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2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(4): 223-227, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515213

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Validar la técnica de ganglio centinela utilizando verde de indocianina en la estadificación del cáncer de endometrio. Método: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo entre enero y diciembre de 2021. Se incluyeron todas las pacientes portadoras de cáncer de endometrio clínicamente en etapa 1, de todos los grados de diferenciación e histologías. Todas las pacientes fueron sometidas a una estadificación laparoscópica. Se inició el procedimiento con identificación de ganglio centinela utilizando verde de indocianina. Posteriormente, se completó la cirugía de estadiaje estándar en todas las pacientes. Los ganglios centinelas fueron procesados con técnica de ultraestadiaje. Resultados: Se incluyeron 33 pacientes. El 81% presentaron histología endometrioide. El 100% fueron sometida además a una linfadenectomía pelviana estándar y el 20% a una linfadenectomía paraaórtica simultáneamente. Se detectó al menos un ganglio centinela en el 100% de los casos. La detección bilateral ocurrió en el 90,9%. La localización más frecuente fue la fosa obturatriz y la arteria hipogástrica. Obtuvimos una sensibilidad del 90% para detectar enfermedad ganglionar y un valor predictivo negativo del 95,8%. Conclusiones: La técnica de ganglio centinela utilizando verde de indocianina es replicable. Los resultados de nuestra serie nos permiten realizar procedimientos menos agresivos al estadificar el cáncer de endometrio.


Objective: To validate sentinel node mapping using indocyanine green in endometrial cancer staging. Method: A prospective study was conducted between January and December 2021. All patients with clinically stage 1 endometrial cancer, of all grades and histologies were included. All patients underwent laparoscopic staging. The procedure began with identification of the sentinel node using indocyanine green. Subsequently, standard staging surgery was completed in all patients. Sentinel nodes were processed using ultrastaging technique. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. 81% of cases had endometrioid histology. All patients also underwent a standard pelvic lymphadenectomy and in 20% of cases a para-aortic lymphadenectomy. At least one sentinel node was detected in 100% of the cases. Bilateral detection occurred in 90.9%. The most frequent location was obturator fossa and hypogastric artery. Sensitivity to detect lymph node disease was 90% and negative predictive value 95.8%. Conclusions: Sentinel lymph node mapping using indocyanine green is a replicable technique. Our results allows us to perform less aggressive procedures in endometrial cancer staging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Indocyanine Green , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging/methods
3.
In. Castillo Pino, Edgardo A. Manual de ginecología y obstetricia para pregrados y médicos generales. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro-FEFMUR, 2 ed; 2021. p.255-265.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1372564
4.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 263-269, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126161

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: existe una asociación demostrada entre endometriosis y algunas histologías del carcinoma epitelial de ovario. Por otra parte, se ha observado que hasta un 30% de las neoplasias de ovario se presentan de forma concomitante a neoplasias del endometrio. Para considerar la sincronicidad entre estos tumores, estos deben cumplir criterios anatomopatológicos estrictos como los descritos por scully. OBJETIVO: presentar un caso clínico de carcinoma endometrioide sincrónico de ovario y endometrio sobre focos de endometriosis, así como su diagnóstico y manejo. CASO CLÍNICO: paciente de 27 años que consulta por spotting intermenstrual. En la ecografía endocavitaria se observa un pólipo endometrial. Además, se describe un tumor anexial izquierdo de 42mm, trilobulado, con un polo sólido de 17×15mm. Se somete a una polipectomía histeroscópica y quistectomía ovárica laparoscópica. Asimismo, se reseca implante sospechoso en el fondo de saco posterior. El resultado anatomopatológico de las piezas quirúrgicas fue: pólipo endometrial con hiperplasia compleja con atipias y focos de adenocarcinoma endometrioide grado I; el tumor quístico ovárico izquierdo consistente con quiste endometriósico con focos de adenocarcinoma endometrioide. La lesión peritoneal corresponde a un implante de adenocarcinoma endometrioide grado I. El estudio de las características anatomopatológicas y la presencia del implante peritoneal sugieren el diagnóstico de un carcinoma endometrioide ovárico con origen en una lesión endometriósica sincrónico con un carcinoma endometrioide endometrial. CONCLUSIÓN: el diagnóstico diferencial entre la sincronicidad o diseminación de los tumores de ovario y endometrio de estirpe endometrioide supone un reto para el clínico y es fundamental para el correcto manejo de estas neoplasias.


