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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352940

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: A superlotação dos serviços de emergência é um fenômeno mundial. Isto torna imprescindível que os sistemas de triagem utilizados sejam efetivos na identificação de atendimentos prioritários. Entretanto, pouco se conhece sobre a efetividade dos sistemas de triagem em serviços de emergência, principalmente na rede suplementar de saúde no Brasil. Objetivo: identificar a efetividade do sistema de triagem em serviço de emergência privado, baseado na Escala de Triagem Canadense. Métodos: Estudo coorte retrospectivo, com 254.730 registros de atendimentos, entre 2017 e 2018, de um serviço de emergência privado, referência em medicina de alta complexidade, em São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Estatística descritiva foi utilizada para caracterizar os atendimentos, de acordo com ano, sexo, idade, classificação de prioridade e desfecho clínico pós-atendimento. Associação entre os graus de prioridades da escala e os desfechos clínicos foi verificada pelo teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson. Para analisar efetividade do sistema de triagem foi delineado um modelo de regressão logística univariada, para prever o desfecho "internações/óbitos", em comparação com "altas". Devido ao tamanho amostral robusto, o nível de significância considerado foi de 0,1%. Resultados: Cerca de 60% dos atendimentos foram classificados como não urgentes e 30,8%, como urgentes. A probabilidade de morte e internação corresponderam ao aumentou do grau de prioridade, variando entre mais de 12 vezes para os atendimentos de "semi-urgência" a mais de 100 vezes para o grau "emergência". Pacientes atendidos no ano de 2018, do sexo masculino e com idade acima de 50 anos apresentaram maior probabilidade de serem internados ou morrerem. Conclusão: O sistema de triagem analisado foi considerado efetivo para prever desfechos clínicos compatíveis com a gradação de gravidade estabelecida. Isto é relevante na medida que expressa, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a efetividade em um sistema de triagem, baseado na Escala de Triagem Canadense. Além disso, a caracterização da busca expressiva por atendimentos de baixa gravidade entre usuários do serviço analisado é semelhante aos apresentados em diversos estudos nacionais e internacionais. Reflete-se sobre as explicações socioculturais e econômicas no contexto brasileiro, expondo perspectivas a serem atingidas por políticas públicas.Palavras-chave: Triagem, Medicina de emergências, Enfermagem em emergência, Estudos de coortes. (AU)


Background: the overcrowding of emergency services is a worldwide phenomenon. This makes it essential that the triage systems used are effective in identifying priority care. However, little is known about the effectiveness of triage systems in emergency services, especially in the supplementary health network in Brazil. Objective: identify the effectiveness of the triage system in a private emergency department, based on the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale. Methods: a retrospective cohort study, with 254,730 records of care, between 2017 and 2018, from a private emergency service, reference in high complexity medicine, in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the attendances, according to year, gender, age, priority rating, and post-acute clinical outcome. Association between the scale priority grades and clinical outcomes was verified by Pearson's chi-square test. To analyze the effectiveness of the screening system, a univariate logistic regression model was designed to predict the outcome "hospitalizations/hospitalizations" compared to "discharges". Due to the robust sample size, the significance level considered was 0.1%. Results: about 60% of the cases were classified as non-urgent and 30.8% as urgent. The probability of death and hospitalization corresponded to the increased degree of priority, ranging from more than 12 times for the "semi-urgent" attendances to more than 100 times for the "emergency" degree. Patients seen in 2018, male and over 50 years old, were more likely to be hospitalized or die. Conclusion: the screening system analyzed was considered effective in predicting clinical outcomes compatible with the established severity gradation. This is relevant as it expresses, for the first time in Brazil, the effectiveness of a triage system based on the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale. Moreover, the characterization of the expressive search for low severity care among users of the analyzed service is similar to those presented in several national and international studies. Reflections on sociocultural and economic explanations in the Brazilian context are made, exposing perspectives to be achieved by public policies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Referral and Consultation , Effectiveness , Mass Screening , Cohort Studies , Triage , Emergency Nursing , Emergency Medicine , Hospitalization
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 31-33, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156137

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The impact of traditional public health emergencies on the comprehensive education of medical students in colleges and universities is mainly reflected in the test of comprehensive literacy. Based on this, this paper studies the construction of a public health emergency impact analysis platform from a medical perspective and cloud computing. From the platform's database construction, event collection methods, impact evaluation rules and other aspects to achieve accurate analysis of the impact of emergencies, using the cloud computing method for comprehensive analysis and evaluation, the algorithm can analyze and intelligently classify information data on the Internet in the process of multiple input, and respond to potential public health emergencies according to cloud computing technology, in order to analyze the impact on the comprehensive quality of medical students. The experimental results show that the public health emergency analysis platform has the advantages of high feasibility and high data utilization, and can effectively improve the impact of public health emergencies on the comprehensive literacy of medical students.


