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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 103, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410054

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between birth weight and bone mineral content (BMC), and whether this relationship differs between men and women. METHODS A total of 10,159 participants from the ELSA-Brasil cohort were eligible for this analysis. The outcome was the z-score of the ratio BMC (kg)/height (m). The exposure was the low birth weight (< 2.5kg). The magnitude of the associations was estimated by mean differences and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) using linear regression. All analyses were presented for the total population and stratified by sex. RESULTS Most were women (54.98%), and the mean age was 52.72 years (SD ± 6.6). In the crude model, we observed that low birth weight was associated with a lower mean BMC/height z-score, compared to adequate birth weight (mean difference: −0.30; 95%CI: −0.39 to −0.21), and this effect was stronger in men (mean difference: −0.43; 95%CI: −0.56 to −0.30) than in women (mean difference: −0.31; 95%CI: −0.44 to −0.19). After adjusting for age, sex per total population, race/skin color, maternal education, individual education, and current weight, there was a considerable reduction in the magnitude of the association (total population: −0.10; 95%CI: −0.14 to −0.06; men: −0.13; 95%CI: −0.21 to −0.06; women: −0.13; 95%CI: −0.21 to −0.05). CONCLUSION Low birth weight is related to BMC/height z-score in both sexes with no indication of differences by sex. The magnitude of the associations was attenuated after adjustment for the current weight.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Birth Weight , Bone Density , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Sex Distribution
3.
Femina ; 50(5): 308-310, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380710

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 é um novo agente infeccioso e pouco se sabe acerca do risco de sua infecção para o desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal humano, por isso é de extrema importância identificar o quadro clínico da infecção em gestantes, bem como registrar as complicações perinatais associadas à COVID-19. O quadro clínico em gestantes é semelhante ao do restante da população, contudo foi observado um aumento potencial de desfechos adversos em gestantes ­ como admissão em unidade de terapia intensiva, necessidade de ventilação mecânica e maior risco de parto prematuro e de cesáreas ­ e as taxas de mortalidade são semelhantes às da população em geral. Uma questão recorrente e ainda não elucidada seria a possibilidade de transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2.(AU)


SARS-CoV-2 is a new infectious agent, which little is known about the risk of its infection for human embryonic and fetal development, it is extremely important to identify the clinical symptoms of the infection in pregnant women, as well as to record the perinatal complications associated with COVID-19. The clinical symptoms in pregnant women is similar to the rest of the population, an increase in the risk of adverse outcomes in pregnant women was observed, such as: intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, a higher risk of prematurity and cesarean, however mortality rates are similar to the general population. A recurring and unexplained issue would be the possibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Embryonic and Fetal Development
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1253-1263, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385493

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The rabbit is considered an ideal animal model for studies that describe abnormalities in the testicles due to the similar morphogenetic mechanisms of sexual development and diseases commonly found in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the male sexual differentiation of the New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) through development. The gestational age was estimated and classified as 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23 and 28 gestational days. The morphological and sexual determination were performed by histological analysis of the reproductive tract in the embryos and fetuses (9-28 days) as well as by immunohistochemistry- Desert hedgehog-Dhh- (testis-specific protein on Y chromosome- 16, 20, 23 days and adult rabbits). Gonads were observed from the 14th day in an undifferentiated stage and with homogeneous aspect. Sexual differentiation was observed from the 16th day with presence of cells forming gonadal cords and Dhh+ cells in the gonadal parenchyma. From the 18th gestational day testicular cords were observed, which evolved into organized seminiferous tubules. The formation of the efferent ducts and ductus deferens and epididymis was observed on the 20th and 23rd days, respectively. The differentiation of the external genitalia occurred from the 23rd days from the anogenital distance and was identified to identify the penile structures. In summary, the features of the sexual differentiation were determined by observation of the Dhh+ protein in embryos from the 16th day to adulthood, and the morphological particularities observed from the 18th gestational day, determined by differentiation of the external genitalia from the 23rd day.


RESUMEN: El conejo se considera un modelo animal ideal para estudios que describen anomalías a nivel testícular debido a que presenta mecanismos morfogenéticos similares al desa- rrollo sexual y enfermedades que se encuentran comúnmente en los seres humanos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diferenciación sexual masculina del conejo de Nueva Zelanda (Oryctolagus cuniculus) a través del desarrollo. La edad gestacional se estimó y clasificó en 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23 y 28 días gestacionales. La determinación morfológica y sexual se realizó mediante análisis histológico del tracto reproductivo en los embriones y fetos (9 - 28 días) así como mediante inmunohistoquímica -Desert hedgehog-Dhh- (proteína testicular específica en el cromosoma Y- 16, 20, 23 días y conejos adultos). Las gónadas se observaron a partir del día 14 en un estadio indiferenciado y con aspecto homogéneo. Se observó diferenciación sexual a partir del día 16 con presencia de células formadoras de cordones gonadales y células Dhh+ en el parénquima gonadal. A partir del día 18 de gestación se observaron cordones testiculares, que evolucionaron a túbulos seminíferos organizados. La formación de los conductos eferentes, deferentes y del epidídimo se observó a los 20 y 23 días, respectivamente. La diferenciación de los genitales externos ocurrió a partir del día 23 desde la distancia anogenital y se utilizó para identificar las estructuras del pene. En conclusión, las características de la diferenciación sexual se determinaron mediante la observación de la proteína Dhh en embriones desde el día 16 hasta la edad adulta, y las particularidades morfológicas observadas a partir del día 18 de gestación, determinadas por diferenciación de los genitales externos a partir del día 23.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cell Differentiation , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Gonads/growth & development , Gonads/embryology , Seminiferous Tubules , Sex Differentiation , Immunohistochemistry
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3133-3146, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251931

