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1.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 41-59, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342185

ABSTRACT

El tromboembolismo pulmonar es la manifestación más grave de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y la tercera causa de mortalidad cardiovascular. Su sintomatología puede ir desde un cuadro asintomático o con síntomas leves, hasta el paro cardiaco. Dentro del enfoque de esta patología es importante tener en cuenta escalas que permiten estimar la probabilidad de que determinado paciente con ciertos signos, síntomas y factores de riesgo presente un tromboembolismo pulmonar, así como escalas diseñadas para valorar el riesgo de morir, en pacientes en los que ya se estableció este diagnóstico. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anticoagulación y la trombólisis, sin embargo, esta última está indicada únicamente en algunos casos. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar una actualización de la evidencia sobre el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico del tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde el ingreso del paciente al servicio de urgencias.


Pulmonary embolism is the most severe manifestation of venous thromboembolic disease and the third cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its symptoms can range from asymp-tomatic or mild symptoms to cardiac arrest. The approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism includes scores that allow estimating the clinical probability that a certain patient with certain signs, symptoms and risk factors will present a pulmonary thromboembolism, as well as scores that classify patients by severity and risk of hemody-namic decompensation. Treatment is based on anticoagulation and thrombolysis, which is used only in certain patients. The goal of this review is to present updated evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism from the moment the patient arrives at the emergency room.


A embolia pulmonar é a manifestação mais grave da doença tromboembólica venosa e a terceira principal causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Seus sintomas podem variar de sintomas assintomáticos ou leves a parada cardíaca. No enfoque desta patologia, é importante levar em consideração escalas que permitem estimar a probabilidade de um determinado paciente com determinados sinais, sintomas e fatores de risco apresentar tromboembolismo pulmonar, bem como escalas destinadas a avaliar o risco de morrer, em pacientes nos quais esse diagnóstico já foi estabelecido. Os pilares do tratamento são a anticoagulação e a trombólise, porém, esta última está indicada apenas em alguns casos. A presente revisão tem como objetivo apresentar uma atualização das evidências sobre a abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica do tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo, desde a admissão do paciente no pronto-socorro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 688-694, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351039

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue revelar cómo el COVID-19 afectó el número de visitas a un servicio de urgencias de un hospital de alta complejidad ubicado en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, explorar las características y los motivos de consulta. Se analizó el número mensual entre enero 2019 y diciem bre 2020. Los datos mostraron una fuerte disminución en el número de visitas (176 370 en 2019 y 95 421 en 2020), con una caída abrupta luego de disposición aislamiento social, preventivo y obligatorio (el mes de abril arrojó el máximo valor de reducción: 77.1%), y se reflejan las diferentes etapas evolutivas (consecuencia de la cuarentena), arrojando una reducción global anual del 45.9%. Sin embargo, aumentó el número de pacientes que ingresaron en ambulancias (5.1% en 2019 a 10.4% en 2020; p < 0.05), y, en consecuencia, los pacientes del sector de mayor complejidad (área B 2019: 5.3%, 2020: 11.5%; p < 0.01), y las hospitalizaciones no progra madas de 6.8% (IC95% 6.7-6.9) a 12.1% en 2020 (IC95% 11.8-12.3), p < 0.01. Los cinco motivos de consulta más frecuentes durante 2020 resultaron: fiebre (5.1%), odinofagia (4.7%), dolor abdominal (2.6%), tos (1.8%) y cefalea (1.8%), probablemente todos relacionados a COVID-19. En conclusión, se redujo a la mitad el número de visitas a urgencias en comparación con el año previo.


Abstract The objective of this study was to reveal how the COVID-19 pandemic process affected the number of visits to an emergency department of a highly complex hospital located in the Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, to explore the char acteristics and reasons for consultation. The monthly number of visits between January 2019 and December 2020 was analyzed. The data showed a strong decrease in the number of visits (176 370 in 2019 and 95 421 in 2020), with an abrupt drop after the lockdown disposal (In aprilshowed the maximum reduction: 77.1%), and the different stages are reflected in the evolution (a consequence of quarantine), yielding a global annual reduc tion of 45.9%. The number of patients admitted by ambulances increased (5.1% in 2019 to 10.4% in 2020; p < 0.05), and consequently, the number of patients in the more complex sector (area B 2019: 5.3%, 2020: 11.5%; p < 0.01), as well as unscheduled hospitalizations from 6.8% (95% CI 6.7-6.9) to 12.1% in 2020 (95%CI11.8- 12.3), p < 0.01. The five most frequent reasons for consultation in 2020 were: fever (5.1%), odynophagia (4.7%), abdominal pain (2.6%), cough (1.8%) and headache (1.8%), probably all related to COVID-19. In conclusion, the number of emergency department visits decreased by half compared to the previous year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Argentina/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Más Vita ; 3(3): 33-41, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1343305