BACKGROUND: there is a demonstrated association between endometriosis and some epithelial ovarian carcinoma histologies. On the other hand, it has been observed that up to 30% of ovarian neoplasms present concomitantly with endometrial neoplasms. To consider synchronicity between these neoplasms, they must meet strict pathological criteria such as those described by scully. OBJECTIVE: to introduce a case of an ovarian and endometrial synchronous endometrioid carcinoma implanted on endometriosis sites, as well as its diagnosis and management. CLINICAL CASE: a 27-year-old patient who consulted because of an intermenstrual spotting. The ultrasound image showed an endometrial polyp. Furthermore, a 42 mm left adnexal trilobal tumor with a 17×15mm solid pole was described. She underwent a hysteroscopic polypectomy and laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Likewise, resection of a suspicious implant in the posterior vaginal fornix was done. The pathological result of the surgical pieces was: endometrial polyp with complex hyperplasia with atypia and focal points of grade I endometrioid adenocarcinoma; the left ovarian cystectomy: endometriotic cyst with focal points of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The peritoneal lesion corresponded to a grade I endometrioid adenocarcinoma implant. The study of the pathological characteristics and the presence of the peritoneal implant suggest the diagnosis of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma originated in a synchronous endometriotic lesion with endometrial endometrioid carcinoma. CONCLUSION: differential diagnosis between the synchronicity or spread of ovarian and endometrial endometrioid cell line carcinomas, is a great challenge and it is essential for the correct management of these neoplasms


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/diagnosis , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology
6.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(6): 425-434, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092758

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la técnica de azul patente (disponible en todo el territorio nacional) en el ganglio centinela para la estadificación del cáncer cérvico uterino y en-dometrial. Método Estudio prospectivo realizado entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2018. Se evaluó la técnica de azul patente para la detección de ganglio centinela en la estadificación del cáncer cérvico uterino y endometrial, antes de la linfadenectomía pélvica estándar. La inyección del azul patente se aplicó en el cuello uterino (1 cc 1 cm de profundidad y 1 cc superficial) a las 3 y 9 horas, 20 minutos antes del inicio de la cirugía (laparotomía o laparoscópica). La identifica-ción y extracción del ganglio centinela fue realizado por un ginecólogo oncólogo certificado y evaluado mediante histología tradicional con hematoxilina y eosina (H&E). Resultado Se realiza-ron un total de 80 cirugías. El ganglio centinela se identificó en 75 (94%) pacientes, 60 (75%) bilateralmente; Con una detección media de 1,9 nodos por paciente. El sitio de identificación más frecuente fue la fosa obturatriz (43,9%), seguida de los vasos ilíacos externos. Otro 2,6% de los nodos fueron encontrados en sitios poco comunes. Entre los ganglios linfáticos seleccio-nados, 10 casos fueron positivos para el cáncer. No hubo ganglio centinela falso negativo. La tasa de detección fue del 83%, con una especificidad del 95%. Conclusiones Los datos aquí expuestos nos permiten estandarizar e implementar el uso de gan-glio centinela con azul patente. El uso de GC adecua la cirugía a la necesidad de la paciente, con una clara disminución en la incidencia de complicaciones asociadas a la linfadenectomía. Este trabajo forma parte de un estudio inicial el cual se debe complementar con el uso de la tin-ción de verde de indocianina y el estudio anatomo patológico con ultraestadiaje para obtener una validación e implementación adecuada del GC en la etapificación en cáncer de cérvix y endo-metrio.