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: los efectos embriofetales derivados de la exposición a la diabetes mellitus, durante el período prenatal de la vida, se extienden a la etapa posnatal con importantes repercusiones para la salud, incluyendo el efecto transgeneracional de la enfermedad. Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de una intervención educativa para incrementar el nivel de conocimientos en prevención preconcepcional de efectos embriofetales de la diabetes mellitus en mujeres en edad fértil, pertenecientes al Consultorio 1 del Policlínico Universitario Carlos Verdugo, del municipio Matanzas, entre enero de 2018 y diciembre de 2019. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención que constó de tres etapas. Un universo de 198 mujeres en edad fértil pertenecientes al Consultorio 1 del Policlínico Universitario Carlos Verdugo, durante el período señalado. Se empleó la encuesta para medir factores de riesgo de diabetes mellitus y conocimientos de las féminas en prevención preconcepcional de los efectos embriofetales de la enfermedad. Resultados: la edad superior a 30 años y la presencia de sobrepeso u obesidad fueron los factores de riesgo más detectados. Resultó calificado de malo el nivel de conocimientos en prevención preconcepcional de efectos embriofetales de la diabetes, previo a la intervención. Conclusiones: después de la implementación del programa educativo, se elevó el conocimiento sobre prevención preconcepcional de efectos embriofetales de la diabetes mellitus en las mujeres en edad fértil del consultorio 1 del Policlínico Universitario Carlos Verdugo, del municipio Matanzas, lo que demostró su efectividad (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the embryo-fetal effects derived of the exposition to diabetes mellitus during the prenatal period of the life, extend to the postnatal stage, with important repercussions for health, including the disease's transgenerational effect. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention for increasing knowledge on pre-conceptional prevention of embryo-fetal effects of diabetes mellitus in fertile-aged women belonging to Family Doctor's office 1, of the University Policlinic Carlos Verdugo, municipality of Matanzas, from January 2018 to December 2019. Materials and methods: an interventional study was carried out, divided into three stages. The universe were 198 fertile-aged women belonging to Family Doctor's office 1, of the University Policlinic Carlos Verdugo, during the stated period. A survey was used to measure diabetes mellitus risk factors and women's knowledge on pre-conceptional preventing the disease's embryo-fetal effects. Results: age over 30 and being overweight or obese were the most frequently found risk factors. The knowledge level on pre-conceptional preventing diabetes mellitus embryo-fetal effects was poor before the intervention. Conclusions: after implementing the educational program, knowledge on pre-conceptional prevention of diabetes mellitus embryo-fetal effects increased among fertile-aged women of the Family Doctor's 1, of the policlinic Carlos Verdugo, of the municipality of Matanzas, demonstrating its effectiveness (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Prenatal Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Postnatal Care/trends , Risk-Taking , Health Education/methods , Maternal-Fetal Relations , Fetal Diseases/prevention & control
6.
CorSalud ; 12(4): 408-414, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278955

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Aún persisten controversias en los eventos de la morfogénesis cardiovascular y una ausencia, casi total, de parámetros morfométricos en las fases iniciales de su desarrollo. Objetivos: Determinar la razón miocardio no compactado/miocardio compactado (NC/C) en ambos ventrículos y la evolución cronológica de esta razón en el período estudiado. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, con 18 embriones humanos pertenecientes a la Embrioteca de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara (Cuba) clasificados entre los estadios 17 y 23 de Carnegie. Se determinó el índice NC/C, el cual no es más que el cálculo matemático de la razón entre las porciones no compactada y compactada por espécimen y por estadios. Resultados: Los resultados de la aplicación de este índice en el ventrículo derecho de los embriones son: 7,17; 4,26; 3,12; 2,79; 2,36; 2,84 y 2,10 en los estadios de Carnegie 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 y 23, respectivamente. En estos mismos especímenes se obtuvo como resultado en el ventrículo izquierdo: 5,0; 3,80; 2,68; 2,18; 2,50; 2,01 y 1,56, igualmente organizado por estadios. Conclusiones: Los índices NC/C obtenidos sustentan cuantitativamente que la compactación del miocardio ventricular avanza en los estadios evaluados; sus valores, mayores en el vértice, denotan que es posible que aún no haya concluido en esta zona.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Controversies still persist regarding the events of cardiovascular morphogenesis and an almost total absence of morphometric parameters in the initial phases of its development. Objectives: To determine the non-compacted to compacted (NC/C) myocardium ratio in both ventricles and the chronological progression of this ratio in the period studied. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out with 18 human embryos belonging to the Embryoteca of the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara (Cuba) classified between Carnegie stages 17 and 23. The NC/C ratio -which is simply the mathematical calculation of the ratio between the non-compacted and compacted portions per specimen and per stage- was determined. Results: The application of this ratio in the right ventricle of the embryos obtained the following results: 7.17; 4.26; 3.12; 2.79; 2.36; 2.84 and 2.10 in Carnegie's stages 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23, respectively. In these same specimens, the left ventricle yielded the following results: 5.0; 3.80; 2.68; 2.18; 2.50; 2.01 and 1.56, also organized by stages. Conclusions: NC/C ratios obtained quantitatively support a progression of the ventricular myocardial compaction in the evaluated stages; their higher values at the apex denote that it may still be incomplete in this zone.