RESUMO O impacto das tradicionais emergências de saúde pública sobre a formação integral de estudantes de medicina em faculdades e universidades reflete-se principalmente no teste de formação integral. Com base nisso, este documento estuda a construção da plataforma de análise de impacto de emergência de saúde pública sob a perspectiva médica e computação em nuvem. A partir da construção da base de dados da plataforma, foram desenvolvidos métodos de coleta de eventos, regras de avaliação de impacto e outros aspectos para obter uma análise precisa do impacto das emergências, usando o método de computação em nuvem para análise e avaliação. O algoritmo pode realizar a análise e classificação inteligente de dados de informação na Internet no processo de introdução múltipla, e responder a possíveis emergências de saúde pública de acordo com a tecnologia de computação em nuvem a fim de analisar o impacto sobre a qualificação dos estudantes de medicina. Os resultados experimentais mostram que a plataforma de análise de emergências de saúde pública tem as vantagens de alta viabilidade e alta utilização de dados, pode melhorar efetivamente o impacto das emergências de saúde pública na formação integral dos estudantes de medicina.


RESUMEN El impacto de las emergencias de salud pública tradicionales en la educación integral de los estudiantes de medicina en los colegios y universidades se refleja principalmente en la prueba de comprensión de textos. Con base en esto, este trabajo estudia la construcción de una plataforma de análisis de impacto de emergencias en salud pública desde una perspectiva médica y de computación en la nube. A partir de la construcción de la base de datos de la plataforma, los métodos de recolección de eventos, las reglas de evaluación de impacto y otros aspectos para lograr un análisis preciso del impacto de las emergencias, utilizando el método de computación en la nube para un análisis y evaluación integral, el algoritmo puede analizar y clasificar de manera inteligente los datos de información en Internet en el proceso de entrada múltiple. También puede responder a potenciales emergencias de salud pública de acuerdo con la tecnología de computación en la nube, con el fin de analizar el impacto en la calidad integral de los estudiantes de medicina. Los resultados experimentales muestran que la plataforma de análisis de emergencias de salud pública tiene las ventajas de alta viabilidad y alta utilización de datos, y puede mejorar de manera efectiva el impacto de las emergencias de salud pública en la comprensión de textos de los estudiantes de medicina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medical Informatics , Biomedical Technology , Education, Medical , Emergency Medicine/education , Narrative Medicine , Algorithms
3.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2723, 20210126. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282264

ABSTRACT

Problema: O intercâmbio internacional é um excelente instrumento de formação paraestudantes e Portugal apresenta diversas vantagens para os alunos brasileiros. No entanto, a literatura brasileira carece de relatos de experiência sobre tais atividades e os estudantesfrequentemente encontram- se preocupados sobre quais atividades serão desenvolvidas,sobre que tipo de sistema de saúde encontrarão e, recentemente, sobre como a pandemia se desenrolou no país de destino.Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, do tipo relato de experiência, referente a um estágio internacional na área da saúde, realizado por um acadêmico brasileiro em Portugal. O trabalho foi elaborado a partir de pesquisas bibliográficas e resgate mnemônico da experiência. Resultados: O sistema de saúde português funciona de forma semelhante ao brasileiro, baseado na atenção primária à saúde e na descentralização, e apresentou bom desempenho em relação à pandemia da COVID-19. O intercâmbio foi realizado na área de medicina geral e familiar e de medicina de emergência pela Universidade de Lisboa, no início de 2020, e foi composto por uma vasta gama de atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente o acompanhamento de consultas. Os aprendizados do estágio incluem os conteúdos técnicos das consultas acompanhadas, os conhecimentos não científicos ensinados durante a rotina e as experiências sociais vivenciadas na viagem. Conclusão: Os estudantes brasileiros encontrarão familiaridades e diferenças positivas no sistema de saúde português e observarão excelentes números em relação ao controle da pandemia da COVID-19. O intercâmbio em Portugal possibilitou o crescimento profissional e pessoal do estudante e é recomendado para os estudantes brasileiros da área da saúde interessados em umaexperiência transcultural.


Problem:The international exchange is an excellent training tool for students and Portugal presents several advantages for Brazilianacademics. However, the Brazilian literature lacks experience reports about these activities and students are often concerned about what activities will be developed, about what kind of health system will they find, and, recently, about how the pandemic unfolded in the destination country.Methods:This is a descriptive study, experience report format, referring to an international exchange in the health field, performed by a Brazilian student in Portugal. The manuscript was elaborated with bibliographic research and mnemonic rescue of experience. Results: The Portuguese health system operates similarly to the Brazilian one, relying on primary health care and decentralization, and presented good performance regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. The exchange occurred in the family medicine and emergency medicine field from the University of Lisbon, in early 2020, and comprised a broad range of activities, specially consultation tracking. The internship's lessons include technical content of the consultations followed, non-scientific knowledge taught during routine and social experiences during the trip. Conclusion: Brazilian students will find familiarities and positive differences in the Portuguese health system and will observe excellent numbers regarding the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. The exchange in Portugal allowed the professional and personal growth of the student and it is recommended for Brazilian academics from the health field interested in a transcultural experience.


