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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2688-2695, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877836


BACKGROUND@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is relatively common worldwide and an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is closely linked to arterial stiffness of the carotid artery. However, the association of MetS with the safety of carotid revascularization has been rarely studied. The aim of this study was to observe the current status of MetS and its components in Chinese carotid revascularized patients, and investigate the impact on major adverse clinical events (MACEs) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS).@*METHODS@#From January 2013 to December 2017, patients undergoing CEA or CAS in the Neurosurgery Department of Xuanwu Hospital were retrospectively recruited. The changes in prevalence of MetS and each component with time were investigated. The primary outcome was 30-day post-operative MACEs. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the impact of MetS on CEA or CAS.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2068 patients who underwent CEA (766 cases) or CAS (1302 cases) were included. The rate of MetS was 17.9%; the prevalence rate of MetS increased with time. The occurrence rate of MACEs in CEA was 3.4% (26 cases) and in CAS, 3.1% (40 cases). There was no statistical difference between the two groups (3.4% vs. 3.1%, P = 0.600). For CEA patients, univariate analysis showed that the MACE (+) group had increased diabetes history (53.8% vs. 30.9%, P = 0.014) and MetS (34.6% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.023). For CAS patients, univariate analysis showed that the MACE (+) group had increased coronary artery disease history (40.0% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.006) and internal carotid artery tortuosity (67.5%% vs. 37.6%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the MACE (+) group had higher systolic blood pressure (143.38 ± 22.74 vs. 135.42 ± 17.17 mmHg, P = 0.004). Multivariable analysis showed that the influencing factors for MACEs in CEA included history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.345; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.057-5.205; P = 0.036) and MetS (OR = 2.476; 95% CI = 1.065-5.757; P = 0.035). The influencing factors for MACEs in CAS included systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.023; 95% CI = 1.005-1.040; P = 0.010), coronary artery disease (OR = 2.382; 95% CI = 1.237-4.587; P = 0.009) and internal carotid artery tortuosity (OR = 3.221; 95% CI = 1.637-6.337; P = 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The prevalence rate of MetS increased with time in carotid revascularized patients. MetS is a risk for short-term MACEs after CEA, but not CAS.

Carotid Arteries/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , China/epidemiology , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sample Size , Stents/adverse effects , Stroke , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 581-587, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042051


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) using carotid duplex ultrasound in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between January 2017 and January 2018 and included 166 consecutive patients [130 males (78.31%), 36 females (21.69%); mean age: 64.25±9.78 years] who underwent elective and isolated CABG. Patients who had significant CAS (≥50% stenosis) were compared with patients who had non-significant CAS (<50% stenosis). Logistic regression analysis was applied across the selected parameters to identify risk factors for significant CAS. Results: Of all patients, 36 (21.68%) had CAS ≥50% and 8 (4.81%) had unilateral carotid stenosis ≥70%. Carotid endarterectomy/CABG was performed simultaneously in five (3.01%) patients. None of these patients had cardiac and neurological problems during the postoperative period. The overall incidence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after CABG was 1.20% (n=2). Age (P=0.011) and history of CVA (P=0.035) were significantly higher in the CAS ≥50 group than in the CAS <50 group. Significant CAS was identified as a risk factor for postoperative CVA (P=0.013). Conclusion: Age and history of CVA were identified as risk factors for significant CAS. Furthermore, significant CAS was identified as a risk factor for postoperative CVA. For this reason, carotid screening is recommended for patients undergoing CABG even in the absence of associated risk factors.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Logistic Models , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Preoperative Period
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(3): 259-262, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-859866


Roubo coronariano da subclávia (RCS) é um fenômeno raro que ocorre em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica com enxerto de artéria torácica interna esquerda (ATIE) e que causa estenose da artéria subclávia ipsilateral e proximal à origem da ATIE. Relatamos o caso de um paciente masculino de 65 anos que apresentou quadro atípico de síndrome do RCS, manifestando-se como síndrome coronariana aguda no pós-operatório de cirurgia vascular (AU)

Coronary subclavian steal (CSS) is a rare phenomenon that occurs in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery using the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) causing stenosis of the ipsilateral subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the LITA. We report the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with atypical CSS syndrome, manifesting as acute coronary syndrome after vascular surgery (AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Myocardial Revascularization/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/surgery
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(5): 365-370, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829750


Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare three different surgical approaches for combined coronary and carotid artery stenosis as a single stage procedure and to assess effect of operative strategy on mortality and neurological complications. Methods: This retrospective study involves 136 patients who had synchronous coronary artery revascularization and carotid endarterectomy in our institution, between January 2002 and December 2012. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical technique used. Group I included 70 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with on-pump technique, group II included 29 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with off-pump technique, group III included 37 patients who had coronary revascularization with on-pump technique followed by carotid endarterectomy under aortic cross-clamp and systemic hypothermia (22-27ºC). Postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results: Overall early mortality and stroke rate was 5.1% for both. There were 3 (4.3%) deaths in group I, 2 (6.9%) deaths in group II and 2 (5.4%) deaths in group III. Stroke was observed in 5 (7.1%) patients in group I and 2 (6.9%) in group II. Stroke was not observed in group III. No statistically significant difference was observed for mortality and stroke rates among the groups. Conclusion: We identified no significant difference in mortality or neurologic complications among three approaches for synchronous surgery for coronary and carotid disease. Therefore it is impossible to conclude that a single principle might be adapted into standard practice. Patient specific risk factors and clinical conditions might be important in determining the surgical tecnnique.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/mortality , Combined Modality Therapy , Stroke/mortality
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(5): 449-453, oct. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633895


La endarterectomía carotídea (EC) en adición al mejor tratamiento médico mostró reducción del riesgo de eventos cerebrovasculares en pacientes sintomáticos y asintomáticos con estenosis moderada-grave del vaso en ensayos clínicos en centros académicos con cirujanos altamente seleccionados. Las principales guías internacionales recomiendan que el procedimiento se realice en centros con morbi-mortalidad auditada menor al 6% para pacientes sintomáticos y 3% para asintomáticos. Evaluamos la morbi-mortalidad peri-procedimiento en nuestro centro. Esta fue definida como la presencia de accidente cerebrovascular, infarto de miocardio y/o muerte dentro de los 30 días de la cirugía. Se indicó el procedimiento en pacientes sintomáticos con estenosis > 50%. En pacientes asintomáticos o sintomáticos con estenosis ≤ 50% se decidió el tratamiento sobre una base caso por caso. Todos los pacientes fueron examinados por un neurólogo y un cardiólogo antes y después de la EC. Se utilizó en forma rutinaria monitoreo intraoperatorio con Doppler transcraneano en los pacientes con adecuada ventana ultrasónica. Se evaluaron 306 endarterectomías carotídeas. No se registraron muertes. La morbilidad perioperatoria fue de 2.6% tanto para individuos sintomáticos como asintomáticos. Estos índices se compararon favorablemente con informes de otros centros de Latinoamérica y Europa. En conclusión, este informe muestra que la EC puede realizarse en la práctica clínica cotidiana con morbi-mortalidad peri-procedimiento dentro de los niveles recomendados por las guías internacionales.

Clinical trials in academic centers with high selected surgeons have demonstrated the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy (CE) in addition to best medical treatment in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe stenosis. International guidelines recommend that the procedure should be done in centers with morbidity and mortality rates of less than 6% for symptomatic and 3% for asymptomatic patients. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality of CE in our institution. This was defined by the presence of stroke, myocardial infarction and/or death within 30 days of surgery. Surgery was indicated in symptomatic patients with stenosis greater than 50%. For asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with stenosis ≤ 50% treatment was decided on a case-by-case basis. All patients were examined by a neurologist with and a cardiologist before and after the procedure. Intraoperative monitoring with transcranial Doppler was routinely used in patients with adequate ultrasonic window. We evaluated 306 procedures. No deaths occurred. Perioperative morbidity was 2.6% for both, symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. These numbers compared favorably with those reported by other centers in Latin America and Europe. In conclusion, CE can be performed in routine clinical practice with morbidity and mortality results within those recommended by international guidelines.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Argentina/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cerebral Infarction/mortality , Cerebral Infarction/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Morbidity , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome
Rev. argent. cir. cardiovasc. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 81-87, mayo-ago. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-696155