ABSTRACT

La percepción que tienen los usuarios y su nivel de satisfacción frente a servicios brindados durante su atención es considerada como un indicador de calidad en el sector salud, además de reafirmar que la atención se centra sobre el paciente, familia o comunidad. Objetivo: analizar los factores determinantes en el nivel de atención y su relación con la satisfacción de los usuarios que acuden a la sala de emergencias del hospital Dr. Carlos del Pozo Melgar de Muisne. Materiales y Métodos: El estudio fue de tipo mixto, con diseño transversal y alcance descriptivo. Se aplicó un cuestionario desarrollado por el Ministerio de Salud Pública y adaptado a la población de estudio. La muestra fue de 165 personas que acudieron a la emergencia del hospital. Además, para registrar los datos se utilizó una ficha de observación durante la atención que se brindaba. Resultados: el 45% de los usuarios se sintieron muy satisfechos en cuanto al grado de satisfacción por la ubicación de la casa de salud. El 78% de los usuarios consideraron que la atención recibida fue personalizada. El 10% expresaron percepciones de discriminación por parte del personal de salud durante su atención. Se encontró que del 17% que poseían grado académico superior, el 10% no se encontraba satisfecho con la atención recibida. Conclusiones: existe un alto nivel de satisfacción en la mayoría de la muestra estudiada, en donde los principales factores determinantes fueron el grado académico de los usuarios y el estado de la infraestructura de la casa de salud(AU)


The perception of users and their level of satisfaction with the services provided during their care is considered an indicator of quality in the health sector, in addition to reaffirming that care is centered on the patient, family or community. Objective: To analyze the determining factors in the level of care and their relationship with the satisfaction of users attending the emergency room of the Dr. Carlos del Pozo Melgar Hospital in Muisne. Materials and Methods: The study was of a mixed type, with a cross-sectional design and descriptive scope. A questionnaire developed by the Ministry of Public Health and adapted to the study population was applied. The sample consisted of 165 people who attended the hospital emergency room. In addition, an observation form was used to record the data during the care provided. Results: 45% of the users were very satisfied with the location of the health center. Seventy-eight percent of the users considered that the care they received were personalized. In addition, the 10% expressed perceptions of discrimination on the part of the health personnel during their care. It was found that of the 17% who had a higher academic degree, 10% were not satisfied with the care received. Conclusions: there was a high level of satisfaction in the majority of the sample studied, where the main determining factors were the academic degree of the users and the state of the infrastructure of the health center(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Satisfaction , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Care , Patient Admission , Quality of Health Care , Medical Care
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(2): e698, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289350

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La videolaparascopía es un procedimiento frecuente en los servicios de urgencias de cirugía general. El dolor agudo después de estas intervenciones es de naturaleza compleja y requiere un tratamiento analgésico efectivo. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad del empleo de bupivacaína intraperitoneal en el alivio del dolor posoperatorio en la videolaparascopía de urgencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo y analítico en 80 pacientes mayores de 18 años, anunciados para videolaparoscopía bajo anestesia general orotraqueal en el servicio de urgencias del HMC: Dr. Luis Díaz Soto, desde septiembre de 2016 hasta septiembre de 2018. Los pacientes fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 40 cada uno. Al grupo 1 se aplicó lidocaína transdérmica preincisional en las incisiones de piel y, al término de la cirugía, se irrigaron ambos hemidiafragmas con bupivacaína al 0,25 por ciento. Al grupo 2 se le administró dosis preincisional de analgésicos endovenosos solamente. Resultados: Predominó significativamente el sexo femenino sin diferencia entre grupos. La analgesia posoperatoria fue mejor en el grupo 1 estadísticamente significativa a las 4, 8 y 12 horas. Los requerimientos de analgesia de rescate fueron menores en el grupo 1 (p=0,0024). No se reportaron efectos adversos. Conclusiones: La administración de lidocaína transdérmica preincisional y la instilación de bupivacaína intraperitoneal al final de la videolaparoscopía de urgencia, reduce significativamente el dolor en las primeras horas de posoperatorio. Su aplicación es sencilla, fácil y segura sin evidencias de efectos adversos(AU)


Introduction: Videolaparoscopy is a frequent general surgery procedure in emergency services. Acute pain after these interventions is complex in nature and requires effective analgesic treatment. Objective: To determine the usefulness of intraperitoneal bupivacaine in the relief of postoperative pain in emergency videolaparoscopy. Methods: A prospective, analytical and longitudinal study was carried out in eighty patients older than eighteen years old, announced for videolaparoscopy under orotracheal general anesthesia in the emergency department of Hospital Militar Central Dr. Luis Díaz Soto, from September 2016 to September 2018. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of forty individuals each. Group 1 was applied pre-incisional transdermal lidocaine on skin incisions and, at the end of surgery, both hemidiaphragms were irrigated with bupivacaine 0.25 percent. Group 2 received pre-incisional doses of intravenous analgesics only. Results: The female sex predominated significantly, without difference between the two groups. Postoperative analgesia was better in group 1, insofar it was statistically significant at four, eight and twelve hours. Rescue analgesia requirements were lower in group 1 (p=0.0024). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: The administration of pre-incisional transdermal lidocaine and the instillation of intraperitoneal bupivacaine at the end of emergency videolaparoscopy significantly reduces pain during the first hours after surgery. Its application is simple, easy and safe, without evidence of adverse effects(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , General Surgery , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Analgesia/methods
5.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(3): 567-577, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347132