Problema: El intercambio internacional es una excelente herramienta de formación para los estudiantes y Portugal presenta numerosasventajas a los alumnos brasileños. No obstante, la literatura brasileña carece de relatos de experiencias sobre estas actividades y a losestudiantes a menudo les preocupa qué actividades se llevarán a cabo, qué tipo de sistema de salud encontrarán y, recientemente, cómo se desarrolló la pandemia en el país de destino. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, del tipo relato de experiencia, con relación a un pasantía internacional en el área de la salud, efectuado por un alumno brasileño en Portugal. El artículo se elaboró a partir de la investigación bibliográfica y el rescate mnemónico de la experiencia. Resultados: El sistema de salud portugués opera de manera similar al brasileño, apoyado en la atención primaria en salud y en la descentralización, y presentó un buen desempeño en relación con la pandemia de COVID-19. El intercambio fue realizado en el campo de la Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria y la Medicina de Emergencia por la Universidad de Lisboa, a principios de 2020, y fue compuesto por una amplia gama de actividades desarrolladas, principalmente el seguimiento de consultas. Las lecciones aprendidas en la pasantía incluyen los contenidos técnicos de las consultas seguidas, el conocimiento no científico enseñado durante la rutina y las experiencias sociales vividas en el viaje. Conclusión: Los estudiantes brasileños encontrarán familiaridades y diferencias positivas en el sistema de salud portugués y observarán excelentes números en relación con la pandemia de COVID-19. El intercambio en Portugal posibilitó el crecimiento profesional y personal del alumno y es recomendado para estudiantes brasileños del área de saludinteresados en una experiencia transcultural.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Education, Medical , Emergency Medicine , Family Practice , International Educational Exchange
4.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(1): e013, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155917

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: As situações de emergência requerem ações e decisões rápidas por parte do médico, que deve articular competências técnicas, como o conhecimento e as habilidades clínicas, para o diagnóstico, e não técnicas, como a liderança e o trabalho em equipe, para proporcionar a assistência segura. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as percepções dos professores médicos sobre o ensino das competências não técnicas para o atendimento de situações de emergência, no contexto de um curso de graduação em Medicina. Método: Trata-se de pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, exploratória e descritiva, desenvolvida com 24 professores médicos de um curso de Medicina em fase de implantação. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevistas, com uso de roteiro semiestruturado, gravadas em áudio, com o consentimento dos participantes. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se análise temática. Resultados: A análise das entrevistas possibilitou a construção de dois temas: "Ensinar urgência e emergência: uma reprodução de procedimentos" e "A transição de racionalidades no ensino das competências não técnicas para atendimentos de emergência", com os subtemas, "Competência não técnica: por mais que eu ensine você não vai aprender" e "É possível desenvolver as competências não técnicas". Conclusões: No grupo estudado, sobressai a visão tecnicista, em que se enfatiza o ensino técnico-procedimental para assistência às situações de emergência. Entretanto, coexistem diferentes concepções de ensinar e aprender, indicando uma transição de racionalidades que perpassa o entendimento dos professores. Ressalta-se a necessidade de propostas de desenvolvimento permanente do corpo docente que possibilitem repensar criticamente as concepções de aprendizagem no campo das emergências, sobretudo no âmbito dos novos cursos de graduação em Medicina.


Abstract: Introduction: Emergency situations require rapid response and decisions by the physician, who must articulate technical skills, such as knowledge and clinical skills for the diagnosis, and non-technical skills, such as leadership and teamwork, to provide safe care. Objective: To know the medical faculty's perceptions on the teaching of non-technical skills for emergency care in the context of an undergraduate medical course. Method: Qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study developed with 24 medical teachers of a medical course in the implementation phase. Data collection was performed through interviews, using a semi-structured script, recorded in audio, with the participants' consent. Thematic analysis was used for the data analysis. Results: the analysis of the interviews allowed the construction of two themes: "Teaching urgency and emergency: a reproduction of procedures" and "The transition of rationalities in teaching non-technical skills for emergency care", with the subthemes, "Non-technical skills: however much I teach you, you will not learn" and "It is possible to develop non-technical skills". Conclusions: In the studied group, a technicist vision stands out, emphasizing technical and procedural teaching to assist emergency situations. However, different conceptions of teaching and learning coexist, indicating a transition of rationalities that permeates the teachers' understanding. The need for proposals for the continuing development of the faculty is emphasized, allowing critically rethinking the conceptions of learning in the field of emergencies, especially in the context of new undergraduate medical courses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Professional Competence , Teaching Care Integration Services , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine/education , Faculty, Medical , Qualitative Research
5.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e43056, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1347112

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a evolução das vítimas de traumatismo cranioencefálico contuso na sala de emergência e identificar fatores independentes para tempo de permanência nesse serviço. Método: coorte prospectiva que incluiu todas as vítimas que atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade e foram admitidas entre julho e dezembro de 2017 em hospital referência para trauma. Foi aplicado o Rapid Emergency Medicine Score para identificar a evolução das vítimas até 6 horas após admissão e aplicadas estatísticas descritivas e análise bivariada. Resultados: entre a admissão e 2 horas, foram observadas mudanças desfavoráveis em 35,1% das vítimas, entre 2-4 horas em 13,6% e entre 4-6 horas, em 42,8%; foi observada melhora entre 27% e 28,6% da casuística. Suporte hemodinâmico foi fator independente para tempo de permanência. Conclusão: a evolução desfavorável foi mais frequente entre a admissão e 2 horas e após 4 horas. A maior permanência na sala de emergência ocorreu em vítimas com suporte hemodinâmico.


