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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 463-472, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153079

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to characterize alpha-hemolytic streptococci among isolates from cases of infectious endophthalmitis and keratitis and to determine their distributions. Methods: The sample included 27 and 35 nonduplicated isolates of alpha-hemolytic streptococci recovered from patients with infectious endophthalmitis (2002-2013) and keratitis (2008-2013), respectively. Isolates were identified by the optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests, using a biochemical identification system. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method. Molecular identification was performed by analyses of three constitutive genes and the complementary multilocus sequence. The molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated using multilocus sequence typing, and the presence of the capsular polysaccharide-encoding gene was assessed using conventional polymerase chain reaction. Outcomes were evaluated using the patients' medical records. Results: Phenotypic tests differentiated S. pneumoniae from other alpha-hemolytic streptococci, consistent with later molecular identifications. Streptococcus oralis was significantly prevalent among the endophthalmitis isolates, as was S. pneumoniae in the keratitis isolates. High levels of susceptibility to antibiotics were observed, including vancomycin, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. High genetic variability was detected among the 19 S. pneumoniae strains, with 15 predicted to be encapsulated. The medical records of patients with infectious endophthalmitis were reviewed (n=15/27; 56%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 12 cases (44%). Many patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/12; 50%), "light perception" (3/12; 25%), or "hand motion" (1/12; 8%). The medical records of patients with infectious keratitis were also reviewed (n=24/35; 69%), and final visual acuity was assessed in 18 cases (51%). Similarly, most patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (6/18; 33%), "light perception" (1/18; 6%), or "hand motion" (6/18; 33%). Overall, the majority of patients progressed to a final visual acuity state of "no light perception" (12/30), "light perception" (4/30), or "hand motion" (7/30). Conclusions: The distribution of alpha-hemolytic streptococci in ocular infections suggested the presence of a species-specific tissue tropism. The prognoses of patients with ocular streptococcal infections were highly unfavorable, and antibiotic resistance did not contribute to the unfavorable clinical progressions and poor outcomes.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos isolados de endoftalmite infecciosa e ceratite e determinar sua distribuição. Métodos: A amostra incluiu 27 e 35 isolados não-duplicados de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos recuperados de pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa (2002-2013) e ceratite (2008-2013), respectivamente. Os isolados foram identificados pelos testes de suscetibilidade à optoquina e bile solubilidade, utilizando um sistema de identificação bioquímica. A concentração inibitória mínima foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. A identificação molecular foi realizada pela análise de três genes constitutivos e análise complementar de sequências multilocus. A epidemiologia molecular do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi investigada por tipagem de sequência multilocus, e a presença do gene codificador do polissacarídeo capsular foi avaliada por reação em cadeia da polymerase convencional. Os resultados foram avaliados utilizando os prontuários médicos dos pacientes. Resultados: Os testes fenotípicos diferenciaram S. pneumoniae dos outros estreptococos alpha-hemolíticos, consistentes com identificações moleculares posteriores. S. oralis foi significativamente prevalente entre os isolados de endoftalmite, assim como S. pneumoniae nos isolados de ceratite. Foram observados altos níveis de suscetibilidade a antibióticos, incluindo vancomicina, cefalosporinas e fluoroquinolonas. Alta variabilidade genética foi detectada entre as 19 cepas de S. pneumoniae, com 15 previstas para serem encapsuladas. Os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com endoftalmite infecciosa foram revisados (n=15/27; 56%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 12 casos (44%). Muitos pacientes evoluiram para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/12; 50%), "percepção luminosa" (3/12; 25%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (1/12; 8%). Também foram revisados os prontuários médicos dos pacientes com ceratite infecciosa (n=24/35; 69%), e a acuidade visual final foi avaliada em 18 casos (51%). Da mesma foram, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (6/18; 33%), "percepção luminosa" (1/18; 6%) ou "movimentos de mãos" (6/18; 33%). No geral, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu para um estado final de acuidade visual de "sem percepção luminosa" (12/30), "percepção luminosa" (4/30) ou "movimentos de mãos" (7/30). Conclusões: A distribuição de estreptococos alfa-hemolíticos nas infecções oculares sugeriu a presença de um tropismo de tecido específico da espécie. Os prognósticos dos pacientes com infeções oculares por estreptococos foram altamente desfavoráveis e a resistência a antibióticos contribuiu não para as progressões clínicas des­favoráveis e os maus resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endophthalmitis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Keratitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratitis/drug therapy , Keratitis/epidemiology
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 333-335, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137995