ABSTRACT

Resumo É crescente a demanda de usuários com problemas de baixa complexidade clínica que procuram serviços hospitalares de urgência e emergência frequentemente. Essa hiperutilização dos serviços impõe dilemas éticos aos médicos e demais profissionais. O presente estudo analisa as implicações éticas do encontro entre médicos e usuários hiperutilizadores em uma unidade universitária. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa desenvolvida por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com médicos e pacientes hiperutilizadores de baixo risco clínico e observação de campo etnográfica. Observou-se que os profissionais tendem a estigmatizar a demanda desses usuários. Já os usuários demonstram satisfação com os médicos, mas descontentamento com a atenção básica e especializada ambulatorial. Conclui-se que a hiperutilização gera conflitos ético-profissionais decorrentes sobretudo da estigmatização dos pacientes pelos médicos. Apesar disso, os hiperutilizadores se sentem satisfeitos com o atendimento, o que os motiva a continuar frequentando os serviços com frequência.


Abstract There is an increasing demand for Emergency Department (ED) services from frequent users with problems of low clinical complexity. The overuse of ED poses several ethical-professional dilemmas for physicians and other medical staff. The study analyzes the ethical implications that emerge from the relationship between physicians and low-risk frequent users in a university hospital. This is a qualitative research developed through semi-structured interviews with physicians and low-risk frequent users and ethnographic observation in the field. It was observed that medical staff tend to stigmatize the demand of frequent patients. They, on the other hand, are satisfied with the physicians but discontent with primary health care and specialized outpatient care. It is concluded that the overuse generates ethicalprofessional conflicts, especially due to the stigmatization of these users by physicians. Nevertheless, frequent users are satisfied with the service, which motivates them to continue using it often.


Resumen Existe una demanda creciente de usuarios con problemas de baja complejidad clínica que frecuentemente buscan servicios hospitalarios de urgencia y emergencia. El uso excesivo de SUH impone varios dilemas éticos a los servicios, médicos y otros profesionales. El estudio examina las implicaciones éticas que surgen del encuentro entre médicos y pacientes hiperfrecuentadores de bajo riesgo clínico en un SUH universitario. Es una investigación cualitativa desarrollada a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con médicos y pacientes hiperfrecuentadores de bajo riesgo clínico y observación de campo del tipo etnográfico. Se observó que los médicos tienden a estigmatizar la demanda del hiperfrecuentador. Los pacientes, por otro lado, muestran satisfacción con los médicos y refuerzan el descontento con la atención básica de salud y los servicios ambulatorios especializados. Se concluye que el uso excesivo del SUH genera conflictos en el ejercicio ético-profesional, principalmente como resultado de la estigmatización de estos pacientes por parte de los médicos. A pesar de esto, los hiperfrecuentadores están satisfechos con el servicio, lo que los motiva a convertirse en grandes usuarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physician-Patient Relations , Triage , Emergency Service, Hospital , Ethics, Medical
6.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 101-106, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280500

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Síndrome de Mirizzi es una complicación infrecuente de la enfermedad litiásica biliar, con una incidencia menor al 1% en países desarrollados, puede desarrollarse en cinco variantes, siendo menos frecuente la variante tipo V. La literatura actual discrepa sobre el manejo de esta condición, afirmando que la cirugía laparoscópica no es segura como procedimiento estándar. Caso Clínico: Se presenta el caso de Síndrome de Mirizzi en un hombre de 80 años, que es remitido al departamento de urgencias por sospecha de sepsis de origen abdominal, con estudio ecográfico de colelitiasis, neumobilia y dilatación de las vías biliares. Se realizó Colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica con imposibilidad técnica para la movilización y extracción de los cálculos por gran tamaño, recurriéndose a exploración a través de técnica laparoscópica, obteniéndose resultados satisfactorios. Conclusión: Para tratar el Síndrome de Mirizzi, es necesario considerar las características del paciente y la experiencia del cirujano ya que ambos factores influyen directamente en la modalidad del tratamiento, sus complicaciones y tasas de éxito. En el presente caso, la experiencia del autor principal en el manejo de procedimientos mínimamente invasivos y la consideración de reducir el riesgo de complicaciones como infecciones en un paciente frágil, fueron los factores que influyeron para la decisión de intervención laparoscópica.


Abstract Introduction: Mirizzi's syndrome is an infrequent complication of biliary lithiasic disease, with an incidence of less than 1% in developed countries, being even less frequent the type V variant. Current literature disagrees on the management of this condition, stating that laparoscopic surgery is not safe as a standard procedure. Clinical Case: We present the case of Mirizzi's Syndrome in an 80-year-old man, which is referred to the emergency department for suspicion of sepsis of abdominal origin, with ultrasound study of cholelithiasis, pneumoobilia and dilation of the bile ducts. Retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreatography was performed with technical impossibility for the mobilization and extraction of large-size stones, resorting to exploration through laparoscopic technique, obtaining satisfactory results. Conclusion: It is necessary to emphasize that the type of Mirizzi syndrome, the patient's characteristics and the surgeon's experience directly influence the treatment modality, its complications and/or success rates. In the present case, the experience of the main author in the management of minimally invasive procedures and the consideration of reducing the risk of complications such as infections in a fragile patient, were the factors that influenced the decision for laparoscopic intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cholelithiasis , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Laparoscopy , Mirizzi Syndrome , Therapeutics , Bile Ducts , Calculi , Sepsis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infections
7.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 56-63, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280493