Subject(s)
Embryo Research , Embryonic and Fetal Development
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1296-1301, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134439

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La Microscopía Virtual es una herramienta tecnológica que permite la visualización de imágenes digitales microscópicas de gran resolución a través de un computador imitando la funcionalidad de un microscopio óptico tradicional. El presente trabajo presenta nuestra experiencia en el uso de esta modalidad de trabajo, útil hoy en día, en medio de la pandemia por Covid-19.


SUMMARY: Virtual Microscopy is a technological tool that allows the visualization of high resolution microscopic digital images through a computer, imitating the functionality of a traditional light microscope. The present work presents our experience in the use of this working modality, useful today, in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Microscopy/methods , Virtual Reality , Microscopy/trends
8.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 469-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760671

ABSTRACT

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is characterized by fetal compromise and delayed neurological maturation. We report 3 cases of early FGR in the 26th week of gestation, based on hemodynamic Doppler monitoring, conventional cardiotocography, and non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (NI-FECG). Fetal heart rate variability (HRV), beat-to-beat variations, and fetal autonomic brain age scores (fABASs) were normal despite the absence of umbilical diastolic flow in the first case and the pregnancy continued to 30 weeks. NI-FECG helped achieve better fetal maturity. Fetal HRV and fABASs were low in the second and third cases. Fetal demise occurred soon in both cases. We conclude that NI-FECG could be a prospective method for the detection of fetal distress in early FGR.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Brain , Cardiotocography , Electrocardiography , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Fetal Death , Fetal Development , Fetal Distress , Fetus , Heart Rate, Fetal , Hemodynamics , Methods , Prospective Studies
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 901-908, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954205

ABSTRACT

Exposure to mercury in the environment continues to be a significant worldwide concern, especially for developing embryos and fetuses. While extensive research effort has focused on the effects of mercury on the developing nervous system, much less is known concerning adverse effects of mercury on other organ systems, including the development of skeletal muscle. We exposed developing zebrafish embryos to a range of concentrations of mercuric chloride (100 to 400 µg/liter or ppb) and compared them to control embryos (0 µg/L mercuric chloride). Embryos were examined at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) for morphometry and morphological deformities of skeletal muscle fibers in the trunk and tail. Embryos exposed to 400 ppb mercuric chloride showed decreased trunk and tail areas compared to control embryos. A dose-dependent reduction in muscle fiber length was observed, and exposure to all concentrations of mercuric chloride used in this study resulted in decreased muscle fiber immunohistochemical staining with anti-myosin antibodies. Irregular muscle fiber diameters, twisted muscle fibers, and degenerated muscle fibers were observed in sections of embryos stained with eosin at the higher exposure concentrations. Evidence presented in this study suggests that exposure to even low concentrations of mercuric chloride adversely affects skeletal muscle fiber development or muscle fiber integrity, or both.


La exposición al mercurio en el medio ambiente sigue siendo una preocupación mundial importante, especialmente para el desarrollo de embriones y fetos. Si bien un amplio esfuerzo de investigación se ha centrado en los efectos del mercurio en el sistema nervioso en desarrollo, se sabe mucho menos sobre los efectos adversos en otros sistemas orgánicos, incluido el desarrollo del músculo esquelético. Expusimos embriones de pez cebra en desarrollo a un rango de concentraciones de cloruro de mercurio (100 a 400 mg / l o ppb) y los comparamos con embriones de control (0 mg / L de cloruro de mercurio). Los embriones se examinaron a las 48 horas después de la fertilización (HPF) pararealizar la morfometría y verificar las deformidades morfológicas de las fibras del músculo esquelético en el tronco y la cola. Los embriones expuestos a 400 ppb de cloruro de mercurio mostraron una disminución de las áreas del tronco y la cola en comparación con los embriones de control. Se observó una reducción dependiente de la dosis en la longitud de la fibra muscular, y la exposición a todas las concentraciones de cloruro de mercurio utilizadas en este estudio, dio como resultado una tinción inmunohistoquímica de fibra muscular disminuida con anticuerpos anti-miosina. Se observaron diámetros irregulares de fibras musculares, fibras musculares retorcidas y fibras musculares degeneradas en secciones de embriones teñidos con eosina en las concentraciones de exposición más altas. La evidencia presentada en este estudio sugiere que la exposición incluso a bajas concentraciones de cloruro mercúrico afecta negativamente el desarrollo de la fibra del músculo esquelético o la integridad de la fibra muscular, o ambas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Muscle, Skeletal/growth & development , Embryonic and Fetal Development/drug effects , Mercury/toxicity , Zebrafish , Immunohistochemistry , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
10.
Metro cienc ; 26(1): 33-38, jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981565