ABSTRACT

Abstract This report presents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis due to Kingella kingae infectious endocarditis. Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare condition that has a systemic underlying cause, with hematogenic dissemination of a pathogen that will eventually reach and infect the eye. In this article, we present a case of a 54-year-old woman with fever, chills and decreased visual acuity and pain in the right eye. The slit-lamp exam showed conjunctival injection, anterior chamber reaction with a great amount of fibrinous material obscuring her visual axis. Ultrasound echography revealed profuse exudates and scarce membranous formation in the posterior segment. Blood culture was positive for Kingella kingae, and the patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone, along with topic dexamethasone and mydriatic. After 15 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy, the patient exhibited best visual acuity of 20/60. Endogenous endophthalmitis is an ocular emergency that demands quick diagnosis and aggressive intervention in order to preserve vision. Therefore, it is important to recognize its signs and symptoms with no retard.


Resumo O presente relato apresenta um raro caso de endoftalmite endógena por endocardite devido à Kingella kingae. Endoftalmite endógena é uma doença pouco comum com uma causa sistêmica subjacente. A disseminação hematogênica de um microrganismo infeccioso leva à infecção ocular. Nesse artigo, apresentamos o caso de uma mulher com 54 anos, febre, calafrios, baixa da acuidade visual e dor em olho direito. Ao exame na lâmpada de fenda apresentava injeção conjuntival, reação de câmara anterior e acúmulo de fibrina no eixo visual. Ultrassonografia revelou exsudatos profusos e escassa formação membranosa em segmento posterior.A hemocultura foi positiva para Kingella kingae e a paciente foi tratada com ceftriaxone venoso conjuntamente com dexametasona e midriático tópicos. Após 15 dias de terapia antibiótica endovenosa, a paciente apresentou acuidade visual corrigida de 20/60. Endoftalmite endógena é uma emergência ocular que demanda rápido diagnóstico e intervenção agressiva para preservar a visão. Portanto, é importante o reconhecimento precoce dos sinais e sintomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Kingella kingae , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Injections, Intravenous
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 266-269, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137972

ABSTRACT

Resumo É apresentado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 77 anos, internada por pielonefrite e tratada com antibóticos de amplo espectro, tendo desenvolvido endoftalmite endógena bilateral presumida por Candida. Foi submetida à vitrectomia via pars plana e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, além de voriconazol oral. São abordados, ainda, os aspectos clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por meio de revisão da literatura.


Abstract A 77 year-old female patient suffering from pyelonephritis developed bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis presumed by Candida after have been treated with global spectrum antibiotics. Early vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection were performed, in addition to oral voriconazole. Clinical aspects of endogenous endophthalmitis are also pointed out by a literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitrectomy , Candida albicans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): 196-198, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888105

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare condition often associated with poor prognosis. We present a case of postoperative acute fungal endophthalmitis caused by the yeast-like fungus Stephanoascus ciferrii (Candida ciferrii). The fungus was resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B but susceptible to caspofungin. Because the degree of vitreal penetration of caspofungin after its intravenous administration is unclear, we performed multiple intravitreal injections, first with 50 µg/0.1 ml and then with 250 µg/0.1 ml caspofungin. Despite the recurrence of symptoms, intravitreal injection of caspofungin finally abolished the inflammation and achieved ambulatory vision that persisted until 1 year of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. ciferrii endophthalmitis and its successful treatment with intravitreal caspofungin.


RESUMO Endoftalmite fúngica é uma ocorrência rara, muitas vezes associada com mau prog nóstico. Apresentamos um caso de endoftalmite fúngica aguda pós-operatória causada por fungo de levedura incomum, Stephanoascus ciferrii (Candida ciferrii). O fungo foi resistente ao fluconazol, ao voriconazol e à anfotericina B e susceptível à caspofun gina. Dado que a penetração vítrea da caspofungina após administração intravenosa não é clara, optou-se por realizar múltiplas injecções intravítreas, primeiro de 50 µg e depois de 250 µg de caspofungina, e finalmente obteve-se a resolução da inflamação e a visão recuperada foi mantida por pelo menos um ano após o ocorrido. No nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de endoftalmite por Stephanoascus ciferrii e o primeiro relato de endoftalmite fúngica tratada com sucesso com caspofungina intravítrea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Echinocandins/administration & dosage , Intravitreal Injections , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Vitrectomy , Visual Acuity , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Saccharomycetales , Lipopeptides/administration & dosage , Caspofungin
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901353