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir el tratamiento en un hospital de primer nivel de pacientes que consultaron el servicio de urgencias por hiperglucemia, el manejo previo y su probable relación con nuevas hiperglucemias. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal con seguimiento de un año en pacientes mayores de 18 años con hiperglucemia que consultaron en el servicio de urgencias entre septiembre-2016 y agosto-2017. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se establecieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, y farmacológicas. Se empleó estadística descriptiva, X 2 y modelos de regresión logística binaria (P<0.05). Resultados: Se presentaron 86 pacientes con hiperglucemia (edad media de 52.1±14.93 años). Se encontró que en el 58,1% de casos había un diagnóstico previo de diabetes mellitus; 87,2% fueron tratados con insulina cristalina y el 47,0% de los pacientes consultaron nuevamente por una crisis de hiperglucemia en los seis meses posteriores al egreso. Conclusión: Existe alta proporción de pacientes con hiperglucemias no cetónicas, no hiperosmolares que desconocían presentar diabetes mellitus. Además, casi la mitad de los pacientes consultan nuevamente por crisis de hiperglucemia en los siguientes seis meses después del alta.


Abstract Objective: Describe the treatment in a first-level hospital of patients who consulted the emergency department for hyperglycemia, the previous management and its probable relationship with new hyperglycemia. Materials and methods: Observational cross-sectional study with a one-year follow-up in patients over 18 years of age with hyperglycemia who consulted in the emergency department between September-2016 and August-2017. The medical records were reviewed and sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were established. Descriptive statistics, X2 and binary logistic regression models (P <0.05) were used. Results: There were 86 patients with hyperglycemia (mean age 52.1 ± 14.93 years). It was found that in 58.1% of cases there was a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus; 87.2% were treated with crystalline insulin and 47.0% of the patients consulted again for a hyperglycemic crisis in the six months after discharge. Conclusion: There is a high proportion of patients with non-ketonic, non-hyperosmolar hyperglycemia who were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. In addition, almost half of the patients consult again for a hyperglycemic attack in the following six months after discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pharmacoepidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitals , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Therapeutics , Aftercare , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 143-148, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287263

ABSTRACT

Resumen Para hacer frente a la pandemia causada por el SARS CoV-2, en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires se establecieron Unidades Febriles de Urgencias anexas a los hospitales de alta compleji dad. Se realizó un estudio observacional y retrospectivo con el objeto de evaluar el perfil de las personas que consultaron durante el período comprendido entre las semanas epidemiológicas 28 y 42, 2020. Se recibieron 12 571 consultas, el promedio de edad fue 38.2 años y 6801 (54.1%) pacientes eran varones. Se realizaron 9501 hisopados (RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2) y 2499 (26.3%) fueron confirmados positivos. La edad media de los confirmados para COVID-19 fue 37.9 años, 1367 (54.7%) eran varones y 143 (5.7%) requirieron internación en la primera consulta. Tantos como 6097 (48.5%) participantes contaban con obra social o medicina prepaga. Consultaron solo 160 pacientes con HIV, se diagnosticó coinfección HIV/COVID-19 en 39/160 (24.4%) infectados con HIV y requirieron internación 9/39 (23.1%) coinfectados. Consultaron 128 pacientes con tuberculosis (TB), se diagnosticó coinfección TB/COVID-19 en 31/128 (24.2%) y requirieron internación 8/31 (25.8%) coinfectados. La triple asociación HIV/TB/COVID-19 fue constatada en 2 pacientes. Contrariamente a lo esperado, las dos principales enfermedades atendidas en el hospital, TB y HIV, estuvieron poco representadas en la consulta, pero el requerimiento de internación para los coinfectados fue elevado. Esto puede deberse a consulta tardía por restricciones de movilidad y asistencia durante la cuarentena. Nuestros datos también indican que el sector público de la ciudad debió absorber demanda insatisfecha del sector privado.


Abstract Febrile Emergency Units were annexed to tertiary hospitals to face the pandemic caused by SARS CoV-2 in Buenos Aires City. We performed a retrospective observational study in order to evaluate the profile of people consulting the Unit annexed to the Muñiz Hospital, during the period comprising epidemiological weeks 28 to 42, 2020. The total number of consultations was 12 571; 6801 (54.1%) patients were male, and the average age was 38 years. A total of 2499 (26.3 %) of 9501 swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 when analyzed by RT-PCR. The average age of confirmed COVID-19 patients was 37.9 years; 1367 (54.7%) were male and 143 (5.7%) required hospitalization at the first consultation. As many as 6097 (48.5%) participants were beneficiaries of social security or prepaid medicine. Only 160 (1.3%) were HIV positive, with COVID-19 coinfection diagnosed in 39/160 (24.4%), of which 9 (23.1%) required hospitalization. Only 128 (1%) had tuberculosis (TB); TB/CO VID-19 coinfection was diagnosed in 31 of them (24.2%), and 8/31 (25.8%) required hospitalization. The triple association HIV/TB /COVID-19 was reported in only 2 patients. Contrary to expectations, TB and HIV, the two main diseases treated in our hospital, were under-represented in this Emergency Unit, but the requirement of hospitalization for coinfected patients was quite frequent. This may be due to late consultation caused by mobility and assistance restrictions during quarantine. Interestingly, our data also indicate that the city's public sector had to absorb unsatisfied demand from the private sector and suburban population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals
10.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(276): 5656-5669, maio.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1247528