Antecedentes y objetivos: La estenosis de la arteria carótida causa hasta el 10% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos. La endarterectomía carotídea (CEA) se presentó como tratamiento para prevenir los ataques cerebrovasculares en los comienzos de 1950. La colocación del stent carotídeo (CAS) fue presentada como tratamiento para prevenir el ataque cerebrovascularen 1994. Métodos: CREST es un estudio randomizado con adjudicación completamente ciega. Tanto los pacientes sintomáticos como los asintomáticos fueron randomizados a CAS o CEA. El objetivo final primario fue la combinación de cualquier accidente cerebrovascular, de infarto de miocardioo bien de fallecimiento durante el período periprocedimiento y de accidente cerebrovascular ipsilateral después de 4 años. Resultados: No existió una diferencia significativa en los promedios del objetivo final entre CASy CEA (7.2% vs. 6.8%; HR=1.11; 95% CI, 0.81-1.51; P=0.51). Tanto el estado sintomático como el sexo de los pacientes no modificaron el efecto del tratamiento, pero si se detectó una interacción entre la edad y el tratamiento. Los resultados fueron levemente mejores con CAS, en aquellos pacientes menores de 70 años, mientras que para los pacientes mayores a 70 años fue mejor para aquellos pacientes con CEA. El objetivo final periprocedimiento no difería entre CAS y CEA, pero existían diferencias en los componentes CAS vs. CEA (ataques cerebrovasculares 4.1% vs. 2.3%, P=0.012; y el infarto de miocardio 1.1% vs. 2.3%, P=0.032). Conclusiones: En el CREST, el objetivo final primario tanto en CAS como en CREST, tuvo similares síntomas a corto como a largo plazo. Durante el período periprocedimiento, existía mayor riesgo de ataque cerebrovascular con CAS mientras que con CEA existía un riesgo mayor de infarto de miocardio.

Antecedentes e objetivos: A estenose arterial carotídea é causa de aproximadamente 10% de todos os acidentes cerebrovasculares isquêmicos. A endarterectomia carotídea (CEA) se apresentou como tratamento para prevenir os acidentes cerebrovasculares no início dos anos 50. A colocação do stent carotídeo (CAS) foi apresentada como um tratamento para prevenir o acidente cerebrovascular em 1994. Métodos: O estudo CREST foi um ensaio clínico randomizado completamente cego. Tantoos pacientes sintomáticos quanto os assintomáticos foram randomizados CAS ou randomizados CEA. O objetivo final primário foi a combinação de qualquer acidente cerebrovascular, de infarto do miocárdio ou inclusive de óbito durante o período periprocedimento e de acidente cerebrovascular ipsilateral depois de 4 anos. Resultados: Não foi demonstrada uma diferença significativa nas médias do objetivo final entre CAS e CEA (7.2% vs. 6.8%; HR=1.11; 95% CI, 0.81-1.51; P=0.51). Tanto o estado sintomático quanto o sexo dos pacientes não modificaram o efeito do tratamento, porém, detectou-se uma interação entre a idade e o tratamento. Os resultados foram levemente melhores com CAS nos pacientes menores de 70 anos, enquanto que para os pacientes maiores de 70 anos foi melhor com CEA. O objetivo final periprocedimento não diferia entre CAS e CEA, mas existiam diferenças nos componentes CAS vs. CEA (acidentes cerebrovasculares 4.1% vs. 2.3%, P=0.012; e o infarto do miocárdio 1.1% vs. 2.3%, P=0.032). Conclusões: No estudo CREST, o objetivo final primário tanto em CAS quanto em CREST, apresentou similares sintomas tanto a curto como a longo prazo. Durante o período periprocedimento, existia maior risco de acidente cerebrovascular com CAS enquanto que com CEA existia um risco maior de infarto do miocárdio.

Background and purpose: Carotid artery stenosis causes 10% of all ischemic cerebrovascular attacks. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was introduced as the treatment to prevent strokes in the beginning of the 50´s. The placement of a carotid stents (CAS) was introduced as a treatment to prevent strokes in 1994. Method: CREST is a randomized study with complete blind randomization. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were randomized to CAS or CEA. The primary outcome was the combination of the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction or death during the periprocedural period or ipsilateral stroke after 4 years. Results: There were no significant differences in the mean final outcome between CAS andCEA (7.2% vs. 6.8%; HR=1.11; 95% CI, 0.81-1.51; P=0.51). Both being symptomatic as well as the gender of the patients did not modify the treatment effect, but there was a relationship between age and treatment. The results were slightly better with CAS in patients under 70 years old, while in patients over 70 years old the results were better with CEA. The final peri-procedural outcome did not differ between CAS and CEA but there were differences in the CAS vs CEA components (stroke 4.1% vs. 2.3%, P=0.012; and myocardial infarction 1.1% vs. 2.3%, P=0.032). Conclusions: In the CREST study, with regards to the primary end point both CAS and CEA had similar short-term symptoms. During the peri-procedural period in patients undergoing CAS there was a higher risk of stroke while patients undergoing CEA presented a higher risk of myocardial infarction.