SUMMARY Objective To assess the diagnostic performance of patent blue dye technique (available in the whole country) in sentinel lymph node for cervical and endometrial cancer staging. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted between January 2014 to December 2018. Patent blue dye technique was assessed for the detection of sentinel lymph node in cervical and endometrial cancer staging, before standard pelvic lymphadenectomy. Blue dye injection was applied in the cervix (1cc 1cm deep and 1cc superficial) at 3 and 9 hour, 20 minutes prior start-ing a surgery (laparotomy or laparoscopic). The sentinel lymph node was collected by a certified surgeon and assessed by traditional histologic hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results A total of 80 surgeries were performed. The sentinel lymph node was identified in 75 (94%) patients, 60 (75%) bilaterally; with an average detection of 1,9 nodes per patient. The most common site of identifi-cation was the obturator fossa, followed by the external iliac vessels (43,9%). 2,6% of the nodes were found in uncommon sites. 10 lymph nodes were cancer-positive. There were no false neg-ative sentinel node.Overall in our cohort the detection rate was 83% for specificity 95%. Conclusions Our data presented in this publication allow us to safely standardize and implement a sentinel lymph node technique with patent blue. This technique will allow us to adapt the sur-gery for the patient's needs, diminishing the incidence of complications associated with lym-phadenectomy. This is the first stage of our work which we must complement with indocyanine green and pathological study with ultrastaging to obtain an adequate validation and implementa-tion of sentinel node in cervical and endometrial cancer staging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Coloring Agents , Sentinel Lymph Node/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Laparoscopy , Sentinel Lymph Node/anatomy & histology , Indocyanine Green
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(4): 264-267, Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013603

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Most endometrial cancers (75%) are diagnosed in early stages (stages I and II), in which abnormal uterine bleeding is the most frequent clinical sign.When the diagnosis is performed in stage IV, the most common sites of metastasis are the lungs, liver and bones. Central nervous system (CNS)metastasis is a rare condition. The aim of this study is to describe a case of uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium that progressed to brain and bone metastases. Case Report We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with abnormal uterine bleeding and endometrial thickened echo (1.8 cm). A hysteroscopy with biopsy was performed, which identified poor differentiated serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. A total abdominal hysterectomy, with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, was performed. Analysis of the surgical specimen revealed a grade III uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant radio/chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel-six cycles) was indicated. Sixteen months after the surgery, the patient began to complain of headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an expansile mass in the right parietal lobe, suggesting a secondary hematogenous implant subsequently confirmed by biopsy. She underwent surgery for treatment of brain metastasis, followed by radiotherapy. She died 12 months after the brain metastasis diagnosis due to disease progression. Conclusion Uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium has a low propensity to metastasize to the brain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fifth documented case of uterine papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with metastasis to the CNS.


Resumo Fundamentos A maioria dos cânceres de endométrio (75%) é diagnosticada em estágios iniciais (estágios I e II), nos quais o sangramento uterino anormal é o sinalclínico mais frequente. Quando o diagnóstico é realizado no estágio IV, os locais mais comuns de metástase são os pulmões, o fígado e os ossos. A metástase para o sistema nervoso central (SNC) é uma condição rara. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever um caso de adenocarcinoma seroso-papilífero do endométrio que progrediu para metástases cerebral e óssea. Relato de Caso Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 56 anos com sangramento uterino anormal e eco endometrial espessado (1,8 cm). Foi realizada histeroscopia com biópsia que identificou adenocarcinoma seroso-papilífero pouco diferenciado do endométrio. Uma histerectomia abdominal total, com linfadenectomia pélvica e para-aórtica, foi realizada. A análise da peça cirúrgica revelou adenocarcinoma seroso-papilífero do endométrio grau III. Radioterapia adjuvante/quimioterapia (carboplatina e paclitaxel- seis ciclos) foi indicada.Dezesseismeses após a cirurgia, a paciente começou a se queixar de dores de cabeça. A ressonância magnética cerebral demonstrou uma massa expansiva no lobo parietal direito, sugerindo um implante hematogênico secundário posteriormente confirmado por biópsia. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia para tratamento de metástase cerebral, seguida de radioterapia. A paciente morreu 12 meses após o diagnóstico de metástase cerebral devido à progressão da doença. Conclusão O adenocarcinoma seroso-papilífero do endométrio tem uma baixa propensão a metastizar para o cérebro. Até onde sabemos, este é o quinto caso documentado de adenocacinoma seroso-papilífero do endométrio com metástase para o SNC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/diagnosis , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/complications , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/secondary , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Hysterectomy , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(1): 26-28, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-982035

