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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811288

ABSTRACT

An increase in the number of patients with infectious diseases in Korea, can be attributed to various factors, such as the prevalence of new infectious diseases of the 21st century, the re-emergence of past infectious diseases, an increase in the number of elderly individuals, patients with chronic diseases, immune deficiency, and globalization. In this context, vaccination becomes vital for the adult population. Although, the guidelines for adult immunization are currently being updated, the rate of adult vaccination remains lower than that of infant vaccination. At present, the major challenges for increasing the rate of adult immunization include negative views on the need for some immunizations and a lack of understanding of group immunity among the youth. Consequently, a successful immunization program will be required to direct efforts towards educating patients and spreading awareness. Based on the current guidelines and practical applications, varicella zoster; Japanese encephalitis; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; pneumococcus; measles, mumps, and rubella; and hepatitis A vaccines could effectively be considered for adult vaccination.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chickenpox , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases , Diphtheria , Encephalitis, Japanese , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Infant , Internationality , Korea , Measles , Mumps , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Prevalence , Rubella , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tetanus , Vaccination , Whooping Cough
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1314-1322, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826845

ABSTRACT

To screen the best genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus subunit vaccine candidate antigens, the prMEIII gene, the polytope gene and the prMEIII-polytope fusion gene of the GenotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus GS strain were cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a. The recombinant proteins were obtained after the induction and purification. The prepared recombinant proteins were immunized to mice, and the immunogenicity of the subunit vaccine candidate antigens was evaluated through monitoring the humoral immune response by ELISA, detecting the neutralizing antibody titer by plaque reduction neutralization test, and testing the cell-mediated immune response by lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine profiling. The recombinant proteins with the molecular weights of 35 (prMEIII), 28 (polytope antigen) and 57 kDa (prMEIII-polytope) induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Compared with prMEIII-polytope and polytope proteins, the prMEIII protein induced a significant expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ (P0.05). The study suggests that the prMEIII protein can be used for the development of the Japanese encephalitis virus subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Antigens, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Allergy and Immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Subunit , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760223

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger in the 9th (2018) edition of Immunization guideline. This report provides the revised recommendations made by the committee and summarizes several changes from the 2015 guideline. National immunization program (NIP) launched a human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for girls aged 12 years in 2016. NIP has also expanded age indication for inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) to 12 years of age in the 2018-2019 season. Quadrivalent IIVs with a full dose (0.5 mL) are approved for all children of 6 months or older. Recommendations of live attenuated influenza vaccine were removed. For inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, first 2 doses are considered as the primary series. Recommendations for use of newly introduced vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b, 9-valent HPV, new varicella vaccine, new quadrivalent IIV, and attenuated oral typhoid vaccine) were added. Lastly, monitoring system for adverse events following immunization was updated. Other changes can be found in the 9th edition of Immunization guideline in detail.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis, Japanese , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Immunization , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Seasons , Typhoid Fever , Vaccines
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758956

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old male spotted seal presented with loss of appetite and decreased activity. Grossly, the internal organs revealed several filarial nematodes in the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary vessels. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed moderate nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with glial nodules and neuronophagia. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) of genotype I was isolated from the brain. All nematodes were identified as Dirofilaria immitis. This is the first clinical case of co-infection with D. immitis and JEV in a seal, suggesting that the seal, may be a dead-end host, like the human and horse, for JEV.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Asians , Brain , Child , Coinfection , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Heart , Heart Ventricles , Horses , Humans , Male , Meningoencephalitis , Republic of Korea
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(6): e170499, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A severe outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high case fatality was reported from Malkangiri district of Odisha state, India during September to November 2016 affecting 336 children with 103 deaths. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the outbreak in the light of entomological determinants. METHODS Entomological investigation was carried out in 48 villages from four mostly affected Community Health Centres (CHCs) of Malkangiri district. Dusk collections of resting adults was done in villages from indoor and outdoor sites to record the density of mosquito species, including the known JE vectors, feeding behaviour, parity, dusk index and infection status with JE virus (JEV). FINDINGS The per man hour density and dusk index of JE vector species varied from 2.5 to 24.0 and 0.81 to 7.62, respectively in study villages. A total of 1136 mosquitoes belonging to six vector species were subjected to PCR and one pool of Culex vishnui was found to be positive for JEV. CONCLUSION The JE transmission in Malkangiri district was confirmed. Thorough screening of human blood samples of JE/AES suspected cases and JE vector mosquitoes for the presence of JEV during rainy season every year is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Encephalitis, Japanese , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/immunology , Encephalitis, Japanese/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/classification
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764915

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases have been increasingly reported recently especially in Seoul and its vicinity. Pigs are known as amplifying host of JE virus (JEV), but do not play an important role in these recent events because pig-breeding is not common in Seoul. The distribution and the density of migratory birds are correlated with JE cases in cities and they might be highly potential hosts contributing to transmit JEV in metropolitan areas. JE genotype and sero-prevalence in birds should be determined for the verification of the transmission route of JEV in the recent sporadic occurrence of JE cases in Seoul.