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: el síndrome de hipoplasia del ventrículo izquierdo es un conjunto de alteraciones del corazón fetal que condicionan un hipodesarrollo del corazón izquierdo, que es insuficiente para mantener la circulación sistémica. El corazón derecho se encuentra dilatado e hipertrofiado y soporta la circulación pulmonar y la circulación sistémica fetal a través del conducto arterioso permeable. Representa el 2 a 3% de todas las cardiopatías congénitas. Sin embargo, la incidencia real está subestimada ya que es responsable de abortos espontáneos y otras muertes fetales intrauterinas no diagnosticadas. Reporte de un caso: paciente de sexo femenino, 32 años de edad, con antecedente familiar de importancia (padre con fibrilación auricular). Antecedentes gíneco-obstétricos: un parto céfalo-vaginal, sin complicaciones, de un neonato de sexo masculino que actualmente tiene 6 años de edad. Durante su segunda gesta el feto es diagnosticado de hipoplasia del ventrículo izquierdo y atresia de la válvula mitral a las 34 semanas. Acude al Hospital Metropolitano a las 39 semanas de gestación para terminación de su embarazo mediante parto céfalo-vaginal. El parto no tuvo complicaciones; al nacimiento se confirma el diagnóstico prenatal y el recién nacido fallece en las primeras 72 horas. Conclusiones: el síndrome de hipoplasia del corazón izquierdo es una combinación compleja de malformaciones cardíaca;, debe ser detectado durante la evaluación ecográfica prenatal para planificar su manejo al nacimiento en centros especializados donde sea posible realizar procedimientos con el propósito de mejorar la supervivencia de estos pacientes.


Background: It is a set of alterations of the fetal heart that condition a hypodevelopment of the left heart, which is insufficient to maintain the systemic circulation. The right heart is dilated and hypertrophied and it supports the pulmonary circulation and fetal systemic circulation through patent ductus arteriosus. It represents 2 - 3% of all congenital heart diseases. However, current incidence is underestimated because it produces spontaneous abortions and other undiagnosed intra- uterine fetal deaths. Report of a case: a 32-year-old female patient with an importance family history: father with atrial fibrillation. Obstetric-gynecological antecedents: a cephalo- vaginal delivery without complications who was a male product of 6 years. During her second pregnancy, fetus was diagnosed with left ventricular hypoplasia and mitral valve agenesis at 34 weeks. She went to Metropolitan Hospital at 39.1 weeks to finish her pregnancy due to cephalo-vaginal birth. Delivery occurred without complications, however, the prenatal diagnosis was confirmed and the newborn died in 72 hours. Conclusions: The left heart hypoplasia syndrome is a complex combination of cardiac malformations; it can be detected with a prenatal evaluation with ultrasound which provides an option to pose treatment and also it can guide physicians to prepare for postnatal interventions when it is necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant Mortality , Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Fetal Heart , Heart Defects, Congenital , Prenatal Diagnosis , Fetal Death
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 677-686, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954171

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to know the embryonic and fetal development of the female rabbit genital system (Oryctolagus cuniculus), describing its main phases and the moment of sexual differentiation. Eleven pregnant New Zealand female rabbits were used in different gestational phases. The day of coitus was determined as day 0. For each stage a minimum of two animals was considered. The samples were obtained every two days from the ninth day post-coitus (dpc) until the 28th dpc. The gestational period was divided in two: animals with undifferentiated sex (group 1) and animals with differentiated sex (group 2). The ages of embryos and fetuses were estimated through the crown-rump method. Subsequently, embryos and fetuses were dissected, fixed and processed to be embedded in paraffin (Histosec). The histological analysis was performed on sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemical analysis to determine sexual differentiation was performed on samples from the 16th, 18th and 28th dpc. Desert Hedgehog (Dhh) and Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) primary antibodies, respectively, were used to identify cells of the male and female germinal epithelium. The immunohistochemical results showed that at the 16th dpc, female sexual differentiation was evident, since positive expression of the Ihh protein was observed. Sexual differentiation was obtained through histological analysis on the 18th dpc and through anatomical observation of the external genitalia on the 24th dpc. Knowing the characteristics of the embryonic and fetal development of the female rabbit genital system as well as the moment of sexual differentiation make it possible to establish bases for future research that address the physiology and pathology of these organs. Thus, any alteration in the chain of events of sexual determination and differentiation must search for an explanation from the knowledge of the possible normal mechanisms affected.