ABSTRACT

La definición de sangrado ginecológico anormal durante terapia hormonal de la menopausia es aquel sangrado no programado durante el uso de la terapia. Este artículo es un pauteo que describe: 1) cuándo diagnosticar unsangrado anormal, ya que difiere según el tipo de esquema hormonal utilizado; 2) eldiagnóstico diferencial del origen del sangrado anormal; 3) los métodos de evaluación para diagnosticar el origen del sangrado. Se destacan los aspectos principales para el diagnóstico diferencial entre patología orgánica versus disrupción endometrial debida al tratamiento hormonal. Además, se describen los ajustes posibles para resolver el sangrado cuando éste se debe a disrupción del endometrio.


Abnormal bleeding related to menopausal hormone therapy is defined as unscheduled bleeding during the use of the therapy. This article outlines when to diagnose an abnormal bleeding -as this differs according to the type of hormonal scheme used-, the differential diagnosis of the origin of abnormal bleeding, and the methods of evaluation to assess the origin of the bleeding. The main aspects are highlighted on the differentiation of organic pathology versus disruption of the endometrium due to treatment. Also, treatment adjustments to resolve bleeding when it is due to disruption of the endometrium are outlined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Menopause , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/adverse effects , Norpregnenes/adverse effects , Polyps/complications , Polyps/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Endometrial Hyperplasia/complications , Endometrial Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Endometrium/diagnostic imaging , Metrorrhagia/etiology , Norpregnenes/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 86(3/4): 119-122, jul.- dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022264

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El cáncer endometrial (CE) según las estadísticas es el tumor ginecológico más frecuente en países desarrollados, donde su incidencia ha ido en aumento. Históricamente, el CE se ha clasificado en dos tipos: Tipo I (endometrioide), representando el 80-90% de los casos; el tipo II (no endometrioide como el de células serosas y claras, carcinomas indiferenciados). Como dato importante, la mayoría de las pacientes son diagnosticadas cuando la enfermedad se encuentra en etapas tempranas o la lesión todavía está confinada al útero. El tratamiento convencional radica en una histerectomía primaria más salpingooforectomía bilateral, según el estadío de la enfermedad. Caso clínico: Paciente de 58 años de edad que ingresa al Hospital de San Marcos, Ocotepeque, con sangrado transvaginal de 1 mes de evolución, hipertensión crónica y obesidad tipo I. En el ultrasonido transvaginal se observó engrosamiento endometrial, pero en la biopsia se diagnosticó Adenocarcinoma Endometrial de tipo Endometroide Grado II-III de la FIGO. Conclusión: Ante la presencia de sangrado uterino anormal en mujeres peri y postmenopáusicas, con factores de riesgos asociados, se debe sospechar cáncer de endometrio...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Serous Membrane , Carcinoma , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(4): e2018041, Oct.-Dec. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-986588

ABSTRACT

High-grade endometrial carcinomas are aggressive neoplasms of difficult histological classification. Neuroendocrine differentiation in endometrial carcinomas is rare. This is the report of an endometrial large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with foci of melanocytic differentiation in a 75-year-old woman with abnormal post-menopausal uterine bleeding for 2 years. Two initial biopsies were inconclusive. Histopathological examination of the uterus revealed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with endometrioid carcinoma and foci of melanocytic differentiation, pT3a (FIGO IIIA). There were metastases in the rectum serosa and lungs. After 8 months of diagnosis and surgical treatment, the patient is on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We highlight the morphological characteristics and criteria that allow the definitive anatomopathological diagnosis, including immunohistochemical markers used to identify the cell types present in this unprecedented association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/surgery , Carcinoma, Large Cell , Melanocytes
13.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(4): 394-401, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978111

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El cáncer sincrónico endometrial y ovárico (SEOC) representa alrededor de un 5-10% de las neoplasias de endometrio y ovario. Cuando no existe extensión locorregional y presentan un patrón histológico de bajo grado, actúan como si fueran dos tumores primarios independientes, en lugar de comportarse como un cáncer en estadio avanzado. Los mecanismos para diferenciar si su origen es metastásico o por el contrario, son tumores primarios independientes conlleva una gran dificultad y ha generado una importante controversia dentro del estudio de este tipo de neoplasias. En este artículo, exponemos el caso clínico de una paciente de 46 años que presenta un tumor sincrónico de endometrio y ovario en estadio IA, desconocido hasta el estudio histológico de la pieza quirúrgica.