Objetivo: analizar la evolución de las víctimas de traumatismo craneoencefálico contundente en la sala de urgencias e identificar factores independientes para la duración de la estancia en este servicio. Método: cohorte prospectiva que incluyó a todas las víctimas que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad y estuvieron ingresadas entre julio y diciembre de 2017 en un hospital de referencia por traumatismo. Se aplicó el Rapid Emergency Medicine Score para identificar la evolución de las víctimas hasta 6 horas después del ingreso y se aplicó estadística descriptiva y análisis bivariado. Resultados: entre el ingreso y 2 horas, se observaron cambios desfavorables en 35,1% de las víctimas, entre 2-4 horas en 13,6% y entre 4-6 horas, en 42,8%; se observó mejoría entre el 27% y el 28,6% de la muestra. El soporte hemodinámico fue un factor independiente para la duración de la estancia. Conclusión: la evolución desfavorable fue más frecuente entre el ingreso y 2 horas y después de 4 horas. La estancia más larga en la sala de urgencias ocurrió en víctimas con soporte hemodinámico.


Objective: analyzing the evolution of victims of blunt traumatic brain injury in the emergency room and identifying independent factors for length of stay in this service. Method: a prospective cohort that included all victims who met the eligibility criteria and were admitted between July and December 2017 in a reference hospital for trauma. The Rapid Emergency Medicine Score was applied to identify the evolution of the victims up to 6 hours after admission and descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were applied. Results: between admission and 2 hours, unfavorable changes were observed in 35.1% of the victims, between 2-4 hours in 13.6% and between 4-6 hours, in 42.8%; improvement was observed between 27% and 28.6% of the sample. Hemodynamic support was an independent factor for length of stay. Conclusion: unfavorable evolution was more frequent between admission and 2 hours and after 4 hours. The longest stay in the emergency room occurred in victims with hemodynamic support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wounds and Injuries , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/rehabilitation , Length of Stay , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medicine
6.
Coluna/Columna ; 19(4): 266-270, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the daily practice in an emergency service and to provide relevant data for future studies about the treatment of low back pain from the perspective of emergency medicine. Methods Analysis of hospital records and review of medical records. Results 2,434 patients were attended between January 1 and December 31, 2017 with the complaint of low back pain. Radiographs of the spine were performed in 15.7% of patients and computerized tomography scans in 7.6%. Eighty-five patients required hospitalization, with a mean hospital stay of 8.3 days. The rate of use was 52.7% for tricyclic or antiepileptic drugs and 12% for strong opioids among hospitalized patients. Conclusions A high prevalence of low back complaints was observed in the emergency care service (4.6% of total emergency room visits during the year), with low hospitalization potential. The rates of hospitalization and tomographic examinations were higher than those observed in similar studies, with a lower proportion of radiograph and strong opioid use as compared with the same studies. The paucity of national and international data for more in-depth comparisons makes clear the need for further studies and development of new recommendations specifically targeting this subset of patients. Level of evidence IV; Prognostic studies.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever a prática diária em um serviço de pronto atendimento e produzir dados relevantes para estudos futuros relacionados com tratamento da dor lombar na perspectiva da medicina de emergência. Métodos Análise dos registros hospitalares e revisão de prontuários. Resultados Foram realizados 2.434 atendimentos entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2017 com a queixa de dor lombar. Foram realizadas radiografias da coluna em 15,7% dos pacientes e tomografias computadorizadas em 7,6%. Oitenta e cinco pacientes precisaram de internação hospitalar, com tempo médio de internação de 8,3 dias. A taxa de utilização de antidepressivos tricíclicos ou antiepilépticos foi de 52,7% para os pacientes internados e a de opioides fortes foi de 12%. Conclusões Observou-se uma alta taxa de prevalência de queixa de dor lombar no serviço de pronto atendimento (4,6% do total de atendimentos do pronto-socorro durante o ano), com baixo potencial de internação. A taxa de internação e realização de exames tomográficos foi maior que a observada em estudos semelhantes, com uma menor proporção de uso de radiografias e opioides fortes em comparação com os mesmos estudos. A escassez de dados nacionais e internacionais para comparações mais profundas torna clara a necessidade de estudos adicionais e desenvolvimento de novas recomendações, visando especificamente esse subgrupo de pacientes. Nível de evidência IV; Estudos prognósticos.


