluadas en este estudio están por debajo del límite superior de 22 µg/kg. Del 7% por encima del límite superior, ninguna excedió el límite conservador estimado de 115 µg/kg en el cual comienzan los problemas del desarrollo neural. CONCLUSIÓN: Se desconoce la importancia clínica de las asociaciones significativas observadas y se requiere más estudio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Apgar Score , Elements , Maternal Age , Placenta/chemistry , Jamaica
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 101-108, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282075

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The macula lagena in birds is located at the apical end of the cochlea and contains many tiny otoliths. The macula lagena is innervated and has neural projections to the brainstem, but its physiological function is still unclear. It remains disputable that it is because otoliths in the lagena are rich in elements Fe and Zn that birds can obtain geomagnetic information for homing. To clarify this issue, we carried out a study to determine whether or not otoliths in the lagena of homing pigeons are richer in magnetic elements than those in the saccule and the utricle.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The contents of ferromagnetic elements (Fe, Co, Ni) and other metal elements in lagenal otoliths of adult homing pigeons were precisely analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of high sensitivity, and then they were compared with those in saccular and utricular otoliths (all the contents were normalized to Ca).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In adult homing pigeons, the contents of ferromagnetic elements (Fe, Co, Ni) in lagenal otoliths were less than 0.7% (normalized to Ca element) and were the same order in magnitude as those in saccular and utricular otoliths. The content of Fe in lagenal otoliths was not significantly different from that in utricular otoliths and was even lower than that in saccular otoliths. The content of Co in lagenal otoliths was lower than that in saccular otoliths and higher than that in utricular otoliths. The content of Ni in lagenal otoliths was not significantly different from that in saccular otoliths and was higher than that in utricular otoliths. The contents of other metal elements Na, Mg, K, Al, Mn and Pb in lagenal otoliths were not significantly different from those in utricular and saccular otoliths. The contents of metal elements Zn, Ba and Cu in lagenal otoliths were lower than those in saccular otoliths.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The contents of magnetic elements in lagenal otoliths of homing pigeons are not much higher than those in utricular and saccular otoliths, which does not support the hypothesis that birds depend on high contents of Fe and Zn in lagenal otoliths for sensation of geomagnetic information. Similarities in morphology, element ingredient and element content between lagenal otoliths and utricular otoliths suggest that the two types of otolithic organs may play similar roles in sensing gravitational and acceleration signals.</p>


Subject(s)
Acoustic Maculae , Cell Biology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Columbidae , Elements , Female , Magnetics , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Methods , Otolithic Membrane , Chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Methods
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