Subject(s)
Asians , Birds , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Seoul , Swine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758768

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China.


Subject(s)
Asians , China , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Encephalitis, Viral , Flavivirus , Genotype , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Prevalence , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Swine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690667

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious public health issue. This study was undertaken to better understand the relationship between JE distribution and environmental factors in China. JE data from 2005 to 2010 were retrieved from National Notifiable Disease Report System. ArcGIS, remote sensing techniques, and R software was used to exhibit and explore the relationship between JE distribution and environmental factors. Our results indicated that JE cases were mostly concentrated in warm-temperate, semitropical and tropical zones with annual precipitation > 400 mm; Broad-leaved evergreen forest, shrubs, paddy field, irrigated land, dryland, evergreen coniferous forest, and shrubland were risk factors for JE occurrence, and the former five were risk factors for counties with high JE incidence. These findings will inform the effective allocation of limited health resources such as intensive vaccination, surveillance and training in areas with high environmental risk factors.


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Encephalitis, Japanese , Epidemiology , Virology , Environment , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741864

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The number of dengue fever cases is rising due to increasing overseas travel. Vaccination makes severe dengue fever in seronegative individuals after vaccination when they exposure to wild-type dengue virus. We investigated the seroepidemiology of the dengue virus for monitoring of Korean dengue virus immunity and establishing the prevention of dengue infection. METHODS: The study was based on 446 residual sera collected from 98 infants (2 months to 1 year old), 152 adolescents (13 to 19 years old), 90 adults (20 to 50 years old), and 106 elderly participants (more than 65 years old) for other studies. Antibody levels for dengue virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in each age group were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For each dengue virus IgG positive or equivocal result, an IgG ELISA was performed for Japanese encephalitis virus. RESULTS: Of the 446 serum samples, only 1 (0.2%) adolescent had a positive result from the dengue IgG antibody test. In the dengue virus IgG antibody test, 14 (3.1%) samples showed equivocal results (10 adolescents and 4 elderly). In the 1 positive case of dengue virus IgG, the Japanese encephalitis IgG test was also positive. In the 14 equivocal cases of dengue virus IgG, there were 6 positive, 3 equivocal, and 5 negative of Japanese encephalitis IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence rate of dengue virus was very low in Koreans. This study provides important data for establishing the policy for preventive measures of dengue fever. It will be necessary to continuously monitor for dengue virus immunity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Korea , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Dengue , Vaccination
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715252

ABSTRACT

The Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine was introduced to the national immunization program in 1985, which has led to a dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases, but JE continues to occur in foreign nationals residing in or traveling to Korea. Although the incidence is low, this study demonstrated that more Koreans were infected with JE than foreign-born expatriates. The incidence rates of Korean-born nationals were between 0.01 and 0.08 cases per 100,000. In contrast, the incidence rates of foreign-born nationals ranged between 0 and 0.26 cases per 100,000. The incidence rates clearly showed that foreign-born expatriates were more at risk, which underscores the importance of vaccination. We recommend heightened surveillance among JE-susceptible individuals and promote vaccination among foreign-born nationals living in Korea.


Subject(s)
Asians , Encephalitis, Japanese , Humans , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Korea , Republic of Korea , Vaccination
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715250

ABSTRACT

The Second Meeting of the National Control Laboratories for Vaccines and Biologicals in the Western Pacific, was jointly organized by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Republic of Korea, and by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. In the National Lot Release Systems session countries including Canada, China, Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Republic of Korea, all shared information on their current Lot Release Systems, including current practices and developments in risk-based official lot release of vaccines. In the session on Quality Control of Blood Products, experts from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control shared quality control and research results for; blood coagulation factor VIII products, and the measurement of procoagulant activity in immunoglobulin products. Representatives from Japan proposed a regional collaborative study to test aggregated immunoglobulin free from complement activity. A cell-based Japanese encephalitis vaccine potency assay was proposed by representatives from Korea and they also called for voluntary participation of other National Control Laboratories in a collaborative study, on the first Korean Gloydius anti-venom standard. Participants agreed in general to continue communicating, and coordinate presentation of the study results.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors , Canada , China , Complement System Proteins , Encephalitis, Japanese , Factor VIII , Immunoglobulins , Japan , Korea , Malaysia , Quality Control , Republic of Korea , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines , Vietnam , World Health Organization
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128323