ABSTRACT Endometrial and ovarian synchronous cancer (SEOC) accounts for about 5-10% of endometrial and ovarian neoplasms. When there is no local extension and they present a low-grade histological pattern, they act as if they were two independent primary tumours, instead of behaving as an advanced stage cancer. Therefore, the differentiation of its origin (metastatic or independent primary tumours) is fraught with difficulty and has generated a significant controversy in the study of this type of neoplasms. In this article, we present the clinical case of a 46-year-old patient presenting a synchronous tumor of the endometrium and ovary in IA stage, unknown until the histological study of the surgical sample.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
14.
Rev. interdisciplin. estud. exp. anim. hum. (impr.) ; 9(único): 15-20, outubro 2017. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964835

ABSTRACT

O câncer endometrial é o sexto tipo de câncer mais frequente entre as mulheres e o mais prevalente tipo de neoplasia maligna do trato genital feminino nos países desenvolvidos ocidentais. A pesquisa apresentada traz uma análise de prontuários das pacientes submetidas a procedimento diagnóstico para avaliação do endométrio entre os anos de 2010 a 2014, no no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, para identificar em que faixa de espessamento endometrial há mais casos de câncer de endométrio e traçar um perfil das pacientes submetidas aos procedimentos de amostragem de endométrio. Os resultados sugeriram que o método diagnóstico mais utilizado para investigação foi a histeroscopia cirúrgica.


Endometrial cancer is the sixth most frequent type of cancer among women and the most prevalent type of malignancy of the female genital tract in Western developed countries. The present research brings an analysis of medical records of patients submitted to a diagnostic procedure to evaluate the endometrium between the years 2010 to 2014, in the Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, to identify in which endometrial thickening range there are more cases of endometrial cancer and to draw a profile of patients submitted to endometrial sampling procedures. The results suggested that the most used diagnostic method for investigation was surgical hysteroscopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Hysteroscopy/instrumentation , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Hemorrhage , Health Profile , Postmenopause
15.
Femina ; 45(1): 40-44, mar. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050702

ABSTRACT

O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir, através de uma revisão da literatura, as influências do tamoxifeno sobre as alterações do padrão endometrial em pacientes com câncer de mama na pós-menopausa. Além de caracterizar os principais padrões endometriais e relacioná-los ao câncer de endométrio, são descritas também as recomendações da literatura vigente para a monitorização e seguimento destas pacientes. A literatura especializada demonstra claramente a relevância do acompanhamento clínico rigoroso destas mulheres pelo risco aumentado de câncer endometrial; no entanto, ainda não há consenso sobre qual o melhor exame de rastreio ou a periodicidade de realização do mesmo. Conclui-se que a prioridade é o exame clínico anual e orientação das pacientes quanto à sintomatologia, principalmente quanto à presença de sangramento vaginal. A partir destes sintomas, dá-se prosseguimento com investigação mais detalhada.(AU)


The present work aims to discuss, through a literature review, the influence of tamoxifen use in endometrial pattern changes in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. In addition, to characterize the main endometrial patterns and relate them to endometrial cancer was a secondary objective. This review describes the recommendations of the current literature for endometrial monitoring of these patients. The literature clearly demonstrated to be relevant the clinical monitoring of these patients, because the increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, there is no consensus about which is the best tracking exam or the timing of completion of it. It was concluded that the priority is an annual clinical checkup for symptoms, especially the presence of vaginal bleeding; further, detailed investigation will depend on which symptoms are presented.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Postmenopause/drug effects , Endometrium/drug effects , Endometrium/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis
16.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 81(2): 152-158, abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780551