RESUMEN Objetivo Describir la práctica diaria en un servicio de atención rápida y producir datos relevantes para estudios futuros relacionados con tratamiento del dolor lumbar en la perspectiva de la medicina de emergencia. Métodos Análisis de los registros hospitalarios y revisión de historiales. Resultados Se realizaron 2.434 atendimientos entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2017 con la queja de dolor lumbar. Fueron realizadas radiografías de la columna en el 15,7% de los pacientes y tomografías computarizadas en el 7,6%. Ochenta y cinco pacientes precisaron internación hospitalaria, con tiempo promedio de internación de 8,3 días. La tasa de uso de antidepresivos tricíclicos o antiepilépticos fue del 52,7% para los pacientes internados y la de opioides fuertes fue del 12%. Conclusiones Se observó una alta tasa de prevalencia de queja de dolor lumbar en el servicio de atención rápida (4,6% del total de atenciones de primeros auxilios durante el año), con bajo potencial de internación. La tasa de internación y realización de exámenes tomográficos fue mayor que la observada en estudios semejantes, con una menor proporción de uso de radiografías y opioides fuertes en comparación con los mismos estudios. La escasez de datos nacionales e internacionales para comparaciones más profundas hace clara la necesidad de estudios adicionales y el desarrollo de nuevas recomendaciones, dirigidas específicamente a este subgrupo de pacientes. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudios pronósticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Low Back Pain , Drug Therapy , Emergency Medicine
7.
9.
Revista Espaço para a Saúde ; 21(1): [26 - 32], 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116043

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos atendimentos realizados pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU) do município de Colombo (PR). Método: Estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa, utilizando as informações contidas nas fichas de atendimentos do SAMU do município de Colombo (PR) para a coleta dos dados no período de dezembro de 2016 a agosto de 2017. Resultados: Foram analisados 2.784 fichas e os resultados mostram predominância do sexo masculino com 1.441 (51,76%), faixa etária de 19-59 anos com 1.531 (54,99%), ocorrências de perfil clínico com 1.715 (61,60%) e, tendo como destino final a UPA do município 1.377 casos (63,75%). Conclusões: O estudo contribui na quantificação de informações de atendimento do SAMU realizados no município de Colombo, a fim de qualificar a organização das demandas de atendimento pela rede de Urgência e Emergência no município


Subject(s)
Humans , Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data
10.
Iatreia ; 33(1): 68-77, 20200000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090533

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La sobreocupación de los servicios de urgencias es un problema global que cada vez afecta más las instituciones de salud que atienden pacientes de mediana y alta complejidad, haciendo que estos permanezcan más tiempo en una sala de espera con la consiguiente demora en los tiempos de atención, bajo nivel de satisfacción de los usuarios, retraso en la toma de ayudas diagnósticas, retrasos al definir altas del servicio y favorecimiento de complicaciones médicas, entre otros. Para mejorar esta situación se han desarrollado estrategias como la creación de unidades de observación, unidades fast track o asignación de citas prioritarias para los pacientes que no requieren una atención urgente, de modo adicional el triaje, los exámenes point of care y la vinculación de especialistas en medicina de urgencias. Todo esto con el fin de mejorar la calidad de la atención de los pacientes, evitar que se presenten eventos adversos durante su proceso y disminuir la sobreocupación del servicio.


SUMMARY The over-occupation of emergency services is a global problem that has worsened in recent years. In the health institutions that serve patients of medium and high complexity, the attention of the patients is delayed and they can stay longer in a waiting room presenting longer attention times, a low level of satisfaction of the patients and users, delay in taking diagnostic aids and in defining discharge, medical complications and progression of their diseases, among others. To improve this situation, strategies have been developed such as the creation of observation units, fast track units or assignment of priority appointments for patients who do not require urgent attention, triage, point-of-care examinations and the involvement of specialists in emergency medicine. All of this in order to improve the quality of patient care, avoid adverse events during their process and reduce the over-occupation of the service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Clinical Observation Units , Triage
11.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257727

ABSTRACT

Background: There is little information available on the range of conditions presenting to generalist run rural district hospital emergency departments (EDs) which are the first point of acute care for many South Africans. Aim: This study aims to assess the range of acute presentations as well as the types of procedures required by patients in a rural district hospital context. Setting: Zithulele is a 147-bed district hospital in rural Eastern Cape. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study assessing all patients presenting to the Zithulele hospital emergency department from 01 October 2015 to 31 December 2015. Data collected included the triage acuity using the South African Triage Scale system, patient demographics, diagnosis, outcome and procedures performed. Diagnoses were coded retrospectively according to the international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems version 10 (ICD 10). Results: Of the 4 002 patients presenting to the ED during the study period, 2% were triaged as emergencies and 45% as non-urgent. The most common diagnostic categories were injuries, infections and respiratory illnesses respectively. Diagnoses from all broad categories of the ICD-10 were represented. 67% of patients required no procedure. Diagnostic procedures (n = 877) were more prevalent than therapeutic procedures (n = 377). Only 2.4% of patients were transferred to a referral centre acutely. Conclusion: Patients with conditions from all categories of the ICD-10 present for management at rural district hospitals. Healthcare professionals working in this setting need to independently diagnose and manage a wide range of ED presentations and execute an assortment of procedures


Subject(s)
Emergency Medicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals, Rural , Rural Health , South Africa
12.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258614