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso de un paciente varón de 22 años, miope, sometido a vitrectomía pars plana 23 G en ojo único (valioso), por desprendimiento de retina regmatógeno. A las 24 horas presentó pérdida de visión, dolor, signos inflamatorios en globo y anejos oculares. Acudió al Servicio de Emergencias, donde se decidió su ingreso hospitalario para la toma de muestra y la aplicación de inyección intravítrea de vancomicina (1 mg/0,1 mL) y ceftazidima (2 mg/0,1 mL), con lo que mostró mejoría clínica. El estudio microbiológico reportó Pseudomona aeruginosa sensible a la ceftazidima y a la ciprofloxacina. La mejor visualización fundoscópica al quinto día posintravítrea permitió observar depósitos blanquecinos en la interfaz aceite de silicona-retina, y se decidió la extracción de aceite por incisiones mixtas 23 g y 20 g (infusión, endoiluminación y extracción respectivamente), lavado de cámara anterior, cámara vítrea, reposición de aceite de silicón y segunda dosis de ceftazidima, con evolución posoperatoria favorable. Se dio el alta una semana después, con la retina aplicada y una mejor visión corregida de 0,1(AU)


This is the report about a male 22 years-old myopic patient who underwent a pars plana 23 G vitrectomy in one eye (valuable) due to regmatogen retinal detachment. Twenty four hours after the surgery, he presented with vision loss, pain, eye bulb inflammation and ocular adnexa. He went to the emergency service where it was decided to admitted him to the hospital for sample taking and application of intravitreal injection of vancomycin (1 mg/0,1 mL) and ceftazidime (2 mg/0,1 mL) which brought about clinical improvement. The microbiological test reported the presence of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacine-susceptible Pseudomona aeruginosa. The fundus oculi performed five days after vitrectomy allowed observing whitish deports in the silicon oil/retina interface, so it was decided to remove the oil by making mixed incisions of 23 and 20 g (infusion, endoilumination and extraction, respectively), washing the anterior chamber, the vitreal chamber, returning the silicon oil and a second dosage of ceftazidime, all of which caused favorable postoperative progress. One week later, he was discharged from the hospital with replaced retina and better corrected vision of 0.1(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Vitrectomy/adverse effects
8.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(1): 33-36, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-844065

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os autores relatam um caso de endoftalmite fúngica endógena bilateral ocorrida após nefrostomia descompressiva decorrente de pielonefrite obstrutiva secundária a nefrolitíase tratada, inicialmente, com injeção intravítrea de voriconazol (100 ìg/0.1 ml) porém evoluiu sem resposta terapêutica sendo necessária a vitrectomia posterior (23G).


ABSTRACT The authors report a case of bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis occurred after decompression nephrostomy due to secondary obstructive pyelonephritis the treated nephrolithiasis initially with intravitreal voriconazole (100 mg / 0.1 ml) but evolved without therapeutic response requiring the posterior vitrectomy (23G).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal , Pyelonephritis/complications , Vitrectomy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 330-332, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827977

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA) was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at the level of hand movements, and the cornea was edematous. Topical high-dose dexamethasone and oral steroids were initiated considering the diagnosis of TASS. Subsequently, the patient's VA increased, and the corneal edema decreased. We believe that the use of re-sterilized cannulas may have been the likely cause of TASS. Although DALK can be performed without interfering with the anterior chamber, one should keep in mind that TASS may occur in response to the solution used to hydrate the incision site and the air injected into the anterior chamber.