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To improve the quality of the vaccination program, analyze the cause and identify the influencing factors for not being registered in the National Immunization Registry Information System even once. METHODS: We conducted one-on-one household visit interview surveys after, using a list supplemented with addresses from the Ministry of the Interior. We identified the basic respondent information, information on relevant children (those born in 2012), the reasons for omission from computerized vaccination registration, and the actual residence of the registered children. RESULTS: The total number of unvaccinated children born in 2012 was 1,870. The final contact result of the household surveys was 1,254 successful contacts, 51 refused to be interviewed, and 565 were not found. The reason for missed vaccination registration was 928 cases of long-term stay overseas, 241 cases of missing registration owing to intentional refusal of vaccination, and 57 cases of illness. A comparison of complete vaccination rates between non-registrants and those of computerized registrants revealed rates of 17.9% and 96.3% for the 3 doses hepatitis B vaccine, 14.9% and 95.6% for the 4doses DTaP vaccine, 16.1% and 97.4% for the 3 doses polio vaccine, and 3.9% and 92.5% for the 3 (or 2) doses Japanese encephalitis vaccine, respectively. CONCLUSION: Vaccination is the most effective national health policy and one of the most remarkable accomplishments in medical history. Through great effort, Korea has started to transcribe vaccination records since 2000, and the records are now reaching a considerable level. However, there is an unregistered population of around 0.3%. Several measures can be taken to improve the registration rate in the vaccination records, such as managing non-registrants through education and interviews, and sharing vaccination data with foreign countries. The non-registrant management plan should include periodically compiling a list of children who are not registered in the National Immunization Registry Information System, conducting of household visits using survey forms, and data analysis to establish appropriate measures.


Subject(s)
Child , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Education , Encephalitis, Japanese , Family Characteristics , Health Policy , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Information Systems , Korea , Poliomyelitis , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91210

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important zoonosis caused by the mosquito-transmitted JE virus (JEV), which is a causative agent of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Detection of JEV antibodies in swine is performed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN), and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The most stringent PRNT is the 90% endpoint PRNT (PRNT₉₀). These conventional assays are difficult to carry out in diagnostic laboratories with insufficient instruments or cell culture systems. An alternative assay that is easily conducted and time efficient is required. In this study, we improved the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) with clarified antigen for the detection of JEV antibodies. The I-ELISA results obtained from 175 swine serum samples were compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results. The sensitivity of I-ELISA was 91.8%, 95.0%, and 94.7% compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results, respectively. The specificity of I-ELISA was 92.2%, 94.7%, and 94.7% compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results, respectively. Moreover, the I-ELISA results were significantly correlated with the HI (r = 0.93), VN (r = 0.95), and PRNT₉₀ (r = 0.92) results. These results suggest that the improved I-ELISA is useful for serosurveillance of JEV in swine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Asians , Cell Culture Techniques , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
16.
Immune Network ; : 192-200, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191874

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is neuroinflammation characterized by uncontrolled infiltration of peripheral leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). We previously demonstrated exacerbation of JE following CD11c(hi) dendritic cell (DC) ablation in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice. Moreover, CD11c(hi) DC ablation led to abnormal differentiation of CD11b⁺Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and enhanced permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in promoting the progression of JE. Here, we examined changes in lymphoid and myeloid-derived leukocyte subpopulations associated with pro- and anti-inflammation during JE progression. The analyses of this study focused on regulatory CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Tregs), IL-17⁺CD4⁺ Th17 cells, and CD11b⁺Ly-6C(hi) and Ly-6C(lo) monocytes. CD11c(hi) DC ablation resulted in the accumulation of IL-17⁺CD4⁺ Th17 cells in the CNS, thereby leading to lower ratio of Tregs to Th17 cells. This result was corroborated by the higher expression levels of IL-17 and RORγT in CD4⁺ T cells from the brains of CD11c(hi) DC-ablated mice. In addition, CD11c(hi) DC-ablated mice showed higher frequency and total number of inflammatory CD11b⁺Ly-6C(hi) monocytes, whereas CD11b⁺Ly-6C(lo) monocytes were detected with lower frequency and total number in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated mice. Furthermore, CD11c(hi) DC ablation altered the phenotype and function of CD11b⁺Ly-6C(lo) monocytes, resulting in lower levels of activation marker and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and TGF-β) expression. Collectively, these results indicate that CD11c(hi) DC ablation caused an imbalance in CD4⁺ Th17/Treg cells and CD11b⁺Ly-6C(hi)/Ly-6C(lo) monocytes in the lymphoid tissue and CNS during JE progression. This imbalanced orchestration of pro- and anti-inflammatory leukocytes following CD11c(hi) DC ablation may contribute to the exacerbation of JE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asians , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Central Nervous System , Dendritic Cells , Encephalitis, Japanese , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Leukocytes , Lymphoid Tissue , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes , Permeability , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9121