El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer el desarrollo embrionario y fetal del sistema genital femenino de conejo (Oryctolagus cuniculus), describiendo sus principales fases y el momento de la diferenciación sexual. Se utilizaron 11 conejos hembras gestantes neozelandesas, en diferentes fases gestacionales. El día del coito se determinó como día 0. Para cada etapa fue considerado un mínimos de dos animales. Las muestras fueron obtenidas cada dos días, a partir del noveno día post-coito (dpc) hasta el 28 dpc. El periodo gestacional fue dividido en dos: animales con sexo indiferenciado (grupo 1) y, animales con sexo diferenciado (grupo 2). Las edades de los embriones y los fetos fueron estimadas a través del método de crown-rump. Posteriormente, embriones y fetos fueron disecados, fijados y procesados para su inclusión en parafina (Histosec). El análisis histológico se realizó en secciones teñidas con Hematoxilina y Eosina. El análisis inmunohistoquímico para determinar la diferenciación sexual fue realizado en muestras de 16, 18 y 28 dpc. Para identificar células del epitelio germinativo masculino y feminino se utilizaron los anticuerpos primarios Desert Hedgehog (Dhh) e Indian Hedgehog (Ihh), respectivamente. Los resultados inmunohistoquímicos mostraron que a los 16 dpc se evidenció diferenciación sexual femenina, ya que se observó expresión positiva de la proteína Ihh. La diferenciación sexual, a través del análisis histológico fue obtenida a los 18 dpc y a través de la observación anatómica de los genitales externos a los 24 dpc. Conocer las características del desarrollo embrionario y fetal del sistema genital femenino de conejo, así como, el momento de la diferenciación sexual, permiten sentar bases para futuras investigaciones que aborden la fisiología y patología de estos órganos. Así, cualquier alteración en la cadena de eventos de la determinación y diferenciación sexual deberá buscar una explicación a partir del conocimiento de los posibles mecanismos normales afectados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits/embryology , Sex Differentiation/physiology , Embryo, Mammalian/anatomy & histology , Embryonic and Fetal Development/physiology , Immunohistochemistry
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 693-698, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954173

ABSTRACT

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) es un morfógeno esencial para el desarrollo de diversas estructuras, tales como notocorda, placa del piso del tubo neural, miembros, entre otros. Se buscó determinar la inmunolocalización de Shh en embriones y fetos de ratón. Para ello, se eutanasiaron 10 ratones gestantes (Mus musculus) BALB/c, un grupo de 5 animales a los 12,5 días post-coito (dpc), y otro grupo a los 17,5 dpc. Los embriones y fetos obtenidos fueron fijados en formalina al 10 % tamponada en PBS e incluidos en paraplast. Se realizaron cortes transversales seriados. Se utilizó anticuerpo policlonal Shh (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, H-160, conejo), dilución 1:100. Se identificó y describió la inmunolocalización de las muestras marcadas positivamente. La expresión de Shh en los embriones de 12,5 dpc fue inmunopositiva en notocorda, placa del piso del tubo neural, precartílago de radio y ulna, y prácticamente todos los epitelios: bronquial, intestinal, vejiga y uretra. En la etapa fetal, a los 17,5 dpc la inmunopositividad desaparece en el cartílago a excepción de zonas de osificación, disminuye en la epidermis pero aparece en folículos pilosos. La mucosa intestinal se ha diferenciado en segmentos, mostrando una inmunotinción mayor a nivel de las vellosidades intestinales. Shh actúa en distintos estadios del periodo gestacional, siendo clave en la diferenciación de distintas estructuras. En etapas embrionaria, es vital en la formación del sistema nervioso, organogénesis y formación de miembros, por lo que su expresión se encuentra en estas zonas. Sin embargo, en la etapa fetal la expresión cambia a estructuras de mayor especialización como folículo piloso y vellosidades intestinales.


Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an essential morphogen for the development of various structures, such as notochord, neural tube floor plate, limbs, among others. We sought to determine the immunolocalization of Shh in embryos and mouse fetuses. To do this, 10 pregnant mice (Mus musculus) BALB /c were euthanized, a group of 5 animals at 12.5 days postcoitus (dpc), and another group at 17.5 dpc. Embryos and fetuses obtained were fixed in 10 % formalin buffered in PBS and embedded in paraplast. Serial cross sections were made. Polyclonal antibody Shh (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, H-160, rabbit), dilution 1:100 was used. The immunolocalization of the positively labeled samples was identified and described. Shh expression in 12.5 dpc embryos was immunopositive in notochord, neural tube floor plate, radius precartilage and ulna, and practically all epithelia: bronchial, intestinal, bladder and urethra. In the fetal stage, at 17.5 dpc the immunopositivity disappears in the cartilage except for areas of ossification, decreases in the epidermis but appears in hair follicles. The intestinal mucosa has differentiated into segments, showing greater immunostaining at the level of the intestinal villi. Shh acts in different stages of the gestational period, being key in the differentiation of different structures. In embryonic stages, it is vital in the formation of the nervous system, organogenesis and formation of limbs, so its expression is found in these areas. However, in the fetal stage the expression changes to more specialized structures such as hair follicles and intestinal villi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Organogenesis/physiology , Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Immunohistochemistry , Embryo, Mammalian , Mice, Inbred BALB C
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 709-715, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954175

