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Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 119-125, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156088


Abstract Objective To investigate whether follicular fluid (FF) from infertile women with mild endometriosis (ME) alters in vitro bovine embryo development, and whether the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and/or L-carnitine (LC) could prevent such damages. Methods Follicular fluid was obtained from infertile women (11 with ME and 11 control). Bovine oocytes were matured in vitro divided in: No-FF, with 1% of FF from control women (CFF) or ME women (MEFF); with 1.5mM NAC (CFF + NAC, MEFF + NAC), with 0.6mg/mL LC (CFF + LC, MEFF + LC), or both antioxidants (CFF + NAC + LC, MEFF + NAC + LC). After in vitro fertilization, in vitro embryo culture was performed for 9 days. Results A total of 883 presumptive zygotes were cultured in vitro. No differences were observed in cleavage rate (p = 0.5376) and blastocyst formation rate (p = 0.4249). However, the MEFF group (12.5%) had lower hatching rate than the No-FF (42.1%, p = 0.029) and CFF (42.9%, p = 0.036) groups. Addition of antioxidants in the group with CFF did not alter hatching rate (p ≥ 0.56), and in groups with MEFF, just NAC increased the hatching rate [(MEFF: 12.5% versus MEFF + NAC: 44.4% (p = 0.02); vs MEFF + LC: 18.8% (p = 0.79); versus MEFF + NAC + LC: 30.8% (p = 0.22)]. Conclusion Therefore, FF from infertile women with ME added to medium of in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes impairs hatching rate, and NAC prevented these damages, suggesting involvement of oxidative stress in worst of oocyte and embryo quality of women with ME.

Resumo Objetivo Investigar se o fluido folicular (FF) de mulheres inférteis com endometriose leve (ME, na sigla eminglês) altera o desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões bovinos, e se os antioxidantes N-acetil-cisteína (NAC) e/ou L-carnitina (LC) poderiam prevenir possíveis danos. Métodos O FF foi obtido de mulheres inférteis (11 com ME e 11 controles). Oócitos bovinos foram maturados in vitro divididos em: sem FF (No-FF), com 1% de FF de mulheres controle (CFF) ou mulheres comME (MEFF); com 1,5mMde NAC (CFF + NAC, MEFF + NAC), com 0,6mg/mL de LC (CFF + LC, MEFF + LC), ou ambos antioxidantes (CFF + NAC + LC, MEFF + NAC + LC). Depois da fertilização in vitro, o cultivo in vitro de embriões foi realizado por 9 dias. Resultados Um total de 883 zigotos presumidos foram cultivados in vitro. Nenhuma diferença foi observada na taxa de clivagem (p = 0,5376) e na taxa de formação de blastocistos (p = 0,4249). Entretanto, o grupo MEFF (12.5%) teve menor taxa de eclosão de blastocistos do que os grupos No-FF (42,1%, p = 0,029) e CFF (42,9%, p = 0,036). Adição de antioxidantes no grupo comCFF não alterou a taxa de eclosão (p ≥ 0.56), e nos grupos com MEFF, somente a NAC aumentou a taxa de eclosão [(MEFF: 12.5% versus MEFF + NAC: 44.4% (p = 0.02); versus MEFF + LC: 18.8% (p = 0.79); versus MEFF + NAC + LC: 30.8% (p = 0.22)]. Conclusão Portanto, o FF de mulheres inférteis com ME adicionado ao meio de maturação in vitro de oócitos bovinos prejudica a taxa de closão embrionária, e a NAC preveniu esses danos, sugerindo o envolvimento do estresse oxidativo na piora da qualidade oocitária e embrionária de mulheres com ME.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Endometriosis , Infertility, Female , Oocytes , Follicular Fluid/metabolism , Embryonic Development , Disease Models, Animal
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1134-1143, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921855


In the study of embryo development process, the morphological features at different stages are essential to evaluate developmental competence of the embryo, which can be used to optimize and improve the system for

Blastocyst , Embryo Culture Techniques , Embryonic Development , Fertilization in Vitro
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 527-534, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887688


Oogenesis is the basic reproductive process of female mammals and is essential for fertilization and embryo development. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic modifications play an important role in the regulation of mammalian reproductive processes (such as oogenesis, spermatogenesis, preimplantation embryo development and sex differentiation). Taking histone acetylation as an instance, the dynamic changes of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the regulation of gene activation and inactivation when numerous key physiological events occur during reproduction. Thereinto, HDAC1 and HDAC2, which are highly homologous in terms of both structure and function, play a pivotal role in murine oogenesis. HDAC1 and 2 jointly regulate the global transcription and the incidence of apoptosis of growing oocytes and affect its subsequent growth and development, which reflects their compensatory function. In addition, HDAC1 and 2 also play a specific part in oogenesis respectively. It has shown that HDAC2 is more critical than HDAC1 for oocyte development, which regulates de novo DNA methylation and chromosome segregation. Reciprocally, HDAC1 is more critical than HDAC2 for preimplantation development. Deficiency of HDAC1 causes the decreased proliferation of embryonic stem cells and the smaller embryoid bodies with irregular shape. In this review, we summarized the role and the current research progress of HDAC1/2 in murine oogenesis, to provide a reference for further understanding the relationship between epigenetic modifications and reproductive regulation.