Humans , Male , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/instrumentation , Stents/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(5): 775-777, Oct. 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562807


Cervical clot is one of the complications of endarterectomy. This risk may be higher in patients using aspirin or clopidogrel. On the other hand, stroke may occur if the medication is interrupted before surgery. We carried out a prospective study of 124 endarterectomies in 119 patients in which aspirin or clopidogrel was stopped and a bridge-therapy with enoxaparin was administered preoperatively. There was no case of stroke during the period of the bridge-therapy. One patient developed cervical clot (0.8 percent) in the fifth postoperative day. Mortality rate in this series was 0.8 percent. There was no complication directly related to the use of enoxaparin. Bridge-therapy with low molecular weight heparin is a safe strategy for patients elected for endarterectomy.

Hematoma cervical é uma das complicações graves de endarterectomia. O risco dessa complicação pode ser maior em pacientes em uso de antiagregante plaquetário. Por outro lado, a suspensão de antiagregante plaquetário no período pré-operatório de endarterectomia eleva o risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Realizamos estudo prospectivo de 119 pacientes submetidos a endarterectomia (124 procedimentos), nos quais foi suspenso antiagregante plaquetário (aspirina ou clopidogrel) e foi administrada terapia-ponte com enoxaparina subcutânea no período pré-operatório. Nessa série, não houve ocorrência de AVC no período pré-operatório. Um paciente (0,8 por cento) desenvolveu hematoma cervical no quinto dia pós-operatório. A mortalidade nessa série foi de 0,8 por cento. Não houve nenhuma complicação atribuída diretamente ao uso de enoxaparina. A terapia-ponte com heparina de baixo peso molecular demonstrou ser estratégia segura no preparo de pacientes para endarterectomia.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hematoma/prevention & control , Neck , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies
J. vasc. bras ; 9(3): 186-189, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578791


Pacientes octogenários submetidos à angioplastia carotídea apresentam maior incidência de eventos neurológicos quando comparados a grupos de pacientes mais jovens e a grupos da mesma faixa etária submetidos à endarterectomia carotídea. A maior taxa de complicações pode ser explicada por fatores anatômicos e anatomopatológicos que aumentam a dificuldade técnica e o risco de ateroembolismo do procedimento endovascular. O procedimento foi realizado no centro cirúrgico, com o paciente em decúbito dorsal e sob anestesia geral. Realizamos acesso cirúrgico transverso limitado, na base do pescoço à direita, com dissecção, identificação e reparo da artéria carótida comum e veia jugular interna. Foram administradas 10.000 U de heparina e puncionada a carótida comum pela técnica de Seldinger com introdução de bainha 8F em sentido cranial. Na sequência, foi puncionada a veia jugular interna com instalação de bainha 8F em sentido caudal. Em seguida, ambas as bainhas foram conectadas, utilizando-se um segmento de equipo de soro. A carótida comum foi fechada por cadarço duplo de silicone e o fluxo retrógrado pela carótida interna foi estabelecido. Subsequentemente, foi introduzido fio guia 0.014 x 190 cm com cruzamento da lesão, realizando-se angioplastia com balão 5 x 20 mm e em seguida stent (Wallstent® 7 x 50 - Boston Scientific) foi introduzido, posicionado e liberado. A angioplastia carotídea com reversão de fluxo, por via transcervical, constitui estratégia de proteção cerebral custo-eficiente e com menor potencial emboligênico em pacientes octogenários com anatomia desfavorável.