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever, a partir da literatura publicada no período entre 2015 e 2020, a satisfação e insatisfação da equipe de enfermagem no contexto de trabalho em unidades de urgência e emergência. Metodologia: Estudo do tipo Revisão Integrativa, realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO e BVS. A amostra inicial foi de 156 artigos encontrados nas bases de dados, destes apenas sete foram selecionados segundo os critérios estabelecidos. Para tratamento dos dados, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Emergiram duas categorias temáticas: Fatores de satisfação no trabalho de enfermagem em urgência e emergência e Fatores de insatisfação no trabalho de enfermagem em urgência e emergência. Conclusão: A satisfação está relacionada a condições de trabalho; realização e reconhecimento profissional; remuneração e formação continuada. Já a insatisfação, está relacionada a falta de interação entre a equipe; falta de reconhecimento profissional, apoio e autonomia; e condições de trabalho inadequadas, como a sobrecarga.(AU)


Objective: To describe, from the literature published between 2015 and 2020, the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the nursing team in the context of work in urgent and emergency units. Methodology: Integrative Review study, carried out in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO and BVS databases. The initial sample was 156 articles found in the databases, of which only seven were selected according to the established criteria. Content analysis was used to process the data. Results: Two thematic categories emerged: Factors of satisfaction in nursing work in urgency and emergency and Factors of dissatisfaction in nursing work in urgency and emergency. Conclusion: Satisfaction is related to working conditions; professional achievement and recognition; remuneration and continuing training. Dissatisfaction, on the other hand, is related to the lack of interaction between the team; lack of professional recognition, support and autonomy; and inadequate working conditions, such as overload.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir, a partir de la literatura publicada entre 2015 y 2020, la satisfacción e insatisfacción del equipo de enfermería en el contexto del trabajo en unidades de urgencia y emergencia. Metodología: Estudio de revisión integrativa, realizado en bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO y BVS. La muestra inicial fue de 156 artículos encontrados en las bases de datos, de los cuales sólo siete fueron seleccionados de acuerdo con los criterios establecidos. El análisis de contenido se utilizó para procesar los datos. Resultados: Surgieron dos categorías temáticas: Factores de satisfacción en el trabajo de enfermería en urgencia y emergencia y Factores de insatisfacción en el trabajo de enfermería en urgencia y emergencia. Conclusión: La satisfacción está relacionada con las condiciones de trabajo; logro profesional y reconocimiento; remuneración y formación continua. La insatisfacción, por otro lado, está relacionada con la falta de interacción entre el equipo; falta de reconocimiento profesional, apoyo y autonomía; y condiciones de trabajo inadecuadas, como la sobrecarga. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Working Conditions , Emergency Nursing , Emergency Service, Hospital , Job Satisfaction , Nursing, Team , Workload , Emergencies/nursing , Nursing Staff
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 170-177, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181006

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Healthcare institutions are confronted with large numbers of patient admissions during large-scale or long-term public health emergencies like pandemics. Appropriate and effective triage is needed for effective resource use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS), Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) and Confusion, Uremia, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure and age ≥ 65 years (CURB-65) score in an emergency department (ED) triage setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in the ED of a tertiary-care university hospital in Düzce, Turkey. METHODS: PMEWS, STSS and CURB-65 scores of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia were calculated. Thirty-day mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV) need and outcomes were recorded. The predictive accuracy of the scores was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: One hundred patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included. The 30-day mortality was 6%. PMEWS, STSS and CURB-65 showed high performance for predicting 30-day mortality (area under the curve: 0.968, 0.962 and 0.942, respectively). Age > 65 years, respiratory rate > 20/minute, oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 90% and ED length of stay > 4 hours showed associations with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CURB-65, STSS and PMEWS scores are useful for predicting mortality, ICU admission and MV need among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Advanced age, increased respiratory rate, low SpO2 and prolonged ED length of stay may increase mortality. Further studies are needed for developing the triage scoring systems, to ensure effective long-term use of healthcare service capacity during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Triage/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Early Warning Score , COVID-19/therapy , Turkey , Uremia/etiology , Uremia/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
14.
Más Vita ; 3(1): 99-112, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253779

ABSTRACT

Las medidas de Bioseguridad son un conjunto de normas preventivas que debe aplicar el personal de salud y de enfermería para evitar el contagio por la exposición de agentes infecciosos, sean físicos, químicos o biológicos. Objetivo: Determinar el manejo de las medidas de bioseguridad del personal de enfermería del servicio de emergencia del Hospital General Norte de Guayaquil IESS Los Ceibos. Fundamentándose en la gran problemática del manejo de los riesgos biológicos en el personal sanitario, que con frecuencia omite aplicar normas de seguridad, lo que aumenta el riesgo de contraer una enfermedad infectocontagiosa de tipo laboral. Materiales y métodos: La metodología empleada fue diseño descriptivo, con corte transversal, Cuali-cuantitativo. La recolección de datos se la realizó mediante la aplicación de cuestionarios pre estructurado, los cuales ayudaron a establecer el nivel de conocimientos y manejo de las medidas de bioseguridad por parte del personal. La muestra la conformaron 90 enfermeras y enfermeros que laboran en el área de emergencia. Resultados: Los resultados revelaron que el nivel de conocimiento del personal de enfermería es alto o adecuado con un porcentaje promedio de 77,67%, por ende, el 22,33% del personal desconoce estas medidas preventivas o tiene conocimiento deficiente. Con respecto a la aplicación de las medidas de bioseguridad se obtuvo un porcentaje general de 47%, es decir se considera la aplicación de estas normas por parte del personal deficiente e insuficiente. Conclusión: Se menciona que hay riesgos en el área de emergencia, prevaleciendo entre ellos el biológico de acuerdo a la opinión del personal encuestado, por otra parte, se determinó un conocimiento eficiente de las medidas de bioseguridad, pero su aplicación en relación al conocimiento es deficiente, situación que incrementa el riesgo laboral(AU)


Biosafety measures are a set of preventive rules to be applied by health and nursing personnel to avoid contagion by exposure to infectious agents, whether physical, chemical or biological. Objective: To determine the management biosecurity measures of the nursing staff of the emergency service of the Hospital General Norte de Guayaquil IESS Los Ceibos. Based on the great problem of the management of biological risks in health personnel, who often fail to apply safety standards, which increases the risk of contracting an occupational infectious-contagious disease. Materials and methods: The methodology used was a descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative-quantitative design. Data collection was carried out through the application of pre-structured questionnaires, which helped to establish the level of knowledge and management biosafety measures by the personnel. The sample consisted of 90 nurses working in the emergency area. The results: The results revealed that the level of knowledge of the nursing personnel is high or adequate with an average percentage of 77.67%; therefore, 22.33% of the personnel are unaware of these preventive measures or have deficient knowledge. With respect to the application biosecurity measures, an overall percentage of 47% was obtained, i.e. the application of these norms by of personnel is considered deficient and insufficient. Conclusion: It is mentioned that there are risks in the emergency area, prevailing among them the biological risk, according to the opinion of the personnel surveyed. On the other hand, an efficient knowledge of the biosecurity measures was determined, but their application in relation to the knowledge is deficient, a situation that increases the occupational risk(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Containment of Biohazards , Emergency Service, Hospital , Nursing Staff , Occupational Risks , Hazardous Substances , Health Personnel
15.
Infectio ; 25(1): 39-44, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo. Describir el perfil microbiológico y de resistencia bacteriana de los aislamientos en adultos con infecciones adquiridas en comunidad en el Hospital Universitario San José de junio 2016 a diciembre 2019. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, análisis retrospectivo de los aislamientos microbiológicos en adultos desde junio 2016 a diciembre 2019, basado en la data institucional. Se analizó la información con STATA15,0. Se obtuvo la aprobación del comité de ética del hospital. Resultados. Se incluyeron 5121 aislamientos microbiológicos, el 61% en el servicio de urgencias. El urocultivo fue la muestra más frecuente. Escherichia coli fue el germen más común tanto a nivel general como en urocultivos, hemocultivos y cultivos de líquido peritoneal. La resistencia a ampicilina y amp/sul fue elevada, hasta del 68% para E. coli. El 20% de los Staphylococcus aureus fueron resistentes a meticilina. Se observó una resistencia inusual a carbapenémicos por parte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Discusión. El perfil microbiológico concuerda con la literatura mundial y nacional, sin embargo, el HUSJ tiene un comportamiento microbiológico que debe ser estudiado a profundidad. Conclusión. Los porcentajes de resistencia a antibióticos de uso frecuente son elevados. Se requiere ajustes de las guías de manejo institucionales y nacionales.


Abstract Objetive. To describe the microbiological profile and resistance spectrum of the community acquired bacterial infection of the San Jose university hospital from june 2016 to december 2019 Methodology. A retrospective transverse descriptive study of microbial organisms found in adults in the institution from June 2016 to December 2019, the study is based in the hospital data. The analysis of the information was made with SATA 15.0. Results. 5121 samples were included, 61% from the emergency department. Urine culture was the most frequent sample taken. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolated bacterial, in all samples, urine culture, blood culture, and peritoneal culture. Ampiciline r and ampiciline/sulbactam was high up to 68% of the E. Coli cultures. 20% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant. Unusual carbapenemic resistance was found in the Pseudomona aeruginosa isolates.. Discussion. The data of the bacterial resistance spectrum Concord which was is found in the general medical literature, nevertheless the HUSJ, has a microbial behaviour that must be studied thoroughly. Conclusion. The antibiotic bacterial resistance to common used antibiotics is high. Adjustments are required in the instucional and national management guidelines


