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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254753

ABSTRACT

Recentes estudos indicaram que o forame oval patente (FOP) pode ser responsável pelo acidente vascular cerebral criptogênico (AVC) em pacientes jovens que apresentam condições anatômicas favoráveis a essa anomalia e que a oclusão transcateter reduz a incidência do acidente vascular cerebral quando comparada ao tratamento clínico. A injeção de soro agitado durante o estudo ecocardiográfico, associada à manobra de Valsalva, pode evidenciar shunt direita-esquerda com alta sensibilidade (89%) e especificidade (92%) quando se utiliza o ecocardiograma transesofágico. Avaliando as características clínicas de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral e forame oval patente, o trial Risk of Paradoxical Embolism, conhecido pela sigla RoPE, (Risk of Paradoxical Embolism) estabeleceu um escore de risco para acidente vascular cerebral criptogênico e, por meio de um modelo de regressão multivariada, identificou seis variáveis: idade, presença de isquemia cortical, diabetes, hipertensão, AVC e acidente isquêmico transitório prévio. Os escores mais elevados foram observados em jovens com AVC e sem fatores de risco vascular e os escores mais baixos em idosos com fatores de risco vascular, de modo que o forame oval patente sugere ser acidental. Condições anatômicas do FOP predispõem à embolia sistêmica (separação do FOP > 2 mm; túnel do FOP > 10 mm; ângulo entre a veia cava inferior e o flap do FOP <10°; intensidade do shunt com manobra de Valsalva; presença de aneurisma do septo interatrial e rede de Chiari ou válvula de Eustáquio proeminente). O fechamento do FOP pode prevenir a embolia paradoxal, reduzindo a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral em pacientes considerados com de risco elevado. A relação entre Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) criptogênico e a presença de Forame Oval Patente (FOP) tem despertado particular interesse, baseada em estudos recentes que demonstraram que a oclusão transcateter do FOP reduziu a incidência de AVC criptogênico, quando comparado ao tratamento medicamentoso.1 Trombos atravessando o forame oval podem ser observados em exames ecocardiográficos e em autópsias, confirmando esse mecanismo como responsável pela embolia paradoxal, ou seja, um trombo venoso passando para a circulação arterial por um shunt direita-esquerda. Entretanto, essa visualização ecocardiográfica é rara e existem poucos estudos publicados2,3 (Figura 1). Alguns estudos clínicos demonstram a propensão do FOP ser o responsável pela embolia paradoxal. Pacientes portadores de diabetes, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e doença arterial coronária têm baixa prevalência para o FOP ser o responsável pela embolia paradoxal. Por outro lado, história de trombose venosa profunda, embolia pulmonar, hipertensão pulmonar, viagens prolongadas, manobra de Valsalva precedendo o início de sintomas de AVC, enxaqueca e apneia do sono tem sido descrita como fatores de risco independentes para a associação entre FOP e eventos cerebrovasculares.4 Mesmo sendo pouco frequente a visualização de trombos em forame oval, a observação epidemiológica nos leva a acreditar que o FOP é o responsável por um número considerável de acidentes vasculares cerebrais.5 A prevalência de FOP em um estudo com autópsia em 965 corações normais é de 27%, com similar distribuição entre homens e mulheres. Essa prevalência declina com a idade, sendo de 34% em menores de 30 anos, 25% entre 30 e 80 anos e 20% em maiores de 80 anos.6 Em pacientes com AVC criptogênico, entretanto, a prevalência é particularmente elevada, chegando a 40% em pacientes com idade inferior a 55 anos.7 É importante ressaltar que a presença de FOP em pacientes com AVC criptogênico não é a única etiologia para o embolismo paradoxal. Outros mecanismos podem ser responsáveis, como fibrilação atrial não detectada, tumores cardíacos (mixoma e fibroeslastomas), presença de contraste ecocardiográfico espontâneo em átrio esquerdo, valvopatia mitral reumática, calcificação do anel valvar mitral, próteses cardíacas biológicas e mecânicas, estados de hipercoagulabilidade e ateroma de aorta ascendente.8 O estudo ecocardiográfico é parte da rotina na avaliação do FOP, principalmente o Ecocardiograma Transesofágico (ETE) com utilização de solução salina agitada (macrobolhas). Considera-se um shunt pequeno quando passam de três a dez bolhas, médio de dez a 30 bolhas e grande se mais de 30 bolhas contadas nos primeiros batimentos após a injeção.9 Além da detecção do shunt, o ETE avalia as características anatômicas do FOP, assim como o diagnóstico diferencial com a comunicação interatrial e com o shunt pulmonar.10,11 Trabalhos comparando o ETE utilizando macrobolhas com os achados de autópsia mostram sensibilidade de 89% e especificidade de 92%, sendo que a autópsia é considerada padrão-ouro.12(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Aged , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/pathology , Echocardiography , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications
2.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 114-121, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cierre percutáneo del foramen oval permeable (FOP) se ha posicionado como el tratamiento de elección para la prevención secundaria de pacientes con infartos encefálicos (IE) criptogénicos asociados a FOP. OBJETIVO: Revisar los cierres de FOP realizados en nuestra institución, evaluando las características clínicas y del procedimiento, los resultados a mediano plazo luego del procedimiento y la tendencia en el número de intervenciones durante el período estudiado. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 101 pacientes consecutivos en que se realizó cierre de FOP, con una mediana de seguimiento de 4,6 años. Se analizaron las características basales de los pacientes, la indicación del cierre de FOP, el éxito del procedimiento y la presencia de shunt residual en ecocardiografía al año. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica estructurada a todos los pacientes, en la cual se preguntó por nuevo IE o crisis isquémica transitoria (CIT), otros eventos cardiovasculares y la presencia de sangrados. El seguimiento fue completado en el 95%. Se calculó el puntaje RoPE ("Risk of Paradoxical Embolism") el cual provee una estimación de la posibilidad de que ese IE se haya debido al FOP y del riesgo de repetir un nuevo IE en caso de no cerrar el FOP para cada paciente. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio fue de 49,1±13,7 años, con 53% mujeres. Sólo en 3 pacientes se diagnosticó una trombofilia. En 96 pacientes la indicación fue para prevención de embolía paradojal e IE (74% IE, 17% CIT y 4% embolía periférica), mientras que en 5% por síndrome de ortodeoxia/platipnea. El cierre de FOP fue exitoso en todos los pacientes. Shunt residual en ecocardiograma al año se observó en 5% - ninguno de estos pacientes presentó un nuevo evento encefálico durante el seguimiento. Se registraron 2 nuevos IE (4 IE por 1000 pacientes/año) y 1 nueva CIT (2 CIT por 1000 pacientes/año) en el seguimiento, con un promedio de presentación de 3,6 años post procedimiento. Esta tasa de eventos fue significativamente menor a lo predicho por el puntaje RoPE en nuestra cohorte. Se observó un marcado aumento en el número de procedimientos desde el año 2017 en adelante. CONCLUSIONES: En nuestra cohorte, el cierre de FOP fue un procedimiento exitoso y seguro. Se asoció a una baja tasa de nuevos eventos cerebrales, marcadamente menor a lo estimado por el puntaje de riesgo actualmente disponible (RoPE).