Octogenarian patients submitted to carotid angioplasty present higher incidence of neurological events when compared to younger patients and to patients in this same age submitted to carotid endarterectomy. The higher complication rate could be related to anatomic and anatomopathological factors that increase technical difficulties and atheroembolic risk associated with the endovascular procedure. At the operating room, the patient was in dorsal decubitus position and submitted to general anesthesia. Limited transversal surgical access was carried out on the right neck base, with dissection, identification and restoration of the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein. A 8F sheath was implanted cranially oriented into the common carotid by Seldinger technique after endovenous injection of 10.000 UI of heparin. Another 8F sheath was implanted into the internal jugular vein in caudal orientation. Both sheath were connected by the use of infusion set segment. The common carotid artery was clamped with a silastic double lace, establishing reversion of blood flow in the internal carotid artery. The lesion was crossed by 0.014 x 190 cm wire and the carotid angioplasty was performed employing a 5 x 20 mm ballon and a stent (Wallstent® 7 x 50 - Boston Scientific) was introduced, positioned and released. Carotid angioplasty with transcervical flow reversal is a cost effective brain protection strategy, associated to low embolic potential in octagenarian patients with unfavorable anatomy.

Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Angioplasty/adverse effects , Carotid Artery Diseases , Intracranial Embolism/cerebrospinal fluid , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Heparin/administration & dosage , Stents/adverse effects
Anest. analg. reanim ; 22(2): 20-30, dic. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-588068


La indicación de endarterectomía carotídea depende del riesgo perioperatorio de muerte y/o stroke de los centros donde se realiza. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la morbimortalidad de la misma en centros públicos y privados calificados como de bajo volumen quirúrgico. Se analizaron retrospectivamente 173 registros médicos en cinco centros con un volumen quirúrgico inferior a 150 pacientes en el cuatrienio. Se evaluó: estado previo a la cirugía, incidencia de stroke, muerte, complicaciones médicas y quirúrgicas posoperatorias inmediatas y a los 30 días. Del total de la población fallecieron tres (1.7%), dos por causa neurológica y uno por cardiovascular, cuatro (2.3%) presentaron stroke en el posoperatorio, siendo la morbimortalidad global a los treinta días de 4.1%. Dos pacientes presentaron infarto agudo de miocardio y dos (2,3%) angor. La inestabilidad hemodinámica posoperatoria fue la complicación más frecuente (33,3%). De 42 pacientes con hipertensión arterial posoperatoria, tres (7.1%) presentaron síndrome de hiperperfusión cerebral posoperatoria, diferencia significativa respecto a quienes no tuvieron hipertensión arterial posoperatoria. (p<0.01). Las diferencias de acuerdo a la procedencia de estos pacientes mostraron que en Instituciones de Asistencia Médica Colectiva (IAMC) se intervino mayor porcentaje de pacientes asintomáticos con menor riesgo cardiovascular, se usaron más betabloqueantes y se presentó con más frecuencia hipotensión posoperatoria. La morbilidad y mortalidad global se ajustan a las recomendaciones internacionales para centros de bajo volumen. La inestabilidad hemodinámica fue la complicación más frecuente. La principal causa de muerte fue neurológica. Se encontró un mayor porcentaje de enfermos sintomáticos en el sistema público. La hipotensión arterial y el uso de betabloqueantes fueron más frecuentes en centros privados.

The indication of carotid endarterectomy depends on the risk of death or stroke resulting from surgery in hospitals where they are performed. The aim of this study was to assess morbimortality resulting from these patology in public and private hospitals with low volume of surgeries. In 5 hospitals which over the last four years had a surgical volume of 150 patients or less, 173 medical records were analyzed retrospectively. The following were considered: health conditions prior to surgery, incidence of stroke, death rate, medical complications which occurred in the first 30 days. Of the studied patients, 3 died (1.7%), 2 for neurological reasons and 1 for cardiovascular reason, 4 (2.3%) suffered a stroke after surgery, being the global morbimortality rate over 30 days, 4.1%. Two patients suffered an acute myocardial infarction and 2 (2.3%) developed angina pectoris. Hemodynamic instability after surgery was the most frequent complication (33.3%). Three patients suffered cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after surgery, related to arterial hypertension (p<0.01%). In Collective Medical Assistance Institutions there was a higher rate of surgeries involving asymptomatic patients at low cardiovascular risk, a greater use of beta blockers, and a higher incidence of hypotension suffered after surgery when compared with public institutions.Global morbility and mortality are consistent with international standards for low-volume hospitals. Hemodynamic instability was the most common complication. The major causes of death were neurological complications. A higher rate of symptomatic patients was found in public servicies. Arterial hypertension and use of beta blockers were more common in private centers.