ABSTRACT

The incidence of vector-borne diseases has increased with climate change and developments of transportation. Malaria was eliminated in the early 1980s in Korea, but one domestic case was reported in 1993. The number of patients increased to 4,142 in 2002, and less than 700 cases of malaria are reported annually nowadays. Additionally, approximately 70 to 80 imported malaria cases were reported annually, and most of them are Plasmodium falciparum infections from Africa. Annually, 20 to 40 cases of Japanese encephalitis are reported, and the incidence is high in individuals between the ages of 40 and 59. Moreover, 313 cases of dengue fever were imported in 2016, and most of them were from Southeast Asia. In 2016, 11,000 cases of scrub typhus were reported, and most of the patients were older than 50. The number of reported cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome has been increasing since 2013, mostly in patients older than 60. It is important to avoid vectors for the prevention, and for the doctors to diagnose the apatients as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Africa , Asia, Southeastern , Climate Change , Dengue , Encephalitis, Japanese , Fever , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Scrub Typhus , Thrombocytopenia , Transportation
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9120

ABSTRACT

In light of global climate change, the seasonal and geographical distribution of vector species, especially mosquitoes, chigger mites, and ticks, are of great importance for human beings residing in rural and urban environments. A total of 12 species belonging to 4 genera have been identified as vector mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea. The most common of the 56 mosquito species in this country from 2013 through 2015 was found to be a malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis s.l. (species ratio [SR] 52%); followed by a potential vector of West Nile virus, Aedes vexans nipponii (SR 38%); a Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (SR 6%); a West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens (SR 3%); and a dengue and Zika virus vector, Ae. albopictus (SR 0.3%). Of the scrub typhus vectors, Leptotrombidium scutellare is the predominant chigger mite in Gyongnam province and Jeju island, whereas L. pallidum is the predominant species in other areas of Korea. Ticks were found to be prevalent in most environmental conditions, and high levels of their activity were consistently observed from May to September. Haemaphysalis species of ticks were mostly collected in grasslands, whereas Ixodes species were frequently found in coniferous forests. Haemaphysalis longicornis, known as the main vector of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, was the predominant species and was widely distributed throughout the country.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Anopheles , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Tracheophyta , Culex , Culicidae , Dengue , Disease Vectors , Encephalitis, Japanese , Fever , Forests , Globus Pallidus , Grassland , Humans , Ixodes , Korea , Malaria , Mites , Republic of Korea , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks , Trombiculidae , West Nile virus , Zika Virus
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9119

ABSTRACT

The recent epidemic of Zika virus in South America caused people around the world to exhibit an increased interest in the impact of arboviral illnesses. In Korea, malaria and Japanese encephalitis are the most important mosquito-borne diseases that occur indigenously. However, with the continuously increasing number of international travelers, the incidence of imported arboviral illnesses is also increasing. Currently, dengue fever is the most common mosquito-borne disease among Korean international travelers. The number of patients with Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya fever, and Zika virus infection is also on the rise. Many countries that have disease-transmitting mosquitoes have already experienced autochthonous arboviral infections due to the introduction of viruses by travelers. Moreover, with global warming and urbanization of the areas in which mosquito-borne diseases occur, the environment is becoming more favorable for mosquito-borne diseases. This concise review describes the current status and outlook of mosquito-borne diseases in Korea.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Culicidae , Dengue , Encephalitis, Japanese , Global Warming , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Malaria , South America , Urbanization , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228229

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis that affects the nervous system of humans and other animals. The genotype of JE virus (JEV) has shifted recently from genotype 3 (G3) to genotype 1 (G1) in Asia, including Korea. Thus, a rapid differential assay is required to make an accurate diagnosis of JEV genotype. In this study, we designed common and differential primer sets for JEV G1 and G3 to detect the JEV envelope (E) gene. The specific primer sets for JEV G1 and G3 specifically amplified the target gene. The detection limits of the three primer sets were 10(1.0), 10(2.0), and 10(2.0) TCID₅₀/reaction, respectively. No cross-reactivity was detected with non-JEV reference viruses. The multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay specifically differentiated JEV G1 from G3. Thus, a one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay was established to rapidly and differentially detect JEV. This assay will be useful for confirming JEV infections in animals and checking the JEV genotype in veterinary biological products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asia , Asians , Biological Products , Diagnosis , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Limit of Detection , Nervous System
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