RESUMO Apresentamos o relato de uma paciente com 31 anos de idade, que desenvolveu síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (TASS) após o procedimento de transplante lamelar anterior profundo (DALK). Ela apresentava ceratocone e, apesar de ter usado lentes de contato rígidas por muitos anos no olho esquerdo, apresentou deterioração da visão nesse olho que foi submetido a procedimento DALK. A acuidade visual (VA) era de conta dedos a três metros. O procedimento DALK de rotina foi realizado utilizando técnica de bolha grande (Big Bubble). A incisão de entrada da córnea foi hidratada ao final da cirurgia que foi terminada com a injeção de ar na câmara anterior. No primeiro dia de pós-operatório a VA era de percepção de movimentos da mão e a córnea estava edemaciada. Dexametasona tópica em alta dose e esteróides orais foram iniciadas ao se considerar o diagnóstico de TASS. Acreditamos que o uso de cânulas reesterilizadas podem ter sido a causa provável da TASS. A VA melhorou e o edema da córnea do diminuiu durante a evolução. Embora o procedimento DALK foi realizado sem interferir com câmara anterior, deve-se ter em mente que TASS pode ocorrer com a solução utilizada para hidratar o local da incisão e o ar injetado na câmara anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Anterior Eye Segment/pathology , Syndrome , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Endophthalmitis/pathology , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Edema , Keratoconus/surgery , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(3): 192-194, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime before symptoms developed. We were unable to identify the causal drug owing to the large number of medications concurrently administered. The second case presented with DRESS syndrome symptoms during ocular toxoplasmosis treatment. In this case, a clearer association with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine was observed. As a result of the regular prescription of pharmacological agents associated with DRESS syndrome, ophthalmologists should be aware of the potentially serious complications of DRESS syndrome.


RESUMO Síndrome DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) é uma reação adversa a medicamentos rara e potencialmente fatal, associada à rash cutâneo, febre, eosinofilia e lesão de múltiplos órgãos. Algumas drogas podem desencadeá-la, como: alopurinol, anticonvulsivantes, vancomicina, sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, sulfadiazina-pirimetamina, entre outras. Descrevemos dois casos que desenvolverem DRESS síndrome durante tratamento ocular. O primeiro caso apresentou os sintomas durante tratamento para endoftalmite pós-operatória tardia com antibióticos tópicos, cefalotina e meropenem intravenosos e injeção intravítrea de vancomicina e ceftazidima; não podemos identificar a droga causadora, pois múltiplas medicações foram utilizadas. O segundo caso desenvolveu os sintomas durante tratamento clássico para toxoplasmose ocular, então a associação com sulfadiazina-pirimetamina foi mais clara. Como muitos oftalmologistas prescrevem regularmente drogas que podem desencadear a síndrome DRESS, esse diagnóstico deve ser lembrado já que pode levar a sérias complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Fever/pathology
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 252-254, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759251

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPostoperative fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but devastating complication of cataract surgery. Vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection as well as administration of systemic antifungal agents have been suggested as optimal treatments for fungal endophthalmitis. However, this therapy may fail to eliminate fungal species resistant to current antifungal agents. The saprophytic fungus Trichosporon asahii is frequently observed as a cause of endogenous endophthalmitis in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by T. asahii, resistant to amphotericin B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. asahii endophthalmitis successfully treated with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole, pars plana vitrectomy, and removal of the intraocular lens and entire lens capsule.


RESUMOEndoftalmite fúngica pós-operatória é uma complicação rara mas devastadora da cirurgia de catarata. A vitrectomia e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, bem como agentes fungicidas sistêmicos, têm sido sugeridos como tratamentos ideais para endoftalmite fúngica. No entanto, esta terapia pode falhar em erradicar as espécies de fungos resistentes aos agentes antifúngicos atuais. Uma dessas espécies de fungos é o fungo saprófita,Trichosporon asahii, que é frequentemente observada, como causa de endoftalmite endógena, em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Relatamos um caso de endoftalmite pós-operatória causada porT. asahii que é resistente a anfotericina B. Ao nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato de endoftalmite porT. asahii tratado com sucesso com voriconazol intravítreo e sistêmico, vitrectomia viapars plana, e remoção da lente intraocular e saco capsular.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Trichosporonosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Intravitreal Injections , Trichosporon/classification , Trichosporon/isolation & purification
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70186