A indicação de endarterectomia de carótida depende do risco perioperatório de morte e/ou Stroke dos centros onde se realiza. O objetivo deste trabalho é dimencionar a morbimortalidade da mesma em centros públicos e privados qualificados como de baixo volume cirúrgico. Foram analisados retrospectivamente 173 registros médicos em 5 centros com um volume cirúrgico inferior a 150 pacientes nos últimos 4 anos. Valorizou-se: estado prévio à cirurgia,incidência de Stroke, morte, complicações médicas e cirúrgicas pós-operatórias imediatas e aos 30 dias.Do total da população,faleceram 3 (1,7%),dois por causa neurológica e um cardio-Vascular, 4(2,3%)apresentaram Stroke no pós-operatório,sendo a morbimortalidade global aos trinta dias de 4,1%. Dois pacientes apresentaram infarto agudo do miocárdio e dois(2,3%)angina. A instabilidade hemodinâmica pós-operatória foi a complicação mais freqüente(33,3%). Três pacientes apresentaram síndrome de hiperperfusão cerebral pós-operatória,associada à hipertensão (p menor que 0.01). As diferensas relativas a procedência mostraram que em instituições de assistência médica coletiva interviu-se em maior porcentagem de pacientes assintomáticos com menor risco cardiovascular, usou-se mais betabloqueadores e apresentaram com mais freqüência hipotensão pós-operatória. A morbidade e mortalidade global ajustan-se as recomendações internacionais para centros de baixo volume. A instabilidade hemodinâmica foi a complicação mais freqüente. A principal causa de morte foi neurológica. Encontrou-se uma maior porcentagem de pacientes sintomáticos no sistema público...

Humans , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/mortality , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Risk Factors , Stroke
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 27(1): 37-42, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499091


Introducción: La estenosis grave de la arteria carótida es una causa importante de accidente vascular encefálico(AVE) y evento isquémico transitorio (TIA) (10-20 por ciento). La endarterectomía carotídea extracraneana (ECE) ha demostrado ser efectiva en reducir este riesgo en pacientes seleccionados, sintomáticos y asintomáticos. Objetivo: Presentar los resultados de una serie de pacientes sometidos a ECE. Métodos: Serie de 135 ECE en 121 sujetos (84 hombres y 37 mujeres), con mediana de 72,2 +/- 7,7 años, tratados con ECE en el Servicio de Cirugía Vascular del Hospital Dipreca entre enero de 1998 y diciembre de 2004. La operación consistió en endarterectomía carotídea (común e interna) luego de realizar arteriotomía longitudinal amplia y endarterectomía carotídea externa por eversión. En la mayoría de los casos se utilizó shunt y bloqueo anestésico cervical profundo y superficial; en todos se fijó la placa distal y arteriorráfia con parche. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y se calculó porcentajes, medianas, promedios, desviaciones estándar y supervivencia. Resultados: El déficit neurológico central homolateral postoperatorio fue de 1,5 por ciento. La morbilidad general fue de 12,6 por ciento. No hubo mortalidad perioperatoria. Se obtuvo un 94 por ciento de seguimiento. La causa de muerte más frecuente fue la de origen cardíaco (74 por ciento) y hubo un 4,7 por ciento de eventos neurológicos tardíos (TIA o AVE). La supervivencia libre de re estenosis fue de 92 por ciento. Conclusión: La ECE sigue siendo una alternativa de tratamiento en nuestro Hospital con baja morbimortalidad en sujetos seleccionados con estenosis carotídea sintomática y asintomática.

Background: Critical carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke (CVA) and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Extra cranial endarterectomy (ECE) has proven effective in reducing the risk of these complications in selected patients, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. Aim: To report the results of ECE at Dipreca Hospital in Santiago, Chile. Methods: From January 1998 to December 2004, 135 ECE procedures were performed in 121 patients (84 males and 37 females). Mean age was 72.2 years (SD 7.7). ECE consisted of common and external carotid artery endarterectomy with eversion. In most cases, superficial and deep anesthetic blockade and shunts were utilized. A patch and fixation of distal plaque were performed in all. Results are presented with standard statistics methods. Results: Homolateral postoperative neurologic deficit was observed in 1.5 percent. All cause morbidity was 12.6 percent. There was no perioperative mortality. Follow up data was obtained for 94 percent of patients. Seventy-four percent of late deaths were due to cardiac events and 4.7 percent of patients developed late neurologic events (CVA or TIA). Restenosis free survival was 92 percent. Conclusion: ECE is a safe procedure for patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Artery, External/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Artery, Common/surgery , Cause of Death , Chile/epidemiology , Endarterectomy, Carotid/mortality , Follow-Up Studies , Coronary Restenosis/epidemiology , Survival Rate
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 22(1): 116-118, jan.-mar. 2007. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-454636