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bacterial Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sepsis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents
16.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(1): e923, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289524

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas del trauma ocular a globo abierto en la zona I y su manejo en el Servicio de Urgencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo a una muestra de 35 pacientes ingresados en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", entre junio del año 2016 y junio de 2017. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, ocupación, ojo afectado, lugar del accidente, agente causal, localización, tamaño y forma de la herida, tiempo de evolución, mecanismo de producción y agudeza visual inicial, alteraciones oculares asociadas y tratamiento médico realizado, las cuales fueron procesadas en la base de datos con el uso de SPSS. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino, la edad menor de 50 años, el área laboral y los objetos metálicos, así como las heridas penetrantes entre 2 a 5 mm, paracentrales y lineales, asociadas a la catarata. La mayoría requirió tratamiento quirúrgico. Conclusiones: A pesar de la atención temprana y oportuna del trauma ocular a globo abierto, este representa una causa frecuente de disminución unilateral de la visión en pacientes en edad laboral, por lo que se deben intensificar las medidas de protección para su prevención(AU)


Objective: To describe clinical characteristics of open globe eye trauma in zone 1 and its management in the emergency department in patients admitted to the Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology Ramón Pando Ferrer between June 2016 and June 2017. Methods: A prospective longitudinal descriptive observational study was carried out on a sample of 35 patients. The variables studied were age, sex, occupation, affected eye, place of the accident, causal agent, location, size and shape of the wound, evolution time, production mechanism and initial visual acuity, associated ocular alterations and medical treatment that were processed in a database with SPSS. Results: the male sex under 50 years of age, work area and metal objects predominated, as well as penetrating wounds between 2 and 5 mm for central and linear associated with cataract. Most required surgical treatment. Conclusions: despite the early and timely care of open globe eye trauma, this continues to exist as a cause of unilateral decrease in vision in working-age patients, so protection measures should be intensified as a priority for its prevention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Accidents , Eye Injuries/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Corneal Injuries/diagnosis
17.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(1): e2949, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156423

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Facial injuries are a common occurrence at the emergency room. Treatment for this type of trauma is complex in terms of re-establishing good oral and facial function, plus aesthetics. Objective: This paper aims to report a clinical case of aesthetic and functional rehabilitation using triamcinolone in a patient affected on the face by a fireworks explosion. Case report: A 26-year-old man was admitted to the oral and maxillofacial surgery service of the Sergipe Urgency Hospital presenting trauma after the explosion of a "Firework rocket" in his face. The patient had extensive soft tissue injury in gingival mucosa, right labial commissure, and tongue. There was also inferior incisive avulsion and dentoalveolar fracture. His clinical and tomographic evaluation presented comminuted mandibular fracture. After eighteen days he was discharged and sent to the dentistry service of the Federal University of Sergipe for aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of his facial damages. Two months later, the patient attended a University dental service to begin aesthetic and postoperative functional rehabilitation. First, the necrotic bone was removed, following intralesional infiltration of hexacetonide triamcinolone 20mg/mL into the scar of the labial region and the commissure of the lips was performed. Each application was performed after twenty days of interval. Later, lingual frenectomy and glossosplasty were done for improving his lingual mobility and then hexacetonide triamcinolone 20mg/mL infiltrations were also done in the tongue base in the following sessions. Conclusions: After five infiltrations, it was observed an improvement in the scar appearance and texture, which also had a lower contracture, as well as a lingual motricity improvement(AU)


Introducción: Las lesiones faciales son frecuentes en el servicio de emergencia. El tratamiento para este tipo de trauma es complejo en términos de restablecer una buena función bucal y facial, además de la estética. Objetivo: Reportar un caso clínico de rehabilitación estética y funcional a través del uso de hexacetónido de triamcinolona en un paciente afectado por una explosión de fuegos artificiales en su rostro. Caso clínico: Hombre de 26 años ingresado en el servicio de cirugía oral y maxilofacial del Hospital de Urgencia de Sergipe por presentar un traumatismo después de la explosión contra su rostro de un cohete de fuegos artificiales. El paciente tenía una lesión extensa de partes blandas en la mucosa gingival, comisura labial derecha y lengua. También hubo avulsión incisiva inferior y fractura dentoalveolar. A través de la evaluación clínica y de tomografía, fue posible observar fragmentación múltiple ósea en el sitio de la fractura, compatible con fractura mandibular conminuta. Después de dieciocho días fue dado de alta y enviado al servicio de odontología de la Universidad Federal de Sergipe para la rehabilitación estética y funcional de sus daños faciales. Dos meses después, el paciente asistió al servicio dental de la universidad para comenzar la rehabilitación funcional estética y posoperatoria. Primero, se retiró el hueso necrótico, luego se realizó la infiltración intralesional de hexacetónido de triamcinolona 20 mg/mL en la cicatriz de la región labial y se realizó la comisura de los labios; con un intervalo de 20 días entre cada aplicación. Posteriormente, se realizaron frenectomía lingual y glososplastia, para mejorar su movilidad lingual, y luego se realizaron infiltraciones de 20 mg/mL de hexacetónido de triamcinolona en la base de la lengua en las sesiones siguientes. Comentarios principales: Después de cinco infiltraciones se observó una mejora en el aspecto y la textura de la cicatriz, que también tenía una contractura más baja, así como una mejora de la motricidad lingual(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Triamcinolone/therapeutic use , Explosions/prevention & control , Facial Injuries/diagnosis , Mandibular Fractures/therapy , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/rehabilitation , Emergency Service, Hospital
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(1): 53-57, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156968