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Los pólipos endometriales son protrusiones nodulares benignas de la superficie endometrial con características clínico-patológicas propias y de origen desconocido. Su prevalencia es alta, especialmente en pacientes con sangrado uterino anormal, se asocia a infertilidad y a cáncer de endometrio, lo que se traduce en que se trata de una patología muy importante en el quehacer ginecológico habitual. OBJETIVOS: Revisar la patogenia, actualizar y evaluar los métodos diagnósticos, y definir las mejores opciones terapéuticas de esta frecuente patología. MÉTODO: Revisión sistemática de la literatura publicada en el tema, mediante búsqueda en base de datos Pub Med. RESULTADOS: La patogenia es aun desconocida, es una patología muy heterogénea y no hay causa única, se han reportado varios hallazgos relacionados con alteraciones genéticas. La ultrasonografía de alta definición, la hidrosonografia y la histeroscopia son el estándar actual en el diagnóstico. Las opciones terapéuticas se extienden desde la observación y seguimiento con imágenes, hasta la histerectomía con biopsia contemporánea, siendo la histeroscopia quirúrgica el método más costo efectivo. CONCLUSIÓN: La patogenia de los pólipos endometriales se encuentra actualmente en revisión, no hay ninguna teoría que explique la génesis de todos los pólipos. La ultrasonografía con contraste y la histeroscopia constituyen el estándar en el diagnóstico. En el tratamiento, la indicación es la cirugía histeroscopica y en especial la resección electroquirúrgica, que permite una extracción completa del pólipo bajo visión directa, con enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico, con riesgos bajos y recurrencia mínima.


BACKGROUND: Endometrial polyps are benign nodular protrusions of the endometrial surface with clinical and pathological features of unknown origin. Its prevalence is high, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, it is associated with infertility and endometrial cancer, what constitutes a common and important disease. AIMS: To review the pathogenesis, to update and evaluate diagnostic methods, and to define the best treatment options for this common condition. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature on the subject by searching PubMed database. RESULTS: The pathogenesis is still unknown, it is a very heterogeneous disease and there is no single cause, there have been several findings related to genetic alterations. High definition ultrasonography, the hidrosonography and hysteroscopy are the current standard in diagnosis. Therapeutic options range from observation and follow up with images to the hysterectomy using contemporary biopsy, surgical hysteroscopy being the most cost effective method. CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of endometrial polyps are currently under review, there is no theory to explain the genesis of all polyps. Contrast ultrasonography and hysteroscopy are standard in the diagnosis. In the treatment, the indication is histeroscopy surgery and especially electrosurgical resection, which allows complete removal of polyps, diagnostic and therapeutic approach, with low risk and low recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polyps/diagnosis , Polyps/therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/therapy , Polyps/pathology , Hysteroscopy , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Hysterectomy
17.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e32-2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the techiniqes of single-port laparoscopic transperitoneal infrarenal paraaortic lymphadenectomy as part of surgical staging procedure in case of early ovarian cancer and high grade endometrial cancer. METHODS: After left upper traction of rectosigmoid, a peritoneal incision was made caudad to inferior mesenteric artery. Rectosigmoid was mobilized, and then the avascular space of the lateral rectal portion was found by using upward traction of rectosigmoid mesentery. Inframesenteric nodes were removed without injury to the ureter and the left common iliac nodes were easily removed due to the upward traction of the rectosigmoid. The superior hypogastric plexus was found overlying the aorta and sacral promontory, and presacral nodes were removed at subaortic area. Peritoneal traction suture to right abdomen was needed for right para-aortic lymphadenectomy. After right lower para-aortic node dissection, operator was situated between the patient's legs. After upper traction of the small bowel, left upper para-aortic nodes were removed. To prevent chylous ascites, we used hemolock or Ligasure application (ValleyLab Inc.) to upper part of infrarenal and aortocaval nodes. RESULTS: Single-port laparoscopic transperitoneal infrarenal para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed without serious perioperative complications. CONCLUSION: Even though the technique of single-port surgery is still a difficult operation, the quality of single-port laparoscopic transperitoneal infrarenal para-aortic node dissection is excellent, especially mean number of para-aortic nodes. In cases of staging procedures for ovary and endometrial cancer, single-port transperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy is acceptable as an oncologic procedure.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Neoplasm Staging/adverse effects , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis
18.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 80(5): 367-372, ago. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764066