A síndrome de hiperperfusão pós-operatória (SH) é uma complicação conhecida após a endarterectomia de carótida. Vários estudos têm demonstrado uma incidência de 0,3 por cento a 1,2 por cento. Isso ocorre em situações de reperfusão súbita de um hemisfério com hipoperfusão crônica. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o caso de uma paciente de 48 anos que desenvolveu SH três meses após ser submetida a uma endarterectomia de carótida por estenose grave da artéria carótida.

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a recognized complication of carotid endarterectomy. Various studies have documented an incidence of 0.3 to 1.2 percent. It occurs in the setting of sudden reperfusion of a chronically hypoperfused hemisphere. We present here a case of a 48-year-old lady who developed cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome three weeks after undergoing a carotid endarterectomy for high-grade carotid artery stenosis.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Stroke , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211226


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of ischemia during protected carotid artery stenting (CAS) as well as to compare the protective efficacy of the balloon and filter devices on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive protected CAS procedures in 70 patients with a severe (> 70%) or symptomatic moderate (> 50%) carotid artery stenosis were examined. A balloon device (PercuSurge GuardWire) and a filter device (FilterWire EX/EZ, Emboshield) was used in 33 cases (CAS-B group) and 38 cases (CAS-F group) to prevent distal embolization, respectively. All the patients underwent DWI within seven days before and after the procedures. The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions on the post-procedural DWI were counted and divided into ipsilateral and contralateral lesions according to the relationship with the stenting side. RESULTS: New cerebral ischemic lesions were detected in 13 (39.4%) out of the 33 CAS-Bs and in 15 (39.5%) out of the 38 CAS-Fs. The mean number of total, ipsilateral and contralateral new cerebral ischemic lesion was 2.39, 1.67 and 0.73 in the CAS-B group and 2.11, 1.32 and 0.79 in the CAS-F group, respectively. No statistical differences were found between the two groups (p = 0.96, 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The embolic complications encountered included two retinal infarctions and one hemiparesis in the CAS-B group (9.09%), and one retinal infarction, one hemiparesis and one ataxia in the CAS-F group (7.89%). There was a similar incidence of embolic complications in the two groups (p = 1.00). CONCLUSION: The type of distal protection device used such as a balloon and filter does not affect the incidence of cerebral embolization after protected CAS.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Balloon Occlusion , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Intracranial Embolism/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Paresis/etiology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Stents
J. vasc. bras ; 2(4): 291-295, dez. 2003. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-358729


Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de complicações perioperatórias em cirurgia de endarterectomia de carótida relacionadas ao uso da protamina.Pacientes e método: No período de janeiro 1996 a março de 2001, foram realizadas 215 endarterectomias de carótida. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 68,9 anos, sendo 141 deles do sexo masculino (65,6 por cento). Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo I, com 78 pacientes (36,3 por cento), no qual a protamina foi utilizada, e o grupo II, com 137 pacientes (63,7 por cento), no qual a heparina não foi revertida. Os dois grupos foram comparados quanto às complicações(hematomas, ataque isquêmico transitório, acidente vascular cerebral e óbito).Resultados: Complicações neurológicas ocorreram em 3,72 por cento dos pacientes. A prevalência foi de 2,5 por cento no grupo I e de 4,37 por cento no grupo II. A prevalência de hematoma cervical foi de 10,23 por cento(22 pacientes). Em cinco pacientes do grupo II, houve necessidade de reoperação para drenagem do hematoma. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 1,8 por cento: 2,5 por cento para o grupo I e 1,4 por cento para o grupo II. Um dos óbitos do grupo I foi devido à reação anafilática à protamina.Conclusão: As complicações perioperatórias da endarterectomia da carótida não apresentaram diferença significativa quando comparamos pacientes em que foi ou não utilizada a protamina para a reversão da heparina.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Protamines , Evaluation Study , Follow-Up Studies , Stroke , Time Factors
Rev. AMRIGS ; 42(2): 107-11, abr.-jun. 1998. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-238321


Os autores relatam sua experiência com as últimas 100 endarterectomias de carótida realizadas no HCPA, de janeiro de 1993 a 1997, sob anestesia geral e sem outros procedimentos cirúrgicos associados...