ABSTRACT

Background: The accuracy of drug dosing calculations during medical emergencies in children has not been evaluated extensively. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of drug dose calculations using the Broselow tape, the PAWPER XL tape plus its companion drug-dosing guide, a custom-designed mobile phone app and no drug-dosing aid (control group). Methods: This was a prospective study in which 32 emergency medicine volunteers participated in eight simulations of common paediatric emergency conditions, using children models. The participants used the three methods to estimate the children's weight and calculate drug doses. The accuracy of and time taken for the drug dose determinations were then evaluated for each of the methods. Results: The overall accuracy of drug dose determinations was extremely and potentially dangerously low in the control group in which no dosing guide was used as well as in the Broselow tape group (<20% of doses were correct). The accuracy was significantly higher with the PAWPER XL tape group and the mobile app group (47% and 31% respectively). The times taken to obtain the required information did not differ in a clinically meaningful magnitude. Conclusions: Both an accurate weight estimation and a dosing guide with comprehensive information were necessary to produce an accurate prescription. The information on the Broselow tape was not sufficient for this purpose. The current guidelines recommending the use of tapes with limited information should be revised. The results from the comprehensive dosing guides were substantially better, but still had a lower proportion of accurate prescriptions than desirable. The role of training in every aspect of the emergency paediatric weight estimation and drug dosing procedure cannot be underestimated and should be routine in any environment where emergency care may be needed


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Emergency Medicine , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Resuscitation , South Africa
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258625

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is poorly developed in low and middle-income countries. The magnitude of challenges facing Paediatric Emergency Departments (PEDs) in Nigeria has not been well described. This study aimed to assess paediatric emergency care preparedness across PEDs in Nigeria. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study that utilized a self-administered questionnaire and a check list to assess three key domains (managerial, medication and equipment) in tertiary care PED facilities that were recruited across Nigeria. Preparedness scores and other institutional attributes were compared between zones and regions. Results: Thirty-four tertiary-level PEDs across Nigeria were included. The mean number of patient visits over the 30-day period prior to data collection was 253.2 ( ± 261.2). The mean (SD) managerial, medication and equipment performance scores of the included PEDs were 42.9% ( ± 14.3%), 50.7% ( ± 22.3%) and 43.9% ( ± 11.8%) respectively. The mean (SD) total performance score was 46.9% ( ± 15.3%). Only 13 PEDs had a total performance score of > 50%. There was a statistically significant higher mean equipment score (p = 0.029) in the Southern region (47.6 ± 3.1) compared to the Northern region (38.9 ± 2.3) of the country. Conclusions: This study reports a global but remediable deficiency in emergency care preparedness amongst PEDs in tertiary care facilities in Nigeria. This study highlights the need for training of PED managers in basic and advanced life support and for the improvement in medication and equipment procurement across Nigeria


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medicine , Nigeria , Pediatrics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported what patients value while choosing their surgeon, but there are no studies exploring the patterns of referral to spine surgeons among primary care physicians (PCPs). This study aims to identify any trends in PCPs' referral to orthopedic surgery versus neurosurgery for spinal pathology.METHODS: In total, 450 internal medicine, family medicine, emergency medicine, neurology, and pain management physicians who practice at one of three locations (suburban community hospital, urban academic university hospital, and urban private practice) were asked to participate in the study. Consenting physicians completed our 24-question survey addressing their beliefs according to pathologies, locations of pathologies, and surgical interventions.RESULTS: Overall, 108 physicians (24%) completed our survey. Fifty-seven physicians (52.8%) felt that neurosurgeons would provide better long-term comprehensive spinal care. Overall, 66.7% of physicians would refer to neurosurgery for cervical spine radiculopathy; 52.8%, to neurosurgery for thoracic spine radiculopathy; and 56.5%, to orthopedics for lumbar spine radiculopathy. Most physicians would refer all spine fractures to orthopedics for treatment except cervical spine fractures (56.5% to neurosurgeons). Most physicians would refer to neurosurgery for extradural tumors (91.7%) and intradural tumors (96.3%). Most would refer to orthopedic surgeons for chronic pain. Finally, physicians would refer to orthopedics for spine fusion (61.1%) and discectomy (58.3%) and to neurosurgery for minimally invasive surgery (59.3%).CONCLUSIONS: Even though both orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons are intensively trained to treat a similar breath of spinal pathology, physicians vary in their referring patterns according to spinal pathology, location of pathology, and intended surgery. Education on the role of spine surgeons among PCPs is essential in ensuring unbiased referral patterns.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain , Diskectomy , Education , Emergency Medicine , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Internal Medicine , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neurology , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery , Orthopedics , Pain Management , Pathology , Physicians, Primary Care , Radiculopathy , Referral and Consultation , Spine , Surgeons
15.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(6): 530-536, dic. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058314

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El trauma maxilofacial (TMF) constituye un problema de relevancia en los centros hospitalarios de alta complejidad. Objetivo: Evidenciar y actualizar la epidemiología del trauma maxilofacial de resolución quirúrgica bajo anestesia general, en pabellón central tratado en el Hospital de Urgencia Asistencia Pública durante el período comprendido entre diciembre de 2014 a diciembre de 2017 y compararla con la realidad epidemiológica de otros centros hospitalarios de alta complejidad en Chile y en el extranjero. Materiales y Método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en el que se analizaron los protocolos operatorios de los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente por trauma maxilofacial, en pabellón central, bajo anestesia general, en un período de 37 meses. Las variables analizadas fueron diagnóstico, edad, género, tercio facial y zona anatómica afectada. Resultados: Se realizaron 127 procedimientos quirúrgicos, para resolver 259 fracturas. La edad promedio de los pacientes intervenidos fue de 33 años, con predominio del género masculino (85,8%); el tercio inferior fue el más afectado (77,2%), específicamente en la zona parasinfisiaria mandibular (22,4%). Discusión: Los resultados expuestos concuerdan con estudios realizados internacionalmente, pero tiene discordancia en relación a la zona anatómica más afectada al comparalo con los otros centros que analizaron su epidemiología. Conclusión: Resulta necesario continuar la investigación epidemiológica de estas patologías y unificar criterios de diagnóstico y tratamiento para poder establecer políticas de prevención y tratamiento eficientes en relación a cada servicio y en conjunto a nivel de salud pública.