Acetylation , Animals , Embryonic Development , Female , Histone Deacetylase 1/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Male , Mice , Oocytes , Oogenesis
Protein & Cell ; (12): 7-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880895


Mammalian fertilization begins with the fusion of two specialized gametes, followed by major epigenetic remodeling leading to the formation of a totipotent embryo. During the development of the pre-implantation embryo, precise reprogramming progress is a prerequisite for avoiding developmental defects or embryonic lethality, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. For the past few years, unprecedented breakthroughs have been made in mapping the regulatory network of dynamic epigenomes during mammalian early embryo development, taking advantage of multiple advances and innovations in low-input genome-wide chromatin analysis technologies. The aim of this review is to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of epigenetic remodeling during early embryogenesis in mammals, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and 3D chromatin organization.

Animals , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , DNA Transposable Elements , Embryo, Mammalian , Embryonic Development/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenome , Female , Fertilization/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Histone Code , Histones/metabolism , Male , Mice , Oocytes/metabolism , Spermatozoa/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 437-447, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153362


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the production of polycarbonate, a polymer commonly found in plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. The presence of BPA in food, water, air and dust has been of great concern in recent years not only due to environmental and ecological issues but also because of its supposed risk to public health related to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of bisphenol A in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) and determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of this chemical. BPA was used at concentrations ranging from 1 µM to 100 µM in E3 medium/0.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from previously prepared stock solutions in 100% DMSO. Controls included embryos exposed only to E3 medium or supplemented with 0.5% DMSO. Camptothecin (CPT), a known inhibitor of cell proliferation was used as positive control at a concentration of 0.001 µM in E3 medium/0.5% DMSO. Adults zebrafish were placed for breeding a day before the experimental set up, then, viable embryos were collected and selected for use. Experiments were carried out in triplicates, according to specifications from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). One embryo/well (25 embryos per concentration) was distributed in 96 well microplates in presence or absence of the chemicals. The plates were kept in BOD incubators with a controlled temperature of 28.5 ºC and with photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. After 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h exposure, the exposed embryos were evaluated according to the following parameters: mortality, coagulation, rate of heartbeat, hatching and presence of morphological abnormalities. Photography was obtained by photomicroscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA ladder assay. DNA was extracted by phenol:chloroform method and analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments were visualized after ethidium bromide staining in ultraviolet transilluminator. The LC50 determined for BPA was 70 µM after 24 hours, 72 µM after 48 hours, 47 µM after 72 hours and 31 µM after 96 hours exposure. BPA induced morphological and physiological alterations such as yolk sac and pericardial edema, hatching delay or inhibition, spine deformation, decreasing in heartbeat rate and mortality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BPA induced marked malformations in zebrafish embryos at concentrations above 25 µM corroborating the current concerns related to the widespread presence of BPA in the air, food and water used by humans as well as in the bodily fluids and tissues.

Bisfenol A (BPA) é um monômero utilizado na produção de policarbonato, um polímero comumente encontrado em plásticos, resinas epóxi e papéis térmicos. A presença de BPA em alimentos, água, ar e poeira tem sido motivo de grande preocupação nos últimos anos, não só devido a questões ambientais e ecológicas, mas também ao suposto risco para a saúde pública relacionado ao seu potencial mutagênico e carcinogênico. Neste estudo avaliamos a toxicidade do bisfenol A em embriões de peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) e determinamos a concentração letal 50% (LC50) deste composto químico. O BPA foi usado na faixa de concentração entre 1 µM e 100µM em meio E3/0,5% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), preparado a partir de soluções estoques em 100% DMSO. Os controles negativos incluíram embriões expostos apenas ao meio E3 ou suplementado com 0,5% DMSO. Camptotecina (CPT), um conhecido inibidor da proliferação celular, foi usado como controle positivo a uma concentração de 0,001 µM em meio E3/0,5% DMSO. Peixes-zebra adultos foram colocados para reprodução um dia antes da montagem experimental, em seguida, embriões viáveis foram coletados e selecionados para uso. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata, de acordo com as especificações da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE). Um embrião/ poço (25 embriões por concentração) foi distribuído em microplacas de 96 poços na presença ou ausência dos compostos químicos. As placas foram mantidas em incubadoras BOD com temperatura controlada de 28,5 ºC e com fotoperíodo de 14h claro:10h escuro. Após 24h, 48h, 72h e 96h, os embriões expostos foram avaliados de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros: mortalidade, presença de coagulação, taxa do batimento cardíaco, eclosão e presença de anormalidades morfológicas. Fotografias foram obtidas por fotomicroscopia. A apoptose foi avaliada pelo ensaio de DNA ladder. O DNA foi extraído pelo método fenol:clorofórmio e analisado por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 2%. Fragmentos de DNA foram visualizadas após coloração com brometo de etídio em um transiluminador ultravioleta. A LC50 determinada para o BPA foi 70 µM após 24 horas, 72 µM após 48 horas, 47 µM após 72 horas e 31 µM após exposição por 96 horas. O BPA induziu alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas como edema de saco vitelino e edema pericárdico, atraso no tempo ou inibição da eclosão, deformação da coluna vertebral, diminuição da taxa de batimentos cardíacos e mortalidade. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstrou que o BPA induziu grande número de malformações em embriões de peixe-zebra em concentrações acima de 25 µM, corroborando as preocupações atuais relacionadas a presença generalizada do BPA no ar, alimento e água usados pelos seres humanos bem como nos fluidos e tecidos corporais.