ABSTRACT

Durante el período del desarrollo conocido como prefetal, el embrión cambia sus características ictiomórficas comunes a todos los vertebrados y adquiere gradualmente las formas propias de la especie que representa. Durante este período se forma la cara, involucionan los arcos faríngeos (branquiales) formándose el cuello, y aparecen los miembros. Se constituye, además, la hernia umbilical fisiológica, que consiste en la presencia de asas intestinales dentro del cordón umbilical. El sistema nervioso origina las vesículas telencefálicas, el diencéfalo, mesencéfalo, metencéfalo, y mielencéfalo. Este periodo corresponde a una etapa de máxima susceptibilidad ante los teratógenos que pueden generar malformaciones en todas las especies animales. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar los principales eventos acontecidos durante el periodo prefetal, además de una visión y opinión de los autores, proponiendo una nueva denominación a la etapa: periodo metamórfico.


During the period of development known as prefetal, the embryo changes its ictiomorphic characteristics common to all vertebrates and gradually acquires the proper forms of the species it represents. During this period the face is formed, the pharyngeal arches (branchial) involute forming the neck, and the limbs appear. In addition, the physiological umbilical hernia is constituted, which consists of the presence of intestinal loops inside the umbilical cord. The nervous system originates the telencephalic vesicles, the diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon. This period corresponds to a stage of maximum susceptibility to teratogens that can generate malformations in all animal species. The objective of this paper is to present the main events that took place during the preferential period, as well as a vision and opinion of the authors, proposing a new name for the stage: metamorphic period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Organogenesis/physiology , Embryonic and Fetal Development/physiology , Metamorphosis, Biological
14.
Univ. med ; 59(3)2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995004

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo neurológico humano requiere una serie de pasos que permitan orientar, regular y diferenciar los diversos componentes cerebrales, para así garantizar, de una manera bastante precisa, la correcta organización y funcionamiento de las estructuras neuronales. La neurogénesis está clásicamente dividida en cuatro etapas consecutivas: proliferación, migración, diferenciación y maduración. En los humanos, estas ocurren desde la tercera semana de gestación hasta la vida adulta y precisan de un complejo grupo de paquetes genéticos, así como de algunos factores asociados, que se han ido descubriendo gracias a los avances en la biología molecular. El artículo es una revisión acerca del desarrollo neuroembriológico humano y los componentes genéticos más relevantes encontrados en la literatura.


The human neuronal development requires a number of concrete steps which lead to orientation, regulation and differentiation of several brain components. They must be done to guarantee, in a very precise way, the correct organization and functioning of the neuronal structures. Neurogenesis is commonly divided into four consecutive stages: proliferation, migration, differentiation and maturation. In humans, those stages take place since the third week of prenatal Iife until the adult Iife. They also require a complex group of genetic packs and associated molecular factors, most of which have been recen tly discovered by the molecular biology technology. A review was made about the human neuronal and embryological development and the most relevant genetic components described by the literature so far.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement/genetics , Neurogenesis/genetics , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Cell Differentiation/genetics
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 629-636, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893032

ABSTRACT

Fetal period of time during which the fetus grows rapidly and the organs are formed. The prenatal and postnatal analyses of the fetal structure provide information as to fetal growth, growth retardation, gestational age and congenital malformations. The development of the skeletal system during the intrauterine period takes place in an orderly manner as it also does in other systems. It was aimed that the morphometric development of the forearm in human fetuses during the period between 20-40 gestational weeks be radiologically investigated and that its clinical importance be evaluated, as well. A total of 100 fetal forearms (50 fetuses: 23 male, 27 female), the ages of which varied between 20-40 gestational weeks, without having any external pathology or anomaly were incorporated into the study. The fetuses were separated into groups according to weeks, trimesters and months. After the general external measurements of the fetuses had been performed, the mammographies and forearm radiographies of the fetuses were shot in the way that the forearms would remain in a prone position. Morphometric measurements pertaining to forearm structures were taken from the forearm radiographies that were shot with the help of a digital compass. Later on, the morphometric measurements in question were statistically evaluated. The mean values and the standard deviations of the measured parameters were determined according to gestational weeks, trimesters and months. There was a significant correlation between the measured parameters and the gestational age (p<0.001). In the comparison of the measured parameters between trimesters and months, it was observed that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). Separately, it was also determined that there was no statistically significant difference in the comparison of the parameters, which was made between genders and right-left forearms (p>0.05). As for the results obtained in our study, we are of the opinion that the data obtained during this study period will be beneficial for the involved clinicians, such as those in charge of gynecology, radiology, forensic medicine and perinatology, in terms of evaluating the clinical studies related to the morphometric development of the forearm throughout the fetal period, in determining the fetal age and sex, and also in determining the pathologies and variations regarding the development of fetal skeletal system.