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected healthcare systems worldwide. The effect of the pandemic on emergency general surgery patients remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To reveal the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality and morbidity among emergency general surgery cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data on patients who were admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Samsun, Turkey, and had consultations at the general surgery clinic were analyzed retrospectively. METHODS: Our study included comparative analysis on two groups of patients who received emergency general surgery consultations in our hospital: during the COVID-19 pandemic period (Group 2); and on the same dates one year previously (Group 1). RESULTS: There were 195 patients in Group 1 and 132 in Group 2 (P < 0.001). While 113 (58%) of the patients in Group 1 were women, only 58 (44%) were women in Group 2 (P = 0.013). Considering all types of diagnosis, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.261). The rates of abscess and delayed abdominal emergency diseases were higher in Group 2: one case (0.5%) versus ten cases (8%); P < 0.001. The morbidity rate was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1: three cases (1.5%) versus nine cases (7%); P = 0.016. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has decreased the number of unnecessary nonemergency admissions to the emergency department, but has not delayed patients' urgent consultations. The pandemic has led surgeons to deal with more complicated cases and greater numbers of complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Turkey/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(1): 10-17, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156965

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most frequent hyperglycemic complication in the evolution of diabetes mellitus. Common precipitating factors include newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, noncompliance with therapy and infections. However, few studies have been conducted in Brazil and none were prospective in design. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, clinical and laboratory characteristics and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis among emergency department patients in a tertiary-level teaching hospital in Brazil. We also aimed to identify immediate and long-term mortality within two years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective prognosis cohort study conduct at a tertiary-level teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: All patients > 12 years old presenting diabetic ketoacidosis who were admitted to the emergency department from June 2015 to May 2016 were invited to participate. RESULTS: The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis per 1,000 admissions was 8.7. Treatment noncompliance and infection were the most common causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. The immediate mortality rate was 5.8%, while the six-month, one-year and two-year mortality rates were 9.6%, 13.5% and 19.2%, respectively. Death occurring within two years was associated with age, type 2 diabetes, hypoalbuminemia, infection at presentation and higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic ketoacidosis among patients presenting to the emergency department was relatively frequent in our hospital. Treatment noncompliance and infection were major precipitating factors and presence of diabetic ketoacidosis was associated with immediate and long-term risk of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Prognosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital
20.
Arch. med ; 21(1): 203-214, 2021/01/03.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148446

ABSTRACT

El trauma es uno de los principales retos en cuanto a salud pública mundial se trata. Según la OMS, causa alrededor de cinco millones de muertes al año, siendo el trauma de tórax uno de los más frecuentes, reportándose hasta 90-96% de lesiones penetrantes con una mortalidad cercana al 30%. La toracotomía es un procedimiento frecuentemente realizado en el servicio de urgencias, pero es una técnica dolorosa e incómoda que puede generar dificultades a la hora de su realización. Se requiere encontrar la información disponible acerca de la seguridad en la intervención bajo sedación y determinar su utilidad en el servicio de urgencias, así como conocer los niveles de sedación para poder realizar las diferentes técnicas y evaluar según el procedimiento a realizar a qué nivel se debe llevar el paciente. La utilización de fármacos para analgesia y sedación en este servicio tiene por objetivo el control efectivo y seguro del dolor, control de la ansiedad, para evitar movimientos del paciente, buscando disminuir las posibles complicaciones. En esta revisión se estudian medicamentos como ketamina, propofol, morfina, hidromorfona, fentanilo, etomidato y midazolam, así como sus posibles combinaciones para implementarlos en el proceso de sedación en la toracostomía de urgencia. No hay una estrategia terapéutica aplicable a todos los pacientes por lo que cada una de ellas debe individualizarse..Au


Trauma constitutes one of the main challenges in terms of public health in the world. According to the WHO, it causes about five million deaths per year, chest trauma is one of the most frequently occurring injuries, reporting up to 90-96% of penetrating injuries with mortality close to 30%. Thoracostomy is a procedure frequently performed in the emergency department, however, it is a painful and uncomfortable procedure, and there could be difficulties while it is done. It is required to find the available information about how safe a thoracostomy is under sedation is and determine its usefulness in the emergency department; learning the levels of sedation, and depending of the procedure the patient needs, determine the level of sedation the patient has to induced into. The use of medications for analgesia and sedation in the emergency room is aimed to the effective and safe control of pain and anxiety as well as to avoid movements of the patient to reduce complications. This review considers medications such as ketamine, propofol, morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl, etomidate, midazolam and the best combinations of these medications to carry out sedation for emergency thoracostomy. However, there is not a therapeutic strategy applicable to all patients, therefore each patient has to be analyzed individually..Au


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracostomy , Emergency Service, Hospital
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