Introduction: Maxillofacial trauma (MFT) is a relevant problem in highly complex hospital centers. Aim: To show and update the epidemiology of the maxillofacial trauma of surgical resolution under general anesthesia, in a major operating room, treated in the Emergency Hospital Public Assistance during the period from December 2014 to December 2017 and to compare it with the epidemiological reality of other high complexity hospital centers in Chile and abroad. Materials and Method: A retrospective study was carried out and the surgical protocols of the patients operated for maxillofacial trauma, in a major operating room, under general anesthesia, in a period of 37 months, were analyzed. The variables considered were diagnosis, age, gender, facial third and affected anatomic area. Results: 127 surgical procedures were performed, for the resolution of 259 fractures. The average age of the operated patients was 33 years, with predominance of the male gender (85.8%), the lower third was the most affected (77.2%), specifically in the parasymphysis area (22.4%). Discussion: The exposed results agree with studies carried out internationally, but it has discordance in relation to the most affected anatomical area at national level comparing it with the other hospitals that analyzed its epidemiology. Conclusion: It is necessary to continue the epidemiological investigation of these pathologies and to unify diagnostic and treatment criteria in order to establish efficient prevention and treatment policies in relation to each service and jointly at the level of public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Medicine/methods , Maxillofacial Injuries/surgery , Maxillofacial Injuries/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital
16.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e955, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093276

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La principal causa de mortalidad temprana en pacientes politraumatizados es la hipovolemia secundaria a hemorragia masiva. La terapia con hemocomponentes y cristaloides constituye un mecanismo esencial y salvavidas en estas situaciones como medida de reemplazo de volumen. De la misma manera los pacientes con lesiones traumáticas graves tienen una disminución aguda significativa en el recuento de plaquetas circulantes que los hace candidatos a la transfusión de componentes plaquetarios; sin embargo, el uso de estos componentes sanguíneos puede traer consigo desenlaces no deseados como aumento en la mortalidad. Si bien muchos estudios revelan un aumento de la mortalidad como desenlace asociado al uso de hemocomponentes, otros establecen su uso como una medida reductora de este desenlace. Objetivo: Exponer las principales indicaciones de hemocomponentes en los pacientes politraumatizados, así como relacionar los eventos adversos asociados a su uso que influyen sobre la mortalidad y el tiempo de hospitalización de estos pacientes. Desarrollo: La mortalidad asociada al uso de hemocomponentes aún es un tema controvertido. En la hemorragia masiva el apoyo transfusional rápido y eficiente es esencial en el tratamiento y la atención de politraumatismos, de ahí que sea necesario contar con protocolos de transfusión que mejoren los resultados y disminuyan las complicaciones. Además, se identificó la necesidad de nuevos estudios sobre el tema para mejorar estos protocolos y reducir las complicaciones.(AU)


Introduction: The main cause of early mortality in polytrauma patients is hypovolemia secondary to massive hemorrhage. Hemocomponent and crystalloid therapy is an essential and life-saving mechanism in these situations as a measure of volume replacement. In the same way, patients with severe traumatic injuries have a significant acute decrease in circulating platelet counts that makes them candidates for transfusion of platelet components; However, the use of these blood components can lead to unwanted outcomes such as increased mortality. Although many studies reveal an increase in mortality as an outcome associated with the use of blood components, others establish its use as a reducing measure of this outcome. Objective: to present the main indications of blood components in polytrauma patients, as well as to relate the adverse events associated with their use that influence the mortality and hospitalization time of these patients. Devlopment: Mortality associated with the use of blood components is still a controversial issue. In massive hemorrhage, rapid and efficient transfusion support is essential in the treatment and care of polytrauma, hence it is necessary to have transfusion protocols that improve results and reduce complications. In addition, the need for new studies on the subject to improve these protocols and reduce complications was identified(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Multiple Trauma/mortality , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Emergency Medicine
17.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(1): 35-41, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003748