El período fetal es el tiempo en el cual el feto crece rápidamente y se forman los órganos. Los análisis prenatal y postnatal de la estructura fetal proporcionan información sobre el crecimiento fetal, el retraso de crecimiento, la edad gestacional y las malformaciones congénitas. El desarrollo del sistema esquelético, como también el de otros sistemas durante el período intrauterino, avanza de manera ordenada. Se investigó radiológicamente el desarrollo morfométrico del antebrazo en fetos humanos durante el período comprendido entre 20-40 semanas gestacionales y se evaluó su importancia clínica. Un total de 100 antebrazos fetales (50 fetos: 23 de sexo masculino, 27 de sexo femenino), cuya edad varió entre 20-40 semanas de gestación, sin patología externa o anomalía, fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los fetos fueron separados en grupos de semanas, trimestres y meses. Después de realizar las mediciones externas generales de los fetos, las mamografías y las radiografías fueron realizadas de tal manera que los antebrazos permanecieran en pronación. Las radiografías de las medidas morfométricas correspondientes a las estructuras del antebrazo se tomaron con apoyo de una compás digital; posteriormente, las medidas fueron tratadas estadísticamente. Los valores medios y las desviaciones estándar de los parámetros medidos se determinaron de acuerdo con las semanas de gestación, los trimestres y los meses. Hubo una correlación significativa entre los parámetros medidos y la edad gestacional (p <0,001). En la comparación de los parámetros medidos entre los trimestres y los meses, se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos (p <0,05). Se determinó también que no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la comparación de los parámetros, que se realizó entre los sexos y los antebrazos derecho-izquierdo (p> 0,05). En cuanto a los resultados de nuestro estudio, los datos obtenidos durante este período de estudio serán beneficiosos para los clínicos, como también para profesionales de las áreas de ginecología, radiología, medicina forense y perinatología, en la evaluación de estudios clínicos relacionados con el desarrollo morfométrico del antebrazo durante todo el período fetal, determinación de la edad y el sexo fetal, así como en la determinación de variaciones en el desarrollo del sistema esquelético fetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Forearm/diagnostic imaging , Forearm/embryology , Skeleton/embryology
17.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 506-519, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126359

ABSTRACT

The “Barker hypothesis” postulates that a number of organ structures and associated functions undergo programming during embryonic and fetal life, which determines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that carry into adulthood. Hence, any stimulus or insult at a critical period of embryonic and fetal development can result in developmental adaptations that produce permanent structural, physiological and metabolic changes, thereby predisposing an individual to cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine disease in adult life. This article will provide evidence linking these diseases to fetal undernutrition and an overview of previous studies in this area as well as current advances in understanding the mechanism and the role of the placenta in fetal programming.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Chronic Disease , Critical Period, Psychological , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Endocrine System Diseases , Fetal Development , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Malnutrition , Placenta
18.
Acta méd. costarric ; 58(4): 182-184, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-827676

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Considerada como una complicación exclusiva de gestaciones múltiples monocoriales, la secuencia de perfusión arterial reversa se caracteriza por la presencia de un feto malformado que tiene un corazón rudimentario o ausente, con una perfusión desde el gemelo estructuralmente normal hacia el feto acárdico y una mortalidad del 100% en el feto acárdico y el 50% en el feto sano. Se reporta un caso clínico de una paciente de 15 años con embarazo gemelar monocorial de 27 semanas, referida al Hospital San Juan de Dios, en donde se le dio seguimiento diario con ultrasonido y se documentó el patrón ultrasonógrafico anormal de sumación-colisión. A los 7 días de ingreso se decide la interrupción del embarazo por sospecha de coriamnioitis, naciendo un producto viable y otro polimalformado.


Abstract:Considered an exclusive complication of monochorionic gestations, the TRAP sequence is characterize by the presence of a malformed fetus with a rudimentary or absent heart, in which there is an perfusion from the structurally normal twin to the acardiac fetus and a 100% mortality in the acardiac fetus and 50% in the healthy one. We present a clinical case of a 15 years old patient with monochorionic twin pregnancy of 27 weeks, referred to Hospital San Juan de Dios, where daily monitoring with ultrasound was done and an abnormal collision-summantion pattern was documented and reported. After 7 days of admission chorioamnionitis was suspected and termination of the pregnancy was decided resulting in a viable product and another with multiple malformations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Coronary Artery Disease , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Pregnancy
19.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(4): 192-198, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-831527