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar la concordancia histológica pre y postoperatoria del cáncer de endometrio (CE) diagnosticado por cánula de biopsia tipo Cornier. MÉTODOS: Se incluyen 82 pacientes sometidas a biopsia ambulatoria a ciegas por aspirado con diagnóstico anatomo-patológico final de CE en la pieza de histerectomía. Se estudia la concordancia atendiendo al tipo y al grado histológico haciendo dos grupos para cada análisis: CE endometrioide/no endometrioide y Ce de bajo/alto grado. RESULTADOS: La sensibilidad de la biopsia para detectar malignidad fue del 100%. El grado de concordancia atendiendo al tipo histológico fue de 94% (96,7% para los tipo endometrioide y del 85% para los tipos no endometrioides). En cuanto al grado histológico la precisión en el diagnóstico fue del 90,2% (94,3% en los tumores de bajo grado y 82,7% en los de alto grado) con una tasa de subestimación del grado tumoral del 6%. CONCLUSIONES: La biopsia por aspiración con cánula tipo Cornier detecta adecuadamente el CE y la concordancia entre la biopsia preoperatoria y la pieza quirúrgica es alta, por lo que puede considerarse una técnica fiable en el diagnóstico del cáncer de endometrio y precisa en la valoración del grado y tipo histológicos. El grupo más discordante es el CE G3 de tipo endometrioide.


OBJECTIVE: Analyze pre and post operative histological concordance of endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosed by Cornier biopsy cannula. METHODS: 82 patients under going out patient biopsy aspirate blindly with EC in the hysterectomy specimen. We study the type and histological grade accuracy by two groups for each analysis: EC endometrioid/non-endometrioid and low/high grade. RESULTS: The sensitivity for detecting malignancy was 100%. The histological type agreement was 94% (96.7% for the endometrioid type and 85% for non-endometrioid type). The histological grade accuracy was 90.2% (94.3% in low-grade tumors and 82.7% in high grade) with a rate of under estimation of tumor grade of 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Cornier aspiration biopsy is safe in the diagnosis of EC. Grade and histological type accuracy between preoperative biopsy and surgical specimen is high. The most discordant is EC G3 endometrioid type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Biopsy, Needle/statistics & numerical data , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Biopsy, Needle/instrumentation , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cannula
19.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : 227-231, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165916

ABSTRACT

To improve survival in women with endometrial cancer, we need to look at the "big picture" beyond initial treatment. Although the majority of women will be diagnosed with early stage disease and are cured with surgery alone, there is a subgroup of women with advanced and high-risk early stage disease whose life expectancy may be prolonged with the addition of chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry will help to identify those women with Lynch syndrome who will benefit from more frequent colorectal cancer surveillance and genetic counseling. If they happen to be diagnosed with colorectal cancer, this information has an important therapeutic implication. And finally, because the majority of women will survive their diagnosis of endometrial cancer, they remain at risk for breast and colorectal cancer, so these women should be counselled about screening for these cancers. These three interventions will contribute to improving the overall survival of women with endometrial cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Life Expectancy , Risk Factors
20.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : 134-140, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the survival impact of lymphadenectomy in patients diagnosed with uterine clear cell cancer (UCCC). METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of UCCC were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 1988 to 2007. Only surgically treated patients were included. Statistical analysis using Student t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival methods, and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria; 955 patients (68.9%) underwent lymphadenectomy. Older patients (> or =65) were less likely to undergo lymphadenectomy compared with their younger cohorts (64.3% vs. 75.9%, p10 nodes removed) were 32% (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.83; p<0.001) and 47% (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65; p<0.001) less likely to die, respectively. CONCLUSION: The extent of lymphadenectomy is associated with an improved survival of patients diagnosed with UCCC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis , Pelvis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Neoplasms/diagnosis
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