Humans , Animals , Plastics/adverse effects , Plastics/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Zebrafish/embryology , Phenols/toxicity , Benzhydryl Compounds , Embryonic Development/physiology , Embryo, Nonmammalian
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210027, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340229


Because dams block migratory routes of potamodromous fish to their spawning areas, and energy generation changes natural flow seasonality, it is necessary to identify spawning areas and their conditions. This information will help in management decisions in the Magdalena River basin regarding the future hydropower development. We identified which characteristics of the tributaries to the Magdalena River are important for determining potamodromous fish spawning grounds, and we estimated the percentage of future loss of spawning areas because of dam development. Ichthyoplankton density is directly related to the floodplain area, and inversely related with channel slope. Low channel slopes offer adult fish a longer distance for their upstream migration and a longer time for embryo development during their drift downstream from the spawning areas to nursery habitats (floodplain lakes). These features could increase the migration distance of the adults, the time for initial embryo development, and, because of its relationship with nursery habitats access, the offspring survival. The potential loss of the actual spawning grounds in the river network was estimated to be nearly 70% because of new dams. Our findings will help to reduce conflicts between hydropower and ecological interests.(AU)

La construcción de hidroeléctricas puede afectar la reproducción de los peces migratorios potamódromos, ya sea porque las represas bloquean las rutas migratorias a sus áreas de desove, o porque la generación de energía cambia la estacionalidad del flujo natural. Esto hace necesario generar información sobre las áreas de desove y sus características, que permitan tomar decisiones de manejo, teniendo en cuenta el desarrollo hidroeléctrico propuesto a futuro en la cuenca del río Magdalena. Identificamos qué características de algunos afluentes del río Magdalena son importantes para los desoves y estimamos el porcentaje de pérdida futura de áreas de desoves debido al desarrollo hidroeléctrico. La densidad del ictioplancton se relacionó directamente con el área de la llanura aluvial e inversamente con la pendiente del canal. Estas características aumentan la distancia de migración de los adultos maduros, el tiempo para el desarrollo inicial del embrión y la supervivencia de la descendencia debido a la proximidad y/o conectividad con los hábitats de cría. La pérdida potencial de las zonas de desove en la red fluvial se estimó en casi el 70% debido a las nuevas presas. Nuestros hallazgos ayudarán a tomar decisiones sostenibles para reducir los conflictos entre intereses de desarrollo hidroeléctrico y ecológicos.(AU)

Animals , Animal Migration , Hydroelectric Energy , Fishes/embryology , Embryonic Development
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347995


Ureteral ectopy is a rare disorder in the small animals' clinic. It is characterized as a congenital anomaly, resulting from the ducts differentiation failure during embryogenesis. In this scenario, the ureters present themselves outside the anatomical site, being inserted into the uterus, urethra, urinary vesicle neck, or vagina. The clinical signs are urinary incontinence and perivulvar dermatitis. Surgery is the accepted treatment to correct the anomaly. The surgical procedure is based on relocating the ectopic ureter and treating associated modifications. This report describes a case of intramural bilateral ureteral ectopy, corrected surgically through the neoureterocystostomy technique, making it possible to control the animal's urinary incontinence.(AU)

A ectopia ureteral é uma afecção de incidência rara na clínica de pequenos animais, sendo caracterizada como anomalia congênita resultante de falha na diferenciação dos ductos durante a embriogênese. Neste cenário, os ureteres se apresentam fora do seu local anatômico, sendo inseridos no útero, no colo da vesícula urinária, na uretra ou na vagina. Os sinais clínicos comumente apresentados são a incontinência urinária bem como a dermatite perivulvar. O tratamento de eleição para correção da anomalia é o procedimento cirúrgico, no qual a técnica de escolha é baseada na relocação do ureter ectópico e tratamento das alterações associadas. Neste contexto, o presente relato descreve um caso de ectopia ureteral bilateral intramural, corrigido cirurgicamente por meio da técnica neoureterocistostomia, o que possibilitou controle da incontinência urinária do paciente.(AU)

Animals , Urogenital Abnormalities , Hormones, Ectopic , Embryonic Development
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1412-1420, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134457


SUMMARY: Mesenchymal stem cells are characterized by in vitro high proliferation and multilineage potential maintenance. This study aimed to isolate and characterize equine YS mesenchymal stem cells and compare these with amniotic membranes. The yolk sac (YS) and amniotic membranes (AM) were obtained from 20 pregnant mares with gestational age around 30 days. Cells were cultured in α-MEM supplemented with 15 % FBS, 1 % antibiotic solution, 1 % L-glutamine and 1 % nonessential amino acids. To cell characterization we used cytogenetic analysis, fibroblast colony-forming unit assays, cell growth curves, immunophenotyping, flow cytometry, differentiation assays and teratoma formation. Results: Both cell sources presented fibroblastoid and epithelioid-like format. The YS cells have lower colony formation potential then AM ones, 3 versus 8 colonies per 103 plated cells. However, YS cells grew progressively while AM cells showed steady. Both, the YS and amnion cells immunolabeled for Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-3, cytokeratin 18, PCNA, and vimentin. In addition, presented mesenchymal, hematopoietic, endothelial and pluripotency markers in flow cytometry. Discussion: Both cell sources presented high plasticity and differed into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, and no tumor formation in nude mice was observed. The results suggest that horse YS may be useful for cell therapy such as amnion-derived cells.

RESUMEN: Las células madre mesenquimales se caracterizan por una alta proliferación in vitro y un mantenimiento potencial de múltiples líneas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo aislar y caracterizar las células madre mesenquimales del saco vitelino equinas y compararlas con las membranas amnióticas. Se obtuvo el saco vitelino (SV) y las membranas amnióticas (MA) de 20 yeguas preñadas con edad gestacional de aproximadamente 30 días. Las células se cultivaron en α -MEM suplementado con 15 % de FBS, 1 % de solución antibiótica, 1 % de L-glutamina y 1 % de aminoácidos no esenciales. Para la caracterización celular utilizamos análisis citogenéticos, ensayos de unidades de colonias de fibroblastos, curvas de crecimiento celular, inmunofenotipaje, citometría de flujo, ensayos de diferenciación y formación de teratomas. Ambas fuentes celulares presentaron formato fibroblastoideo y epitelioide. Las células SV tienen un potencial de formación de colonias más bajo que las de MA, 3 versus 8 colonias por 103 células en placa. Sin embargo, las células SV crecieron progresivamente mientras que las células MA se mostraron estables. Tanto las células YS como las células amnios están inmunomarcadas para Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-3, citoqueratina 18, PCNA y vimentina. Además, presentó marcadores mesenquimales, hematopoyéticos, endoteliales y pluripotenciales en citometría de flujo. Ambas fuentes celulares presentaron alta plasticidad y diferían en linajes osteogénicos, adipogénicos y condrogénicos, y no se observó formación de tumores en ratones. Los resultados sugieren que el SV de caballo puede ser útil para la terapia celular, como las células derivadas de amnios.

Animals , Yolk Sac/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Horses , Yolk Sac/embryology , In Vitro Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Immunophenotyping , Regenerative Medicine , Embryonic Development , Flow Cytometry , Amnion
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 711-718, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128882


Objetivou-se testar a vitrificação de ovários de camundongos do ICTB/Fiocruz. Inicialmente, fez-se coleta e maturação in vitro dos oócitos de ovários a fresco e vitrificados, bem como avaliação de estruturas no cultivo embrionário, pós-fertilização in vitro. Fêmeas B6D2F1 foram eutanasiadas para remoção dos ovários (n=60) e divididas em três grupos: grupo 1 (n=30 animais) - oócito de ovários vitrificados, maturados e fertilizados in vitro (120 fragmentos); grupo 2 (n=15) (controle 1) - oócitos coletados a fresco, maturados e fertilizados in vitro; e grupo 3 (n=15) (controle 2) - oócitos maturados in vivo e fertilizados in vitro. A técnica foi verificada no desenvolvimento embrionário in vitro, que foi avaliado pelo teste de qui-quadrado (BioStat 5.0). Recuperaram-se 123, 224 e 328 oócitos nos G1, G2 e G3, respectivamente. Observaram-se diferenças significativas nas taxas de clivagem às 24 horas (embriões ≥ 2 células) entre G1 (8%) e G2 (32%) (P<0,1) e G1 e G3 (49%) (P<0,05), mas não entre G2 e G3 (P>0,05). Para blastocistos, às 96 horas, os grupos G1, G2 e G3 apresentaram, respectivamente, 6%, 11% e 46%, diferindo significativamente entre eles (P<0,05). A vitrificação de ovários, a maturação oocitária e a fertilização in vitro são alternativas para a produção de embriões de camundongos in vitro.(AU)

This work aimed test ovarian vitrification of hybrid mouse from ICTB/Fiocruz. Protocol collection and oocyte in vitro maturation from fresh and vitrified ovaries was established and embryos were evaluated after fertilization. B6D2F1 females were euthanized for ovarian removal (n= 60) and divided into 3 groups: G1 (n= 30) - ovaries fragmented (n= 120), vitrified, matured and fertilized; G2 (n= 15) - in vitro fertilization of oocytes matured in vitro from fresh ovaries; G3 (n= 15) - ampulla region oocytes in vitro fertilizated. Viability was verified by thawing, oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization. In vitro embryo development of each group was evaluated by Chi-square test (BioStat 5.0). 123, 224 and 328 oocytes were recovered from G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Significant differences were observed in cleavage rates at 24 hours (embryos with 2 cells or more) between G1 (8%) and G2 (32%) (P< 0.1) and G1 and G3 (49%) (P< 0.05) but not between G2 and G3 (P> 0.05). Blastocysts at 96 hours presented 6%, 11% and 46%, respectively for G1, G2 and G3, differing significantly (P< 0.05). Ovary vitrification, oocyte in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization were available for the production of in vitro mouse embryos.(AU)

Animals , Female , Mice , Ovary , Embryonic Development , Vitrification , Fertilization in Vitro , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques/veterinary
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 879-888, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129561


Dez éguas, sem raça definida, foram submetidas a avaliações ultrassonográficas durante o intervalo interovulatório, avaliando-se folículos ≥ 5mm. Cinco éguas foram tratadas com 500mg de r-bST no primeiro e no 14º dia pós-ovulação (grupo GT), e as demais com soro fisiológico (grupo GC). Quando o folículo dominante atingiu diâmetro ≥ 40mm, foram induzidas com hCG e inseminadas 24 horas após, sendo submetidas à coleta de embrião seis dias após a ovulação. Os dados foram agrupados de acordo com o diâmetro do folículo dominante nas fases de emergência, divergência, dominância, pré-ovulatória, indução, inseminação e ovulação. Todas as éguas foram usadas duas vezes, no mesmo grupo. O GT apresentou crescimento folicular precoce para as fases de emergência, divergência, dominância e pré-ovulatória, assim como para o seu maior folículo subordinado, que cresceu mais cedo. As taxas de recuperação foram de 90% (GC) e 70% (GT), em 16 estruturas coletadas, obtendo-se uma não fecundada e um blastocisto inicial para o grupo GC; os demais, no estágio de mórula, apresentaram comportamento semelhante entre os grupos. Conclui-se que a r-bST influencia a dinâmica folicular de éguas, levando a uma antecipação do desenvolvimento folicular, que pode ser utilizada para encurtar o ciclo estral.(AU)

Ten undefined mare breeds were submitted to ultrasonographic evaluations during the interovulatory interval, evaluating follicles measuring ≥ 5mm. Five mares were treated with 500mg r-bST on the first and the 14th day after ovulation (TG group), and the others with saline (CG group). When the dominant follicle reached a diameter ≥ 40mm the ovulation was induced with hCG, and the mares were inseminated 24 hours later and submitted to embryo collection six days after ovulation. The data were grouped according to the diameter of the dominant follicle in the emergence, divergence, dominance, preovulatory, induction, insemination and ovulation phases. All mares were used twice, in the same group. The GT showed early follicular growth for the emergence, divergence, dominance and pre-ovulatory phases, as well as for its greater subordinate follicle, growing earlier. The recovery rates were 90% (CG) and 70% (TG), and 16 structures were collected, obtaining an unfertilized embryo and an initial blastocyst for the CG group, the others in the morula stage behaved similarly between the groups. It can be concluded that r-bST influences the follicular dynamics of the mares, leading to an anticipation of the follicular development that can be used to shorten the estrous cycle.(AU)

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Growth Hormone/analysis , Embryonic Development , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Horses/embryology , Ultrasonography/veterinary
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 623-632, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128493


O presente estudo utilizou embriões de Danio rerio expostos aos elutriatos dos sedimentos estuarinos do rio Capibaribe, dos períodos chuvoso e seco, e analisou os efeitos letais, teratogênicos, bem como a frequência cardíaca. Os testes de toxicidade com os embriões seguiram as diretrizes da OECD 236. Mediante os resultados obtidos, a frequência cardíaca e a teratogenicidade foram os efeitos mais observados nos animais quando submetidos às amostras. Entre os efeitos teratogênicos, o retardo geral no desenvolvimento dos embriões foi o mais frequente durante as análises. Tais efeitos tóxicos se modificaram entre os pontos e entre os períodos de coleta. Essa variação de toxicidade pode estar relacionada à diversidade de atividades realizadas no entorno desse estuário, a influência do regime de chuvas, marés e correntes, indicando que a análise dos efeitos subletais e da teratogenicidade em embriões de D. rerio constitui bom parâmetro para avaliações de toxicidade de amostras ambientais.(AU)

The present study used Danio rerio embryos exposed to the elutriates of the estuarine sediments of the Rio Capibaribe, from the rainy and dry periods, where the lethal effects, teratogenic and heart rate were analyzed. Embryotoxicity tests followed the guidelines of OECD 236. Based on the results obtained, heart rate and teratogenicity demonstrated higher sensitivity to the samples. Among the teratogenic effects, the general delay in embryo development was the most frequent effect during the analyzes. These toxic effects changed between the points and between the collection periods. This variation of toxicity may be related to the diversity of activities carried out around this estuary, the influence of rainfall, tides, and currents, indicating the analysis of sublethal effects and teratogenicity in the D. rerio embryos are useful parameters for toxic evaluation of environmental samples.(AU)

Animals , Zebrafish/embryology , Sediments/analysis , Embryonic Development , Heart Rate , Toxicity Tests , Estuaries , Teratogenesis
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 259-264, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056432


The family of paired box (Pax) genes encodes the transcription factors that have been emphasized for the particular importance to embryonic development of the CNS, with the evidence obtained from various animal models. Human embryos have rarely been available for the detection of the expression of Pax family members. In this study 32 human embryos of Carnegie (CS) stages 10-20 were investigated to find the differences in the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 proteins in different regions of the neural tube and the caudal spinal cord. The expression of Pax6 and Pax7, as determined by immunohistochemistry, showed a tendency to increase in the later stages of the development both in the spinal cord and the brain. Significantly weaker expression of Pax6 and Pax7 was observed at CS 10 as compared to the later stages. At CS 10-12 weak expression of Pax6 was noticed in both dorsal and ventral parts of the developing spinal cord, while the expression of Pax7 was restricted to the cells in the roof plate and the dorsal part of the spinal cord. At CS 14-20 in the developing spinal cord Pax6 and Pax7 were detected mostly in the neuroepithelial cells of the ventricular layer, while only weak expression characterized the mantle and the marginal layers. At the same stages in the developing brain Pax6 and Pax7 were expressed in the different regions of the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain suggesting for their involvement in the differentiation of neurons in specific parts of the developing brain.

La familia de genes Pax del inglés (Paired box) codifica los factores de transcripción debido a la particular importancia en el desarrollo embrionario del SNC, con la evidencia obtenida de varios modelos animales. Rara vez han estado disponibles embriones humanos para la detección de la expresión de genes de la familia Pax. En este estudio, se investigaron 32 embriones humanos de Carnegie (CS) etapas 10-20 para encontrar las diferencias en la expresión de las proteínas Pax6 y Pax7 en diferentes regiones del tubo neural y la médula espinal caudal. La expresión de Pax6 y Pax7, según la inmunohistoquímica, se observó una tendencia a aumentar en las etapas posteriores del desarrollo, tanto en la médula espinal como en el cerebro. Se observó una expresión significativamente más débil de Pax6 y Pax7 en CS 10 en comparación con las etapas posteriores. En CS 10-12 se notó una expresión débil de Pax6 en las partes dorsal y ventral de la médula espinal en desarrollo, mientras que la expresión de Pax7 se limitó a células en la placa del techo y dorsal de la médula espinal. En CS 14-20 en la médula espinal en desarrollo, Pax6 y Pax7 se observó principalmente en las células neuroepiteliales de la capa ventricular, mientras que expresión débil se caracterizó en las capas marginales. En las mismas etapas en el cerebro en desarrollo, Pax6 y Pax7 se expresaron en las diferentes áreas del prosencéfalo, el mesencéfalo y el mesencéfalo, lo que sugiere su participación en la diferenciación de las neuronas en partes específicas del cerebro en desarrollo.

Humans , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Brain/growth & development , Embryonic Development , PAX7 Transcription Factor/metabolism , PAX6 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Spinal Cord/embryology , Brain/embryology , Immunohistochemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879490


With the in-depth exploration of all stages in early-stage embryos, in particular zygotic genome activation and first cell lineage differentiation, researchers have found that early embryonic epigenetics follows a strict pattern of temporal and spatial modification. Previous studies have determined the inhibitory effect of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 on genomic expression, and found that they are involved in many core biological events in the genome such as chromatin reprogramming, genomic imprinting, maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and somatic cell nuclear transfer, though the detailed molecular mechanism has remained elusive. From the point of developmental biology and epigenetics, this article has expounded the research progress on the methylation of H3K9 and H3K27 histones in early-stage embryos, which may provide a clue for the complex mechanism of embryonic development and improvement of culture method for embryos in vitro.

Chromatin , Embryonic Development , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Methylation , Pregnancy
Gac. méd. boliv ; 42(2): 159-162, dic. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293165


El higroma quístico congénito o linfangioma es un tumor del sistema linfático, es de origen embrionario y se origina por la obstrucción del drenaje de los sacos linfáticos. Su localización en orden de frecuencia es en las regiones cervical, axilar, intraperitoneal e inguinal, y muy raro como alteración única en el mediastino anterior. Paciente de 32 años de edad, con embarazo 16 sem ± 6 días y reporte de ecografía: Embarazo de 15 sem ± 20 días, normohidramnia, higroma quístico, Ausencia de hueso nasal además de una comunicación interventricular. Paciente en sala de legrado bajo sedación profunda, se obtiene producto de sexo masculino con alteraciones faciales y aumento de volumen en región cervical. Podemos concluir que, el control prenatal es importante realizar para obtener un diagnóstico precoz con examen ecográfico seriado, estudio genético, ecocardiografía fetal y para dar tratamiento quirúrgico es necesario conformar un equipo multidisciplinario.(AU)

The congenital cystic hygroma or lymphangioma is a tumor of the lymphatic system, is of embryonic origin and is caused by the obstruction of the drainage of the lymphatic sacs. Its location in order of frequency is in the cervical, axillary, intraperitoneal and inguinal regions, and very rare as a single alteration in the anterior mediastinum. A 32-year-old patient with a pregnancy of 16 weeks ± 6 days and an ultrasound report: Pregnancy of 15 weeks ± 20 days, normohydramnia, cystic hygroma, Absence of nasal bone in addition to interventricular communication. Patient in curettage room under deep sedation, male product with facial alterations and volume increase in cervical region is obtained. We can conclude that prenatal control is important to obtain an early diagnosis with serial ultrasound examination, genetic study, fetal echocardiography and to give surgical treatment it is necessary to form a multidisciplinary team.(AU)

Lymphangioma, Cystic , Cleft Lip , Embryonic Development , Lymphatic System
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1433-1444, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038654


The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the Rolipram during the maturation of bovine oocytes and gene expression of embryos produced in vitro. Bovine ovaries were collected in slaughterhouse. The COCs were selected and divided into 5 groups: Control 0 time; Control: IVM for 24 hours; Rolipram treatments with IVM blocking for 24 hours in maturation medium containing (100, 150 and 200µM). After 24 hours all groups were reseated in IVM for another 24 hours. Subsequently COCs were subjected to the same IVM system and fertilized, being checked for cleavage post fertilization and for blastocyst. In addition, performed expression of the following genes: Mater, BMP15 and Bax. No difference was found in gene expression. Of oocytes evaluated shortly after follicular aspiration, 79.00% were in GV, GVBD, MI, while 13.40%, were in MII and 7.60%, D/NI. Significant difference was observed in different concentrations (T100, T200 and T150µM) in oocytes that have reached the MII phase compared to control treatments (P= 0.003). Differences were observed in cleavage rate (P< 0.05) between T150 and T200 when compared to the C/24 Group. A high difference was observed on blastocyst rate (P< 0.001) among treatments compared to the control group.(AU)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do rolipram durante a maturação de oócitos bovinos, expressão gênica e embriões produzidos in vitro. Os ovários bovinos foram coletados no matadouro. Os COCs foram selecionados e divididos em cinco grupos: controle 0 tempo; controle: MIV por 24 horas; tratamentos rolipram com bloqueio MIV por 24 horas em meio de maturação contendo 100, 150 e 200µM. Após 24 horas, todos os grupos foram recolocados em MIV por mais 24 horas. Subsequentemente COCs foram submetidos ao mesmo sistema MIV e fertilizados, sendo avaliada a taxa de clivagem e de blastocisto, além da expressão dos seguintes genes: Mater, BMP15 e Bax. Nenhuma diferença foi observada na expressão gênica. Dos oócitos avaliados logo após a aspiração folicular, 79,0% estavam em GV, GVBD, MI, enquanto 13,40% estavam em MII, e 7,60% em D/NI. A diferença significativa foi observada em diferentes concentrações (T100, T200 e T150µM) em oócitos que atingiram a fase MII em comparação aos tratamentos de controle (P=0,3). Diferenças foram observadas nas taxas de clivagem (P<0,5) entre T150 e T200 quando comparadas com as taxas do grupo C/24. Uma grande diferença foi observada na taxa de blastocisto (P<0,1) entre os tratamentos em relação ao grupo controle.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Oocytes/growth & development , Gene Expression/drug effects , Rolipram/pharmacology , Embryonic Development/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , In Vitro Techniques/veterinary
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 48-55, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087162


Background: Plant gene homologs that control cell differentiation can be used as biotechnological tools to study the in vitro cell proliferation competence of tissue culture-recalcitrant species such as peppers. It has been demonstrated that SERK1 homologs enhance embryogenic competence when overexpressed in transformed tissues; therefore, cloning of a pepper SERK1 homolog was performed to further evaluate its biotechnological potential. Results: A Capsicum chinense SERK full-length cDNA (CchSERK1) was cloned and characterized at the molecular level. Its deduced amino acid sequence exhibits high identity with sequences annotated as SERK1 and predicted-SERK2 homologs in the genomes of the Capsicum annuum CM-334 and Zunla-1 varieties, respectively, and with SERK1 homologs from members of the Solanaceae family. Transcription of CchSERK1 in plant tissues, measured by quantitative RT-PCR, was higher in stems, flowers, and roots but lower in leaves and floral primordia. During seed development, CchSERK1 was transcribed in all zygotic stages, with higher expression at 14 days post anthesis. During somatic embryogenesis, CchSERK1 was transcribed at all differentiation stages, with a high increment in the heart stage and lower levels at the torpedo/cotyledonal stages. Conclusion: DNA sequence alignments and gene expression patterns suggest that CchSERK1 is the C. chinense SERK1 homolog. Significant levels of CchSERK1 transcripts were found in tissues with cell differentiation activities such as vascular axes and during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos. These results suggest that CchSERK1 might have regulatory functions in cell differentiation and could be used as a biotechnological tool to study the recalcitrance of peppers to proliferate in vitro.

Capsicum/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , In Vitro Techniques , Biotechnology , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation , Genes, Plant , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Solanaceae/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins , Cell Proliferation , Embryonic Development , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1009749


Através de uma Revisão da Literatura, o trabalho busca consolidar informações sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático, durante a vida intrauterina. Foram realizadas pesquisas sobre o tema abordado, nas seguintes bases de dados: Scielo, Medline; Bireme; Google Acadêmico e o PubMed, no intervalo de tempo de agosto de 2006 a junho de 2017. Livros publicados no mesmo período também foram consultados. Foram selecionados os artigos em português ou inglês, que contemplaram assuntos inerentes ao estudo. O desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático acontece a partir do primeiro mês gestacional. A exposição materna a fatores de risco como infecções, traumatismos, desnutrição e consumo de drogas, pode deixar sequelas no feto, comprometendo estruturas e funções buco-dentais.

Through a Literature Review, this work aims to consolidate information about the development of the stomatognathic system during the intrauterine life. The development of the stomatognathic system happens from the first gestational month. Maternal exposure to risk factors, such as infections, trauma, malnutrition, drug use, may leave sequels in the fetus and may compromise buccal-dental structures and functions.

Humans , Pregnancy , Stomatognathic System , Pregnancy , Embryonic Development , Odontogenesis
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 600-605, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040735


Considering the representativeness of dairy cattle in our country, the concern about the mortality rates of the animals increases each time. Regarding to calf mortality, the Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) has an important relevance during the neonatal period, and it is present in immature lungs. The amniotic fluid is in direct contact with the fetus, and it is able to offer evidence about his maturity. The aim of this study was to standardize the characteristics of the amniotic fluid, color, aspect, viscosity, quantification of lamellar body and surfactant evaluation by the Clements test and cytology, of term-born, mature and healthy calves. There were used 50 Black and White Holstein calves, which mothers were observed at calving in order to collect the amniotic fluid by puncture in the moment of exposure of the fetal membrane through the vaginal canal. Most amniotic fluid had a clear and hazy appearance due to varying degrees of viscosity and the presence or absence of clots. The Clements test could be adapted to the bovine species by the modification consisting in the addition of 3mL of amniotic fluid and 1mL of 95% ethanol. The methodology of the lamellar body count by the automated particle counter is not applicable for the bovine because of the small size of their lamellar body. The Nile Blue staining is unsatisfactory on predicting fetal maturity on the bovine species, different from cytology using Hematoxylin-Shorr stain. The presence of orange cells, increase in large amounts at the end of pregnancy. The cell stained orange counting, cells which are found in great amounts at the end of pregnancy. The present study stablished new parameters for evaluation of fetal and pulmonary maturity in the bovine species.(AU)

O objetivo desse estudo foi reunir novos dados práticos sobre a avaliação da maturidade pulmonar em neonatos bovinos, padronizando as características do líquido amniótico de bezerros maduros e hígidos, o que proporcionará a oportunidade de tratamento precoce dos animais prematuros, evitando prejuízos econômicos, principalmente quando consideramos os animais de alto valor genético. Amostras de líquido amniótico foram coletadas de 50 vacas da Raça Holandesa Preta e Branca. Corpos lamelares foram identificados por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão como estruturas de tamanho aproximado de 130nm, o que impede sua contagem em analisadores automáticos. O teste de Clements sofreu adaptações de técnica e se mostrou viável com a diluição de 3mL de líquido amniótico em 1mL de etanol a 95%. A citologia utilizando o método de Hematoxilina-Shorr, diferentemente do teste de Azul de Nilo, foi eficaz na identificação das células orangiofílicas, indicativas de maturidade fetal. Esses métodos mostraram-se originais e úteis ferramentas para a avaliação de maturidade pulmonar na espécie bovina, porém estudos com bezerros prematuros ainda são necessários.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Embryonic Development , Amniotic Fluid , Lung/growth & development , Animals, Newborn/growth & development
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 837-847, May-June 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011326


Piau porcine blastocysts were submitted to MALDI-TOF to identify the main phospholipids (PL). After that, in vivo blastocysts (D6) were vitrified (n=52), non-vitrified were used as control (n=42). After warming, blastocysts were in vitro cultured to assess re-expansion and hatching at 24 and 48 hours. Finally, at 48 hours, hatched blastocysts were submitted to RT-qPCR searching for BCL2A1, BAK, BAX and CASP3 genes. For MALDI-TOF, the ion intensity was expressed in arbitrary units. Blastocyst development was compared by Qui-square (P< 0.05). Among the most representative PL was the phosphatidylcholine [PC (32:0) + H]+; [PC (34:1) + H]+ and [PC (36:4) + H]+. Beyond the PL, MALDI revealed some triglycerides (TG), including PPL (50:2) + Na+, PPO (50:1) + Na+, PLO (52:3) + Na+ and POO (52:2) + Na. Re-expansion did not differ (P> 0.05) between fresh or vitrified blastocysts at 24 (33.3%; 32.7%) or 48 hours (2.4%; 13.5%). Hatching rates were higher (P< 0.05) for fresh compared to vitrified at 24 (66.7%; 15.4%) and 48 hours (97.6%; 36.0%). BAX was overexpressed (P< 0.05) after vitrification. In conclusion, Piau blastocysts can be cryopreserved by Cryotop. This study also demonstrated that the apoptotic pathway may be responsible for the low efficiency of porcine embryo cryopreservation.(AU)

Blastocistos de suínos foram submetidos ao MALDI-TOF para se identificarem os principais fosfolipídios (PL). Depois, parte destes embriões (D6) foram vitrificados (n=52), ou permaneceram frescos (grupo controle, n=42). Após o aquecimento, os blastocistos foram cultivados in vitro para se avaliar a reexpansão e a eclosão (BE) às 24 e 48 horas. Finalmente, às 48 horas, os BE foram submetidos ao RT-qPCR em busca dos genes BCL2A1, BAK, BAX e CASP3. No MALDI-TOF, a intensidade do íon foi expressa em unidades arbitrárias. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi comparado por qui-quadrado (P<0,05). Entre os PL mais representativos estavam as fosfatidilcolinas [PC (32: 0) + H] +; [PC (34: 1) + H] + e [PC (36: 4) + H] +. Além do PL, o MALDI revelou alguns triglicerídeos (TG), incluindo PPL (50: 2) + Na +, PPO (50: 1) + Na +, PLO (52: 3) + Na + e POO (52: 2) + Na. A reexpansão não diferiu (P>0,05) entre blastocistos frescos ou vitrificados às 24 (33,3%, 32,7%) e 48 horas (2,4%, 13,5%). As taxas de eclosão foram maiores (P<0,05) para o grupo fresco comparado ao vitrificado às 24 (66,7% x 15,4%) e 48 horas (97,6% x 36,0%). O BAX estava mais expresso (P<0,05) após a vitrificação. Concluindo, os blastocistos Piau podem ser criopreservados por Cryotop. Este estudo também demonstrou que a via apoptótica pode ser responsável pela baixa eficiência da criopreservação de embriões suínos.(AU)

Animals , Phospholipids/analysis , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Sus scrofa/embryology , Embryonic Development