INTRODUCTION: The percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been established as the preferred treatment for those with an ischemic stroke (IS) and associated PFO. AIMS: To review the PFO closure experience at our institution, characterizing the patients and procedures, mid-term results and the trend in the number of interventions during the study period. METHODS: One hundred and one consecutive patients undergoing PFO closure were included, with a median follow-up of 4.6 years. Baseline demographics, PFO closure indications, procedural success rates and residual shunt at 1-year were recorded. A telephonic survey was performed to complete follow-up, asking for new IS or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), other cardiovascular events and bleeding. Follow-up was completed by 95%. The RoPE score was calculated for each patient, providing an estimate of the chance a given IS being due to a PFO and the risk of a new event when the defect is not closed. RESULTS: Mean age was 49.1±13.7 years and 53% were females. Whereas the indication for PFO closure was paradoxical embolism in 96 patients (74% IS, 17% TIA and 4% peripheral embolism), in 5 it was for platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. All patients had a successful PFO closure procedure. Residual shunt at 1 year was found in 5% - yet, none of these patients experienced a new stroke during the study period. During follow-up there were 2 new IS (4 IS per 1,000 patients/year) and 1 new TIA (2 TIA per 1,000 patients/year), with a mean incidence time of 3.6 years after the procedure. This rate of new events was significantly lower than the one predicted by the RoPE score. From 2017 onwards, there was a marked increase in the number of procedures performed at our institution. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, PFO closure was a successful and safe procedure. It was associated to a low rate of new cerebral events during mid-term follow-up, markedly lower than the RoPE predicted rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Embolism, Paradoxical/prevention & control , Brain Infarction/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(10): 1210-1214, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978758

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is one of the most frequent congenital defects in adults. Its prevalence in middle-aged adults is close to 25-30% and may cause paradoxical embolic phenomena. We report a 45 years old male admitted for an ischemic stroke with an occlusion of the left terminal internal carotid artery. A thrombectomy was performed. Searching for possible sources of emboli, a patent foramen ovale was detected in an echocardiography, with an hypoechogenic examination image passing through it. Anticoagulant therapy was started and the patient had an uneventful evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Embolism, Paradoxical/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Echocardiography , Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy/methods , Embolism, Paradoxical/surgery , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741110

ABSTRACT

“Thrombus-in-transit” in pulmonary embolism is associated with high mortality and refers to a free-floating clot in the right atrium or right ventricle, indicating that deep vein thrombosis is present en route to the pulmonary artery. Thrombus entrapped in a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare condition and is associated with paradoxical systemic embolism. Here, we report a case of acute pulmonary embolism with thrombus-in-transit through a PFO in a 68-year-old woman with a diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic cancer undergoing palliative chemotherapy. She presented with syncope after acute onset of exertional dyspnea and was diagnosed with cardiogenic shock due to massive pulmonary embolism with thrombus-in-transit on admission to the emergency room. We treated her with systemic thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy instead of surgical thrombectomy. We show that hemodynamically unstable pulmonary embolism with thrombus-in-transit entrapped by a PFO may be successfully treated with systemic thrombolysis without paradoxical embolism.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Embolism , Embolism, Paradoxical , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foramen Ovale , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Heart Atria , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pulmonary Artery , Pulmonary Embolism , Shock, Cardiogenic , Syncope , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis
7.
Acta méd. colomb ; 42(1): 74-74, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-886342

ABSTRACT

El diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española (1) tiene varias acepciones para la palabra embolismo, a saber: Añadidura de ciertos días para igualar el año de una especia con el de otra, como el lunar y el civil con los solares 1. Confusión, enredo o dificulta en un negocio 2. Mezclas y confusión de muchas cosas 3. Embuste chisme El mismo diccionario tiene una palabra similar, embolia. La definición de esta es: Obstrucción ocasionada por un émbolo formado en un vaso sanguíneo, que impide la circulación en otro vaso menor. En el último número de Acta Médica Colombiana Bastidas y colaboradores presentan en la sesión de "Imágenes en medicina interna" un caso ilustrativo de embolia paradójica, Sin embargo, titulan el manuscrito "Embolismo paradójico". Esto refleja el uso común y erróneo de la palabra embolismo en el quehacer médico. Por ejemplo, en el sitio electrónico de Acta Médica Colombiana, una búsqueda con la palabra clave embolia arroja cuatro artículos, pero si se usa la palabra embolismo se encuentran 25 artículos. Creo que este es un llamado de atención al equipo editorial de Acta Médica Colombiana, para que determine que la palabra embolismo sea cambiada por embolia cuando el autor quiera referirse a este fenómeno.


Subject(s)
Embolism, Paradoxical , Attention , Embolism , Equipment and Supplies , Internal Medicine
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1237-1240, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15467

ABSTRACT

Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion can be employed as an alternative treatment to oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent embolic events. Atrial septal defect (ASD) may be related with right heart dysfunction and allow paradoxical embolism to occur. However, occlusion of both LAA through atrial access with ostium secundum ASD and ASD in the same setting is unusual. Therefore, we report a case in which a LAA and an ASD was sequentially occluded.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , Embolism, Paradoxical , Heart , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , Humans
9.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 39(1): 34-37, jun. 2016. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-797291

ABSTRACT

En este artículo presentamos el caso de un paciente femenino de 59 años de edad que ingreso al hospital por insuficiencia respiratoria aguda; diagnosticada con trombosis venosa profunda (TVP) y tromboembolia pulmonar (TEP) masiva. Al cuarto día de admisión desarrolló afasia global y hemiplejia derecha. Imagen de resonancia magnética (IRM) del cerebro demuestra un infarto cerebral agudo en el territorio de la arteria cerebral media izquierda. La Ecografía trans-esofágica evidencia un foramen ovale permeable de 1.8 cm de diámetro con una derivación de flujo arterio-venosa de derecha a izquierda significativo. La paciente fue sometida al cierre del defecto cardiaco por cateterismo con resultados favorables sin recurrencia de infartos cerebrales posteriores. También revisamos la literatura sobre embolia paradójica como causa de infartos cerebrales y brindamos algunas recomendaciones para el manejo y prevención de infartos cerebrales criptogénicos.


Herein, we present a case of a 59 years old woman who was admitted to the hospital due to respiratory failure. She was diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis and massive pulmonary embolism. At the fourth day of admission she developed acute onset of global aphasia and dense acute right hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates an acute infarct in the left medial cerebral artery territory. Transesophageal echocardiogram found a large patent foramen ovale of 1.8 cm of diameter with a large right to left shunting. Patient underwent to successful closure of the defect via cardiac catheterization with no recurrence of embolic events. We also review the literature of paradoxical embolus as a cause of cerebral infarcts and provide some recommendations for treatment and prevention of cryptogenic infarcts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis
10.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 27(4): 4576-4578, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-987132

ABSTRACT

Los aneurismas venosos primarios son lesiones infrecuentes, en la mayoría de los casos asintomáticas y subdiagnosticadas, que deben considerarse al plantear el diagnóstico diferencial de masas inguinales. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 41 años de edad con sensación de masa inguinal izquierda de un año de evolución, a la cual se le diagnosticó aneurisma venoso primario con base en los hallazgos de la ecografía Doppler color. El aneurisma venoso primario requiere tratamiento quirúrgico para evitar complicaciones y la ecografía Doppler color es el método de elección para confirmar el diagnóstico y descartar otros procesos patológicos.


Primary venous aneurysms are rare lesions, in most cases asymptomatic and underdiagnosed that must be considered in the differential diagnoses of inguinal masses. We report the case of a 41 year old female patient with a one year history of a left inguinal mass, which was reported with a primary venous aneurysm based in the findings of a duplex ultrasonography. Venous primary aneurysm requires surgical treatment to avoid complications, and the duplex ultrasonography is the method of choice to confirm diagnosis and rule out other diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Embolism, Paradoxical , Saphenous Vein , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Hernia, Inguinal , Aneurysm
11.
Journal of Stroke ; : 304-311, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Left atrial dysfunction has been reported in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Here we investigated the role of left atrial dysfunction in the development of embolic stroke in patients with PFO. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with embolic stroke of undetermined sources except for PFO (PFO+ESUS). Healthy subjects with PFO served as controls (PFO+control). A stratified analysis by 10-year age group and an age- and sex- matching analysis were performed to compare echocardiographic markers between groups. In the PFO+ESUS group, infarct patterns of PFO-related stroke were determined (cortical vs. cortico-subcortical) and analyzed in correlation with left atrial function parameters. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients and 231 controls were included. The left atrial volume indices (LAVIs) of the PFO+ESUS patients were higher than those of the PFO+controls in age groups of 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years (P28 mL/m2) LAVI was more associated with the cortical infarct pattern (P=0.043 for an acute infarction and P=0.024 for a chronic infarction, both adjusted for age and shunt amount). The degree of right-to-left shunting was not associated with infarct patterns, but with the posterior location of acute infarcts (P=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Left atrial enlargement was associated with embolic stroke in subjects with PFO. Left atrial physiology might contribute to the development of PFO-related stroke and need to be taken into consideration for optimal prevention of PFO-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , Echocardiography , Embolism , Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Healthy Volunteers , Heart Atria , Humans , Infarction , Physiology , Stroke
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 85-89, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741235

ABSTRACT

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are increasingly causing infective endocarditis over the past decade. Here we report a healthy man who developed a severe acute infective endocarditis with systemic embolism caused by CA- MRSA. The strain was recovered from repeated blood cultures and was characterized using molecular detection and genotyping. The S. aureus isolate was typed as ST630 SCCmecV with spa-type t4549, agrI/IV and was PVL-negative. This is the only case report, to our knowledge, of CA-MRSA infective endocarditis in China. This case highlights the emergence and geographical spread of life-threatening CA-MRSA infection within China.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Embolism, Paradoxical/etiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcal Infections/complications
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213784