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated to increased rates of large for gestational age (LGA) newborns and macrosomia. Several charts are used to classify birth weight. Is there an ideal chart to classify newborns of GDM mothers? Methods: We evaluated adequacy of birth weight of 332 neonates born to GDM mothers at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Newborns were classified according to gestational age as small (SGA), adequate, or large (LGA) based on four charts: Alexander, Pedreira, INTERGROWTH 21st Project, and SINASC-2012. The latter was built using data from a large national registry of 2012, the Born Alive National Surveillance System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos ­ SINASC), which included 2,905.789 birth certificates. Frequencies of SGA and LGA and Kappa agreement were calculated. Results: In non-gender adjusted curves, SGA rates (95% confidence interval) varied from 8% (5-11) to 9% (6-13); LGA rates, from 11% (8-15) to 17% (13-21). For males, SGA rates varied from 3% (1-6%) to 6% (3-11%), and LGA rates, from 18% (13-24%) to 31% (24-38%); for females, SGA rates were from 3% (1-7%) to 10% (6-16%) and LGA rates, from 11% (6-16%) to 19% (13-26%). Kappa results were: ALEXANDER vs. SINASC-2012: 0.80 (0.73-0.88); INTERGROWTH 21st vs. SINASC-2012 (adjusted by sex): 0.62 (0.53-0.71); INTERGROWTH 21st vs. PEDREIRA: 0.71 (0.62-0.79); SINASC-2012 (by sex) vs. PEDREIRA: 0.86 (0.79-0.93). Conclusions: Misclassification has to be taken into account when evaluating newborns of GDM mothers, as LGA rates can almost double depending on the chart used to classify birth weight (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Gestational Age , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Reference Values
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 178-186, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743783

ABSTRACT

La ecografía es uno de los métodos de diagnóstico gestacional más utilizados, que permite confirmar una gestación temprana y realizar seguimientos del desarrollo embrio-fetal. En este estudio se emplearon 10 gatas gestantes, entre 10 meses a 6 años de edad, con fecha de cruza conocida. Se realizaron exámenes ecográficos seriados en los días 15 (estadio 1), 18 (estadio 2), 21 (estadio 3), 38 (estadio 4), y 45 (estadio 5) de gestación para medir parámetros biométricos. Vesícula coriónica: diámetro transversal (DTVC), diámetro longitudinal (DLVC); Placenta: grosor (GP); Feto: longitud céfalo-caudal (LCC), diámetro toraco-abdominal (DTA), diámetro cefálico (DC), tomándose un registro fotográfico de cada estadio. En el estadio 1, no se logró visualizar el embrión. En el estadio 2, el embrión se observó cercano a la pared midiendo en promedio 4,7 milímetros de LCC, el tubo endocárdico se observó funcional. En el estadio 3, se observó el cordón umbilical, pero resultó difícil distinguir los diferentes órganos, excepto el corazón, debido al movimiento causado por sus latidos. En el estadio 4, el feto adquiere movimientos, se observó órganos como el encéfalo, pulmones, el tabicamiento del corazón, diafragma, hígado, estómago, asas intestinales, vejiga y la osificación de huesos. Se observó la flexión de los miembros. En los miembros anteriores se visualizaron los dedos separados, con garras y cojinetes plantares. En el estadio 5, además de las características observadas en el estadio anterior, los riñones muestran la corteza y médula, las cámaras del corazón se visualizaron claramente. Se realizó una correlación lineal entre los parámetros biométricos estudiados y los resultados dieron valor significativo (p<0,0001) para la mayoría de éstos. Se logró caracterizar los estadios gestacionales estudiados. Siete de las diez gatas presentaron una gestación normal, mientras que una de ellas presentó en uno de sus fetos una malformación congénita y en las otras dos gatas se presentó muerte embrio-fetal.


Ultrasound is one of the most widely used methods for gestational diagnosis, allowing the detection of early pregnancy and evaluation of fetal growth and development. Ten pregnant cats (aged 10 months to-6 years) were used in this study, with known dates of mating. Serial ultrasound testings were performed on days 15th (stage 1), 18th (stage 2), 21st (stage 3), 38th (stage 4) and 45th (stage 5) of gestation, to measure biometric parameters (Chorionic vesicle: transverse diameter (DTVC), longitudinal diameter (DLVC); Placenta: thickness (GP); Fetus: cephalocaudal length (LCC), thoraco-abdominal diameter (DTA), cephalic diameter (DC). Photographic records were made at each stage. In stage 1, it was impossible to visualize the embryo. In stage 2, the embryo was observed near the wall measuring 4.7 mm on average LCC, and the endocardial tube was functioning. In stage 3, the umbilical cord was observed, but it was difficult to distinguish different organs, with the exception of the heart, which was detected by heartbeat movements. In stage 4, the fetus begins to move. Organs, such as the brain, lungs, heart septation, diaphragm, liver, stomach, bowel, bladder and bone ossification were observed. In the forelimbs, fingers apart with claws and footpads were visualized. In stage 5, in addition to the features observed in the previous stage, the kidneys show the cortex and medulla, and the heart chambers are clearly visualize. A linear correlation analysis among the biometric parameters was performed. Results were statistically significant for most parameters studied (p<0.0001). We characterized the gestational stages studied. Out of the ten cats studied, seven cats had a normal pregnancy. One cat showed one congenitally malformed fetus, and one fetal death occurred in the other two cats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats/anatomy & histology , Chorion/diagnostic imaging , Gestational Age , Placenta/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Cats/embryology , Chorion/embryology , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Fetus/embryology , Placenta/embryology
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