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Radiología de Urgencias es una unidad de aprendizaje longitudinal a toda la residencia. En ella los residentes se enfrentan a patología de urgencia en distintas modalidades de imagen. Además del dominio cognitivo, los residentes deben desarrollar habilidades de comunicación y colaboración que les permitan enfrentar adecuadamente los turnos de residencia. Previo a incorporarse a los turnos nocturnos, los residentes deben aprobar un Examen Clínico Objetivo Estructurado (ECOE). Propósito: Evaluar competencias de comunicación y colaboración a través de estaciones de ECOE de Radiología de Urgencias aplicado a residentes de 2º año de residencia. Metodología: Se seleccionaron objetivos específicos a evaluar para las competencias de comunicación y colaboración y contenidos de Radiología Abdominal, Osteoarticular y Pediátrica para diseñar tres estaciones de ECOE, las cuales fueron incorporadas en el instrumento de evaluación aplicado el año 2017. Se calcularon porcentajes de logro por estación y tipo de pauta de evaluación. Para evaluar la implementación de las estaciones, se diseñó y aplicó una encuesta de percepción a los residentes. Resultados: Se diseñaron tres estaciones, dos para el rol Comunicador y una para el rol Colaborador. La validez de contenido se aseguró a través de un panel de expertos. Los porcentajes de logro global en las estaciones fluctuaron entre 74,7% y 95,6%. Las estaciones fueron bien evaluadas por parte de los residentes, quienes valoraron la incorporación de competencias diferentes al dominio cognitivo en el instrumento de evaluación. Conclusión: El ECOE permite certificar habilidades transversales como comunicación y colaboración de manera apropiada


Introduction: Emergency radiology (ER) is taught and learned throughout the entire residency. Trainees are exposed to different subspecialties ER cases and through varied imaging techniques. In addition to the "medical expert" domain, residents must develop communication and collaboration skills that will help them during their call schedule. Before they can take night-call, radiology residents must pass an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Purpose: To evaluate communication and collaboration competencies on an ER-OSCE applied to second-year radiology residents. Methods: Specific learning objectives were defined to evaluate communication and collaboration skills in abdominal, musculoskeletal and pediatric ER. Three OSCE stations were designed for this purpose and added to the evaluation instrument in 2017. On each station, resident performance was assessed with a specific template and percentage of goal achievement was calculated. Trainee´s opinion of this new modality was obtained through a perception survey. Results: Three stations were designed, two for the communicator role and one for the collaborator competency. Validity of content confirmed through an expert panel. Percentages of goal achievement on each station varied between 74,7% and 96,6. The new stations were positively evaluated by residents, which valued that competencies other than "medical expert" were being assessed. Conclusion: ER-OSCE allows the appropriate assessment of generic competencies such as communication and collaboration in radiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiology/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Communication , Educational Measurement/methods , Emergency Medicine/education , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Clinical Competence , Cooperative Behavior , Internship and Residency
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of inflammatory markers, the Laboratory-score, and a new laboratory combined model for predicting serious bacterial infection (SBI) in young febrile children.METHODS: The presence of SBI was reviewed in previously healthy children aged 3 years or younger with fever (> 38℃) who visited the emergency department from 2017 through 2018. Areas under the curves (AUCs) of the receiver operating characteristic curve for SBI were compared with individual inflammatory markers (white blood cells [WBC] count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], procalcitonin [PCT], and urine WBC count), the Laboratory-score, and a laboratory combined model. The latter model was developed using logistic regression analysis including ESR, CRP, and PCT.RESULTS: Of the 203 enrolled children, SBI was diagnosed in 58 (28.6%). For SBI prediction, the Laboratory-score showed 51.7% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.2%–65.0%) and 83.5% specificity (95% CI, 76.4%–89.1%). The AUC of the Laboratory-score (0.76) was significantly superior to the values of all individual inflammatory markers (WBC, 0.59 [P = 0.032]; ESR, 0.69; and CRP, 0.74 [P < 0.001]) except that of PCT (0.77, [P < 0.001]). The AUC of the laboratory combined model (0.80) was superior to that of the Laboratory-score (0.76) (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: In this study, the new laboratory combined model showed good predictability for SBI. This finding suggests the usefulness of combining ESR, CRP, and PCT in predicting SBI.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Bacterial Infections , Blood Cells , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Emergency Medicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Erythrocyte Count , Fever , Humans , Logistic Models , Pediatrics , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the concordance between the underlying causes of death (UCOD) on the death certificates written by three emergency physicians (EPs). We investigated errors on the death certificates committed by each EP.METHODS: This study included 106 patients issued a death certificate in the emergency department of an academic hospital. Three EPs reviewed the medical records retrospectively and completed 106 death certificates independently. The selection of the UCOD on the death certificates by each EP (EP-UCOD) was based on the general principle or selection rules. The gold standard UCOD (GS-UCOD) was determined for each patient by unanimous consent between three EPs. We also compared between the EP-UCOD and the GS-UCOD. In addition, we compared between UCODs of three EPs. The errors on the death certificates were investigated by each EP.RESULTS: The rates of concordance between EP-UCOD and the GS-UCOD were 86%, 81%, and 67% for EP-A, EP-B, and EP-C, respectively. The concordance rates between EP-A and EP-B were the highest overall percent agreement (0.783), and those between EP-A and EP-C were the lowest overall percent agreement (0.651). Although each EP had differences in the errors they committed, none of them listed the mode of dying as UCOD.CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that each EP wrote death certificates indicating different causes of death for the same decedents; however, the three EPs made fewer errors on the patients’ death certificates compared with those reported in previous studies.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Death Certificates , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Medical Records , Mortality , Retrospective Studies
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