ABSTRACT

Cardiogenic embolic stroke accounts for approximately 20% of ischemic strokes and the likelihood of its recurrence is high. Paradoxical embolism may be an important cause of cardioembolic stroke, which can be evaluated through multiple diagnostic modalities including transesophageal echocardiography (TTE) or transcranial Doppler. A persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare congenital vascular anomaly, which mainly drains to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. Although rare, PLSVC draining into the left heart predisposes the patient to paradoxical embolism through a right-to-left shunt. We report on a 78-year-old female patient with an ischemic stroke associated with PLSVC draining into the left atrium through the pulmonary vein, which was investigated via TTE with an agitated saline test and computed tomography.


Subject(s)
Aged , Coronary Sinus , Dihydroergotamine , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Embolism, Paradoxical , Female , Heart , Heart Atria , Humans , Pulmonary Veins , Recurrence , Stroke , Vena Cava, Superior
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257609

ABSTRACT

The close relationship between patent foramen ovale(PFO)and cryptogenic ischemic cerebrovascular disease and migraine has been concerned for years. However,in the field of non-cardiac surgery and anesthesiology, PFO and related clinical problems are less recognized. Under perioperative circumstances,PFO may generate many challenges such as paradoxical systematic embolism and severe hypoxemia. This article briefly introduces the epidemiology, paradoxical embolism, and detection methods of PFO and discribes the perioperative complications and corresponding perioperative strategies for prevention and cure.


Subject(s)
Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Humans , Hypoxia
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133661

ABSTRACT

Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are at risk of developing pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs). Paradoxical embolism may occur through pAVMs or patent foramen ovale (PFO) and lead to cerebral infarction. We present a case of cerebral infarction with both pAVM associated with HHT and PFO. Evidence of a right-to-left shunt can suggest other treatment options for stroke prevention, and patients without evidence of conventional stroke etiologies require a thorough evaluation.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Malformations , Cerebral Infarction , Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Humans , Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133660

ABSTRACT

Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are at risk of developing pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pAVMs). Paradoxical embolism may occur through pAVMs or patent foramen ovale (PFO) and lead to cerebral infarction. We present a case of cerebral infarction with both pAVM associated with HHT and PFO. Evidence of a right-to-left shunt can suggest other treatment options for stroke prevention, and patients without evidence of conventional stroke etiologies require a thorough evaluation.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Malformations , Cerebral Infarction , Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Humans , Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 229-237, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33660

ABSTRACT

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is growing in clinical interest because of a renewed focus on embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS), the PFO attributable fraction (the 10-point Risk of Paradoxical Embolism score), technical advances in PFO diagnosis, and the emergence of endovascular device closure as a treatment option. However, recent randomized controlled trials of the management of patients with ESUS and PFO failed to demonstrate the superiority of closure over medical treatment. The mechanisms of stroke other than paradoxical embolism may be important in patients with ESUS and PFO. This paper reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke and therapeutic options in patients with PFO and ESUS.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Humans , Stroke
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114077

ABSTRACT

An 81-year-old male patient was scheduled for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis. About 50 minutes into the operation, the arterial blood pressure suddenly decreased and ventricular fibrillation appeared on the electrocardiography. The patient received cardiopulmonary resuscitation and recovered a normal vital sign. We suspected a carbon dioxide embolism as the middle hepatic vein had been injured during the surgery. We performed a transesophageal echocardiography and were able to confirm the presence of multiple gas bubbles in all of the cardiac chambers. After the operation, the patient presented a stable hemodynamic state, but showed weaknesses in the left arm and leg. There were no acute lesions except for a chronic cerebral cortical atrophy and chronic microvascular encephalopathy on the postoperative brain-computed tomography, 3D angiography and magnetic resonance image. Fortunately, three days after the operation, the patient's hemiparesis had entirely subsided and he was discharged without any neurologic sequelae.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Angiography , Arm , Arterial Pressure , Atrophy , Carbon Dioxide , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Cholecystitis, Acute , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electrocardiography , Embolism , Embolism, Paradoxical , Heart Arrest , Hemodynamics , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Leg , Male , Paresis , Ventricular Fibrillation , Vital Signs
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