Humans , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Cohort Studies , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects
Rev. chil. cir ; 50(3): 329-33, jun. 1998. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-231512


Los aneurismas de las arterias carótidas extracraneales son lesiones muy poco frecuentes. En Chile sólo se han reportado cinco casos: dos ateroescleróticos, dos congénitos y uno secundario a extirpación de tumor del cuerpo carotídeo. Aunque obedecen a diferentes causas, aquellos secundarios a endarterectomía carotídea son bastante infrecuentes, reportándose una incidencia de 0,30 por ciento en la literatura mundial, por lo que el objetivo de esta presentación es reportar un caso clínico de esta patología. Se presenta un caso de aneurisma postendarterectomía carotídea, de aparición tardía, que, aparte de presentar un aumento de volumen pulsátil en la región cervical, refiere varios episodios transitorios de isquemia cerebral. Su diagnóstico fue hecho en base a eco Doppler y angiografía, siendo operada con shunt para mantener la circulación cerebral, efectuándose una reparación de la arteria con parche de vena safena. Se concluye que el tratamiento de esta patología radica en un minucioso estudio preoperatorio, y en cuanto a su tratamiento es importante la utilización de shunt intraoperatorio, donde la reparación debe ser simple y efectiva a fin de prevenir nuevos episodios de isquemia cerebral

Humans , Female , Aged , Aneurysm/etiology , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Cerebral Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Echocardiography, Doppler/statistics & numerical data
Actas cardiovasc ; 7(1): 45-8, 1996.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-235122


Presentamos la experiencia del Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular del Hospital Militar Central desde el 19 de agosto de 1993 hasta el 2 de junio de 1995, período durante el cual se realizaron 35 endarterectomías carotídeas en 30 pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 69 años. Utilizamos la técnica de Pruitt con bloqueo anestésico cervical profundo y superficial, uso del shunt de Pruitt-Inahara según el monitoreo clínico y de la TAM. Las indicaciones fueron: ACV previo con buena evolución, 14 por ciento; ACV transitorio, 69 por ciento; asintomáticos, 17 por ciento. La hipertensión se correlacionaba en un 85 por ciento con estos pacientes. El promedio de duración de la cirugía fue de una hora y no se utilizó sangre en ningún caso. La mortalidad fue de 0 por ciento y se registró un ACV que fue tratado inmediatamente, recuperándose ad integrum. Este resultado promedió un índice combinado de 2,8 por ciento (mortalidad más ACV). El alta se registró en el 43 por ciento al tercer día, en 34 por ciento al cuarto día y en el 23 por ciento al quinto día. Creemos que la técnica con bloqueo cervical, monitoreo hemodinámico y clínico para identificar el uso del shunt, disminuye la morbimortalidad perioperatoria y favorece el tratamiento de pacientes más añosos y con mayor riesgo, a la vez que más del 77 por ciento abandonan el hospital en los primeros 3-4 días, haciendo posible obtener un índice combinado de morbimortalidad menor al 3 por ciento, cifra requerida por el ACAS para operar lesiones asintomáticas mayores al 60 por ciento

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Endarterectomy, Carotid/statistics & numerical data , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/complications
Actas cardiovasc ; 7(1): 49-51, 1996.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-235123


Se presentan 71 pacientes, 50 hombres y 21 mujeres, la mayoría entre 50 y 80 años de edad. La isquemia cerebral transitoria fue el cuadro clínico dominante (55 por ciento). Los enfermos asintomáticos 25 por ciento. El 19 por ciento restante se presentó con un cuadro de RIND (8 por ciento), con síntomas globales inespecíficos 8 por ciento, o con síndrome neurológico inestable 3 por ciento. Un 75 por ciento manifestaron enfermedades concomitantes significativas: hipertensión, enfermedad coronaria e infartos viejos, diabetes. A todos se los estudió con Ecodoppler y angiografía digital computarizada extra e intracerebral. Se trabajó con anestesia general siempre. Se realizaron 81 endarterectomías con shunt y arterografía simple. Hubo 3 complicaciones neurológicas, 2 reversibles, 1 definitiva y 1 fallecimiento por IAM postoperatorio

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Endarterectomy, Carotid/statistics & numerical data , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Ischemic Attack, Transient/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis