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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e11184, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285676

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic scar (HS) formation is a common complication that develops after skin injury; however, there are few effective and specific therapeutic approaches for HS. Emodin has previously been reported to inhibit mechanical stress-induced HS inflammation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of emodin on HS formation. First, we conducted in vitro assays that revealed that emodin inhibited M1 and M2 polarization in rat macrophages. We subsequently established a combined rat model of tail HS and dorsal subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge-induced wounds. Rats were treated with emodin or vehicle (DMEM). Tail scar specimens were harvested at 14, 28, and 42 days post-incision and subjected to H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining. Histopathological analyses confirmed that emodin attenuated HS formation and fibrosis. Macrophages were separated from wound cells collected from the PVA sponge at 3 and 7 days after implantation. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that emodin suppressed in vivo macrophage recruitment and polarization at the wound site. Finally, we explored the molecular mechanisms of emodin in modulating macrophage polarization by evaluating the expression levels of selected effectors of the Notch and TGF-β pathways in macrophages isolated from PVA sponges. Western blot and qPCR assays showed that Notch1, Notch4, Hes1, TGF-β, and Smad3 were downregulated in response to emodin treatment. Taken together, our findings suggested that emodin attenuated HS formation and fibrosis by suppressing macrophage polarization, which is associated with the inhibition of the Notch and TGF-β pathways in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Emodin/pharmacology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Macrophages
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect and mechanism of a novel emodin derivative YX-18 on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells.@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to detect the effect of YX-18 on the proliferation of BL cell lines CA46 and Raji. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD double staining assay was used for detecting the effect of YX-18 on the apoptosis of CA46 and Raji cells. PI/RNase staining was used to test the effect of YX-18 on CA46 and Raji cell cycle. JC-1 method was used to measure the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after YX-18 treatment, and DAPI staining was used to detect the morphology of apoptotic cells. Western blot was used to analyze the distribution changes of NF-κB pathway protein (P65, P-P65, IκB, P-IκB) in the cytoplasm and cell nucleus, and also the expression changes of cyclin-related protein P21, CDK2, P-CDK2, Cycling D1, Cycling E1, and the apoptosis-related protein Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and the proliferation-related protein C-MYC, BCL-2 by YX-18. Real-time fluorescence-quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the effects of YX-18 on mRNA levels of C-MYC and Ki-67 genes in CA46 and Raji cells, and EBNA-1 and EBER genes of EBV in Raji (EBV@*RESULTS@#Novel Emodin derivative YX-18 could effectively inhibit the proliferation of BL cell lines CA46 and Raji, showing a time-dependent effect (24, 48 and 72 h: r@*CONCLUSION@#The novel emodin derivative YX-18 can significantly inhibit the proliferation of Burkitt lymphoma cells, and induce the cell apoptosis and cycle arrest. The inhibitory effect of YX-18 on the proliferation of Burkitt lymphoma cells may be related with the effect of Caspase apoptosis pathway, the proliferation and apoptosis-related molecules, such as C-MYC and Ki-67, and also to the inhibition of NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Burkitt Lymphoma , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Emodin/pharmacology , Humans , NF-kappa B
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828062

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to establish a rat liver micro-tissue evaluation system to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of the main monomers in Polygonum multiflorum. Rat primary hepatocytes were isolated and purified by two-step in situ perfusion method to prepare hepatic parenchymal cells. The ultra-low adsorption plate and the inverted model were used to establish an in vitro hepatotoxicity evaluation system. After the system was established, the main monomer components(monanthone with emodin type, rhein, emodin, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, physcion) of P. multiflorum were selected for in vitro hepatotoxicity evaluation. This study showed that the primary cells of the liver can form liver micro-tissues in the low adsorption plate method and the mold perfusion method, with good liver structure and function, which can be used to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of the drug to be tested after long-term administration. The five monomers to be tested in P. multiflorum can significantly affect the proliferation of primary liver micro-tissues in rats in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The hepatotoxic effects were as follows: monanthone with emodin type > rhein > emodin > emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside > physcion. The results suggested that the emodin-type monoterpene and rhein might be the potential hepatotoxic components, while the metabolites of emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside and emodin methyl ether showed more toxic risks. The rat primary hepatocyte micro-tissue model system established in this experiment could be used to achieve long-term drug administration in vitro, which was consistent with the clinical features of liver injury caused by long-term use of P. multiflorum. The experimental results provided important information and reference on the clinical application and toxic component of P. multiflorum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emodin , Fallopia multiflora , Glucosides , Plant Extracts , Polygonum , Rats
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777498

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of emodin on gut microbiota in acute kidney injury rats( AKI). Rats were randomly divided into several groups: normal group,model group,low-dose of emodin group( 10 mg·kg~(-1)),medium-dose of emodin group( 25 mg·kg~(-1)),high-dose of emodin group( 50 mg·kg~(-1)) and control group( 5 mg·kg~(-1) of benazepril hydrochloride).The AKI model rats were established by intraperitoneal injection of small dose of gentamicin sulfate for 7 days. Two hours after intraperitoneal injection,except for the normal group and the model group,the other groups were given corresponding doses of drugs for 15 days. The serum levels of serum creatinine( SCr),urea nitrogen( BUN),plasma endotoxin level,24 h urinary protein and D-lactate in the plasma were determined by sarcosine oxidase,urease method,tal reagent method,bromo cresol chloroform method and double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay,respectively. Gut microbial communities were assayed by fluorescent quantitative PCR methods. HE staining was used to detect the pathological changes of the kidneys. Compared with the normal group,there were significant differences in body weight,urinary protein( UTP),bacterial endotoxin,urea nitrogen,creatinine,D-lactate in the plasma and four bacterial contents in the model group( P<0. 05). The urinary protein,urea nitrogen,D-lactate,creatinine and plasma bacterial endotoxin in control group and each emodin group were lower than those in model group,especially for high-dose of emodin( P<0. 01). Moreover,pathology resolution in high-dose emodin was better than other groups. Except for low-dose of emodin group,qRT-PCR data suggested that the amounts of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus in medication administration group were increased,while the amounts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium were reduced compared with model group( P<0. 05),especially for high-dose of emodin( P<0. 01). There is a clear imbalance of gut microbiota in rats with AKI. Emodin could regulate the imbalance of gut microbiota,which might be one of the mechanisms of its effects on AKI rats.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Emodin , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Kidney , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the combination effect of endoxifen and emodin on estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cell lines and to explain the mechanism of the combination effect. METHODS: We conducted this study on MCF-7 (ER+/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 [HER2]−), T47D (ER+/HER2−), ZR-75-1 (ER+/HER2+), and BT474 (ER+/HER2+) cell lines, which confirmed combination effect of endoxifen and emodin. Optimal concentrations for combination were determined to study the effects on proliferation of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. Analysis of the combination effect was carried out in the CompuSyn software. The combination of downstream mechanisms, and combined effects of other similar compounds were tested on the MCF-7 and ZR 75-1 cell lines. Protein expression was confirmed by western blot. RESULTS: The combination of endoxifen and emodin had antagonistic effects on MCF-7 and ZR-75-1cell lines (combination index > 1). We validated the antagonistic effect in T47D and BT474 cell lines. During the combined treatment, the results showed elevated amounts of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK). Analysis of drug interactions showed antagonistic effect between endoxifen and chemical compounds similar to emodin, such as chrysophanol or rhein, in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. CONCLUSION: Addition of emodin attenuated tamoxifen's treatment effect via cyclin D1 and pERK up-regulation in ER-positive breast cancer cell lines.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Line , Cyclin D1 , Drug Interactions , Emodin , Epidermal Growth Factor , Estrogens , Phosphotransferases , Phytoestrogens , Tamoxifen , Therapeutic Uses , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773254

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of emodin on lipid accumulation and inflammation in hepatocytes. The cell morphology was observed by microscopy. LDH release was detected by the kit. Levels of intracellular lipid droplets were observed by oil red O staining. The contents of TC and TG in cells were detected by the kit. Western blot was used to determine protein expressions of FASN,SREBF2,APOB,IL-6 and p-NF-κB in hepatocytes. The results showed that the levels of L02 cell LDH were significantly increased after being treated with emodin,and the cells showed shrinkage,volume reduction,decrease in quantity with the increase of dose. Red lipid droplets were observed in L02 hepatocytes. Intracellular TC and TG contents of L02 cell increased in a concentrationdependent manner,with significant differences between medium and high-dose groups( P < 0. 05). Protein expressions of FASN,SREBF2,IL-6 and p-NF-κB were significantly higher than those of the control group,and the expression level of APOB was significantly lower than that of the control group( P<0. 05). In conclusion,emodin could induce lipid accumulation and inflammatory damage in hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner,which in turn could damage liver cells. This process was related to the up-regulation of FASN,SREBF2,IL-6,p-NF-κB,as well as the down-regulation of the protein expression of APOB.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein B-100 , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Emodin , Pharmacology , Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2 , Metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773085

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the hepatotoxicity risks of physcion on the basis of the bilirubin metabolism mediated by glucuronidation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A1(UGT1A1 enzyme). The monomers were added into the rat liver microsomes to test the hepatotoxicity by using bilirubin as UGT1A1 enzyme substrate, with apparent inhibition constant K_i as the evaluation index. Liver microsome incubation in vitro was adopted to initiate phase Ⅱ metabolic reaction and investigate the inhibitory effect of physcion. Then the phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ metabolic reactions were initiated to investigate the comprehensive inhibition of metabolites and prototype components. The results showed that when only the phase Ⅱ reaction was initiated, physcion directly acted on the UGT1A1 enzyme in a prototype form, exhibited weak inhibition and the inhibition type was mixed inhibition; When the phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ reactions were initiated simultaneously, the inhibitory effects of physcion on UGT1A1 enzyme became strong and the inhibition type was mixed inhibition, suggesting that physcion had phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ metabolic processes, and the metabolites had strong inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 enzyme. This experiment preliminarily proved that the metabolites of physcion may be the main components to induce hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emodin , Toxicity , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Kinetics , Microsomes, Liver , Rats
8.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760569

ABSTRACT

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established method adopted by international pharmacopoeia for quantitative and purity analyses. Emodin is a type of anthraquinone, well known as the main active component of Fabaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Purity analysis of emodin is usually performed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. However, it cannot detect impurities such as salts, volatile matter, and trace elements. Using the qNMR method, it is possible to determine the compound content as well as the nature of the impurities. Several experimental parameters were optimized for the quantification, such as relaxation delay, spectral width, number of scans, temperature, pulse width, and acquisition time. The method was validated, and the results of the qNMR method were compared with those obtained by the HPLC and mass balance analysis methods. The qNMR method is specific, rapid, simple, and therefore, a valuable and reliable method for the purity analysis of emodin.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Emodin , Fabaceae , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Polygonaceae , Relaxation , Rhamnaceae , Salts , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740562

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Protein overloading in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, which exacerbates various disease conditions. Emodin, an anthraquinone compound, is known to have several health benefits. The effect of emodin against palmitic acid (PA) - induced ER stress in HepG2 cells was investigated. METHODS: HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations of palmitic acid to determine the working concentration that induced ER stress. ER stress associated genes such as ATF4, XBP1s, CHOP and GRP78 were checked using RT- PCR. In addition, the expression levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) associated proteins such as IRE1α, eIF2α and CHOP were checked using immunoblotting to confirm the induction of ER stress. The effect of emodin on ER stress was analyzed by treating HepG2 cells with 750 µM palmitic acid and varying concentrations of emodin, then analyzing the expression of UPR associated genes. RESULTS: It was evident from the mRNA and protein expression results that palmitic acid significantly increased the expression of UPR associated genes and thereby induced ER stress. Subsequent treatment with emodin reduced the mRNA expression of ATF4, GRP78, and XBP1s. Furthermore, the protein levels of p-IRE1α, p-elF2α and CHOP were also reduced by the treatment of emodin. Analysis of sirtuin mRNA expression showed that emodin increased the levels of SIRT4 and SIRT7, indicating a possible role in decreasing the expression of UPR-related genes. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the results suggest that emodin could exert a protective effect against fatty acid-induced ER stress and could be an agent for the management of various ER stress related diseases.


Subject(s)
Emodin , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Hep G2 Cells , Immunoblotting , Insurance Benefits , Palmitic Acid , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sirtuins , Unfolded Protein Response
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(3): e7994, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984040

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation for ischemic heart disease, which is a leading cause of death. Emodin is a Chinese herbal anthraquinone used in several diseases. However, the effect of emodin in hypoxia-induced injury in cardiomyocytes has not been clearly elucidated. Our study aimed to clarify the functions of emodin in hypoxia-induced injury in rat cardiomyocytes H9c2 and explore the underlying mechanism. The effects of emodin on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed by the Cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The cell proliferation- and cell apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blot. qRT-PCR was used to determine the relative expression of miR-138. Cell transfection was performed to alter miR-138 and MLK3 expression. miR-138 target was performed by dual luciferase activity assay. Sirt1/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways-related factors phosphorylation were analyzed by western blot. Emodin inhibited hypoxia-induced injury in H9c2 cells by promoting cell viability and reducing cell apoptosis. miR-138 was down-regulated by hypoxia treatment but up-regulated by emodin. Up-regulation of miR-138 alleviated hypoxia-induced cell injury. Down-regulation of miR-138 attenuated the growth-promoting effect of emodin on hypoxia-induced injury, whereas up-regulation of miR-138 enhanced the growth-promoting effects of emodin. The underlying mechanism might be by inactivating Sirt1/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. MLK3 was negatively regulated by miR-138 expression and inactivated Sirt1/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Emodin alleviated hypoxia-induced injury in H9c2 cells via up-regulation of miR-138 modulated by MLK3, as well as by activating Sirt1/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Emodin/therapeutic use , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Hypoxia/complications , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation , Cell Line , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , MicroRNAs
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771555

ABSTRACT

In order to study the storage and period of validity of emodin standard solution and chrysophanol standard solution in this study, the content of emodin and chrysophanol was determined by HPLC through classical constant temperature test, and the change rule of the content of the standard solution was studied, which could be applied to standardize the management of the standard substance of traditional Chinese medicine. The results showed that the content of emodin and chrysophanol standard solution matched with the first order reaction rule. Under the storage condition of 10 °C, the change rate constant of emodin and chrysophanol were Ke=4.661 7×10⁻⁷ and Kc=4.438 9×10⁻⁷, respectivedy; and the period of validity of emodin standard solution and chrysophanol standard solution were 1 806 d and 1 896 d respectively. The determination and standardization of the period of validity of the standard solution will not only help to reduce the loss of the standard substance and save the cost of drug testing, but also help to standardize the use of the standard substance, which will contrite to obtain more accurate and satisfactory experimental results, and provide a basis for the setting of the storage period and standardized management of the reference solution of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Emodin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812095

ABSTRACT

Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) has been commonly used as a tonic in China for centuries. However, PMR-associated hepatotoxicity is becoming a safety issue. In our previous in vivo study, an interaction between stilbenes and anthraquinones has been discovered and a hypothesis is proposed that the interaction between stilbene glucoside-enriching fraction and emodin may contribute to the side effects of PMR. To further support our previous in vivo results in rats, the present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effects of 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (TSG) on the cellular absorption and human liver microsome metabolism of emodin. The obtained results indicated that the absorption of emodin in Caco-2 cells was enhanced and the metabolism of emodin in human liver microsomes was inhibited after TSG treatment. The effects of the transport inhibitors on the cellular emodin accumulation were also examined. Western blot assay suggested that the depressed metabolism of emodin could be attributed to the down-regulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 1A8, 1A10, and 2B7. These findings definitively demonstrated the existence of interaction between TSG and emodin, which provide a basis for a better understanding of the underlying mechanism for PMR-induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Caco-2 Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Emodin , Metabolism , Fallopia multiflora , Glucosides , Toxicity , Glucuronosyltransferase , Humans , Plant Roots , Stilbenes , Toxicity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812084

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the anti-sepsis effects of physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside (POG) isolated from Rumex japonicas and explore its possible pharmacological mechanisms. POG was extracted from R. japonicas by bioactivity-guided isolation with the anti-sepsis agents. Survival analysis in septic mouse induced by LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli were used to evaluate the protective effect of POG (40 mg·kg, i.p.) on sepsis. Cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS (100 ng·mL) were determined by ELISA. In addition, the proteins expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 were determined by Western blotting assay. Our results demonstrated that POG (40 mg·kg, i.p.) possessed significant protective activity on the endotoxemic mice. The POG treatment (20, 40, and 80 μg·mL) significantly decreased the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 induced by LPS (P < 0.01) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the TLR4 and TLR2 proteins were also down-regulated by POG at 20 (P < 0.01), 40 (P < 0.01), and 80 μg·mL (P < 0.01). The present study demonstrated that the POG extracted from R. japonicas possessed significant anti-sepsis effect on endotoxemic mice, and can be developed as a novel drug for treating sepsis in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Emodin , Glucosides , Humans , Interleukin-1beta , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-8 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Rumex , Chemistry , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272515

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of a novel emodin derivative E19 on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K562 and imatinib-resistant CML cell line (K562/G01), and to clarify the involved mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MTT and colony formation test were used to detect the cell proliferation. Apoptotic induction effects were examined by DAPI staining method and DNA ladder assay. Western blot was performed to detect the changes of P210(Bcr-Abl) protein.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The emodin derivative E19 could efficiently inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in K562 and K562/G01 cells. IC50 of K562 cells and IC50 of K562/G01 cells were (1.20 ± 0.19) µmol/L and (1.22 ± 0.16) µmol/L, respectively. DNA fragmentation in K562 cells and K562/G01 cells confirmed that the E19 induced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that emodin derivative inhibited phosphorylation of P210 protein in K562 cells and K562/G01 cells and down-regulated the expression level of P210 in dose- and time-dependent manners.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The emodin derivative E19 can efficiently inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of K562 cells and K562/G01 cells, while the inhibition of phosphorylation of P210 protein and down-regulation of P210 protein expression may be involved in these processes.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Emodin , Pharmacology , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl , Metabolism , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Pharmacology , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Pathology , Phosphorylation
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272514

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of a new emodin derivative E11 on proliferation and apoptosis of T lymphocytic leukemia cell line Molt-4 and its possible mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MTT method was used to plot cell growth curve. Colony culture assay was performed for studying the effect of emodin derivative E11 on colony-formation of Molt-4. The fluorescent microscopy with DAPI staining was used to examine the cell morphological changes after E11 treatment. DNA fragmentation method was used to detect the inducing effect of emodin derivative E11 on cell apoptosis. Western blot was used to determine the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins including procaspase-9, procaspase-3, PARP and PI3K/AKT, MAPK signalling pathway.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Emodin derivative E11 could strongly inhibit the growth of Molt-4 with the IC50 in 48 h at 1.381 ± 0.1552 µmol/L in dose-dependent manner. 0.1 µmol/L of E11 could inhibit cell colony formation. The typrical apopototic morphologic changes of Molt cells treated with E11 could be observed under fluorescence microscope with DAPI staining. DNA apoptotic ladder could be observed by DNA fragmentation.The expressions of procaspase -9, procaspase-3, PARP, p-MAPK, p-AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, p-P70 and p-4BEP1 were down-regulated, while expressions of MAPK, AKT, 4EBP1 and P70 were not changed remarkably after Molt-4 were treated with E11 for 48 h.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>E11 can remarkably inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of Molt-4 cells. The mechanism of apoptosis of Molt-4 cells may be related with the suppression of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signalling pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Down-Regulation , Emodin , Pharmacology , Humans , Leukemia, T-Cell , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279878

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective effect of emodin in young rats with intrahepatic cholestasis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 120 young Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, model, and high-, medium-, and low-dose emodin groups, with 24 rats in each group. The rats in the control and model groups were given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution by gavage, while the other groups were given different doses of emodin solution by gavage. On the 5th day of experiment, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT, 50 mg/kg) was applied by gavage to establish the model of intrahepatic cholestasis in all groups except the control group. At 24, 48, and 72 hours after gavage, 8 rats in each group were sacrificed. Colorimetry was used to measure the serum levels of total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), total bile acid (TBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in each group, and hematoxylin-eosin staining was applied to observe the morphological changes of the liver under a light microscope at different time points.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, the model group had significantly increased serum levels of TBIL, DBIL, TBA, ALP, GGT, ALT, and AST at the 24-hour, 48-hour, and 72-hour time points (P<0.01). In the model group, the serum levels of TBIL, DBIL, TBA, ALT, and AST showed varying degrees of increase at 48 hours after establishment of model, compared with the values at 24 and 72 hours (P<0.05). At 24, 48, and 72 hours, the high-, medium-, and low-dose emodin groups had varying degrees of reductions in the serum levels of TBIL and TBA compared with the model group (P<0.05); the high- and low-dose emodin groups had significantly increased serum levels of TBA compared with the medium-dose emodin group (P<0.05). The model group had the most severe pathological changes at 48 hours. Compared with the model group, the high-, medium-, and low-dose emodin groups showed certain improvement in pathological changes of the liver at each time point, and the medium-dose emodin group had better improvement compared with the high- and low-dose emodin groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Emodin can effectively improve ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in young rats, and medium-dose emodin shows the best effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Genetics , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Bilirubin , Metabolism , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Emodin , Female , Humans , Liver , Pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 220-224, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192314

ABSTRACT

Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity guided fractionation led to the isolation of five anthraquinones, two stilbenes and one naphthoquinone from the EtOAc fraction of Polygonum cuspidatum, using silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex-LH20, MPLC and recrystallization. The chemical structures were identified to be physcion (1), emodin (2), anthraglycoside B (3), trans-resveratrol (4), anthraglycoside A (5), polydatin (6), 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (7) and citreorosein (8) by UV, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity including MIC values of each compound was evaluated. All of the isolates exhibited anti-H. pylori activity of which MIC values were lower than that of a positive control, quercetin. Compounds 2 and 7 showed potent growth inhibitory activity. Especially, a naphthoquinone, compound 7 displayed most potent antibacterial activity with MIC₅₀ value of 0.30 µM and MIC₉₀ value of 0.39 µM. Although anti-H. pylori activity of this plant was previously reported, this is the first report on that of compounds isolated from this species. From these findings, P. cuspidatum roots or its isolates may be useful for H. pylori infection and further study is needed to elucidate mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography , Emodin , Fallopia japonica , Mass Spectrometry , Plants , Polygonum , Quercetin , Silica Gel , Stilbenes
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 747-756, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331607

ABSTRACT

Long term peritoneal dialysis (PD) is often associated with peritoneal fibrosis. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of emodin on PD-related peritoneal fibrosis and its related cellular and molecular mechanism. PD-related peritoneal fibrosis rats and cultured rat peritoneal mesothelial cells were recruited in the experiment. PD-related peritoneal fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lactate-buffered solution containing 4.25% glucose. The peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) was performed at the end of 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. HE staining and Masson staining were used for histopathological evaluation. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the plasma N-terminal procollagen III propeptide (PIIINP) level. Real-time PCR technique was used to detect the mRNA levels of Notch1, Jagged-1, and Hes-1 in peritoneal tissue. Western blot was applied to identify the protein levels of Notch1, Jagged-1, Hes-1, and Notch intracellular domain (NICD). In vitro, Notch1 overexpressing or knockdown rat peritoneal mesothelial cells were established and Western blot was used to examine the effect of emodin on the expressions of Hes-1 and Hey. Compared with the control group, HE staining revealed that PD rats suffered from decreasing in mesothelial cells, or detaching from surface of parietal peritoneum, accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells; Masson staining result showed thickened peritonea (P < 0.01), and the collagen deposition in the parietal peritoneum was increased; also, PIIINP level in plasma was elevated (P < 0.01). Treatment of the PD rats with emodin increased mesothelial cells in peritoneal tissue, and decreased the peritoneal thickness (P < 0.01), collagen depositions, as well as the plasma PIIINP level (P < 0.05). The expressions of Notch1, Jagged-1, Hes-1 and NICD in peritoneal tissue were also attenuated (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In cultured rat peritoneal mesothelial cells, compared with emodin group, emodin further inhibited the expressions of Hes-1 and Hey induced by Notch1-overexpression (P < 0.05), but not the expressions of Hes-1 and Hey induced by Notch1-knockdown (P > 0.05). Therefore, the activation of Notch pathway may be involved in the pathological process of PD-induced peritoneal fibrosis. Emodin may ameliorate the PD-related peritoneal fibrosis through inhibiting the activation of Notch pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Emodin , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Peptide Fragments , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritoneal Fibrosis , Peritoneum , Procollagen , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20940

ABSTRACT

Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill that possesses a variety of biological activities, including inhibition of 5α-reductase and prostaglandin D2. In this study, we investigated whether emodin promotes hair growth. After emodin was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the hair growth rate and morphological analysis were evaluated in dorsal skin for 15 days. After 13 days of treatment, minoxidil or emodin (0.01% or 0.1%)-treated groups showed remarkable regrowth of hairs relative to the vehicle control group. Scoring of the hair growth and rate of hair growth area for 15 days revealed that groups treated with minoxidil and 0.1% emodin were significantly higher than the vehicle control group. Histological examination revealed the emodin and minoxidil groups markedly recovered the number and morphology of hair follicles, including the subcutis depth, relative to the vehicle group. These results suggest that emodin has an excellent promoting effect in hair growth similar to that of minoxidil and might be useful for treatment of baldness or alopecia.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Animals , Emodin , Hair Follicle , Hair , Mice , Minoxidil , Prostaglandin D2 , Rheum , Skin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812479

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to explore the substrate scope and biocatalytic capability of Gliocladium deliquescens NRRL 1086 on phenolic natural products. Emodin was subjected to the fermentation culture of Gliocladium deliquescens NRRL 1086 according to the standard two-stage protocol. The biotransformation process was monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS, the main product was isolated by column chromatography, and the structure was elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopy. Emodin could be fully metabolized by Gliocladium deliquescens NRRL 1086, resulting in high yield of emodin 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and small amount of sulfated product. In conclusion, our results may provide a convenient method to prepare emodin 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and the microbe catalyzed glucosylation/sulfation will give an inspiration to pharmacokinetic model studies in vitro.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Biotransformation , Emodin , Metabolism , Fermentation , Gliocladium , Metabolism , Glucosides , Metabolism , Glycosylation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Phenols , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Metabolism
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