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the recent causes, prognosis, and treatment strategies for fungal endophthalmitis. A retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with fungal endophthalmitis at our center was conducted. The fungal organisms isolated from each patient and the visual prognosis according to the route of infection and treatment method were analyzed. A total of 40 eyes from 30 patients with fungal endophthalmitis were included in this study. Candida species were the most common causative organisms in 35 of 40 eyes. Endogenous and exogenous endophthalmitis were observed in 33 and 7 eyes, respectively. Pre- and post-treatment best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was not significantly different between endogenous endophthalmitis and exogenous endophthalmitis. The 40 eyes were treated using the following modalities: intravitreal antifungal agent injection with intravenous antifungal agent (16 eyes), vitrectomy with intravenous antifungal agent (14 eyes), intravenous antifungal agent alone (9 eyes), and evisceration (1 eye). Post-treatment BCVA only significantly improved after treatment in the vitrectomy group. Candida species were the most common cause of fungal endophthalmitis, irrespective of the route of infection. The visual prognosis of fungal endophthalmitis was generally poor. In conclusion, if the general condition of the patient tolerates a surgical procedure, prompt vitrectomy and intravitreal injection of antifungal agents can improve visual acuity.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Humans , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Scedosporium/isolation & purification , Tertiary Care Centers , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 23-33, abr. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712418

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resistencia bacteriana es crítica para la selección de los antibióticos en el tratamiento de las infecciones, por ello es vital conocer su estado actual en nuestro medio. Objetivo. Determinar la sensibilidad antibiótica bacteriana in vitro obtenida de los cultivos de queratitis e infecciones intraoculares. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo en la Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander (FOSCAL), entre junio de 2011 y enero de 2012. Resultados. Se examinaron 92 muestras. Se identificaron 110 bacterias, 27 hongos y 12 amebas de vida libre. Del total de bacterias Gram positivas, 1,1 %, 0 %, 1,1 %, 16,9 %, 29,3 % y 85 % fue resistente a imipenem, moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina, levofloxacina, ciprofloxacina y tobramicina, respectivamente, mientras que la resistencia a estos mismos fármacos se presentó, respectivamente, en 0 %, 8,3 %, 0 %, 0 %, 18,2 % y 27,3 % de las bacterias Gram negativas. Los porcentajes de resistencia de los estafilococos positivos para coagulasa resistentes a la meticilina fueron 0 %, 0 %, 0 %, 7 %, 17 % y 100 %, respectivamente, y los porcentajes de los estafilococos negativos para coagulasa resistentes a la meticilina fueron 3 %, 0 %, 0 %, 24 %, 44 % y 100 %, respectivamente. Los porcentajes de resistencia bacteriana globales (tanto para bacterias Gram positivas como para Gram negativas) a imipenem, moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina, levofloxacina, ciprofloxacina y tobramicina fueron 1 %, 1 %, 1 %, 15,1 %, 28 % y 64,5 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Los niveles de resistencia bacteriana para imipenem, moxifloxacina y gatifloxacina fueron menores que para levofloxacina, ciprofloxacina y tobramicina. Los niveles de resistencia para la tobramicina fueron muy altos, lo que pone en duda su utilidad clínica en las infecciones oculares en nuestro medio.


Introduction: Bacterial resistance is critical for the selection of antibiotics in the treatment of infections, so it is vital to know its current status in our geographical area. Objective: To determine in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates obtained from keratitis and intraocular infections. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of microbiological tests in Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander (FOSCAL) was carried out between June, 2011, and January, 2012. Results: A total of 92 samples were examined and 110 bacteria, 27 fungi and 12 free-living amoebae were identified. Polymicrobial infections constituted 50% of the total; 1.1%, 0%, 1.1%, 16.9%, 29.3% and 85% of Gram-positive bacteria were resistant to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin, respectively, while 0%, 8.3%, 0%, 0%, 18.2% and 27.3% of Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin, respectively. For methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci, resistance percentages to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin were 0%, 0%, 0%, 7%, 17% and 100%, respectively. For methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, resistance percentages to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin were 3%, 0%, 0%, 24%, 44% and 100%, respectively. Overall bacterial resistance to imipenem, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin, for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, was 1%, 1%, 1%, 15.1%, 28% and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The levels of bacterial resistance to imipenem, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were lower than for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin. The levels of resistance to tobramycin were very high, which calls into question its usefulness in this region of our country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/epidemiology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/microbiology , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cornea/microbiology , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Corneal Ulcer/epidemiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Parasitic/parasitology , Foundations , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Vitreous Body/microbiology
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(5): 516-521, oct. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-691158

ABSTRACT

Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a prevalent but serious disease. Our aim was to describe cases of EE, with emphasis in the risk factors and the improvement of the prognosis. Methods: A review of EE cases was done between 1996-2011 in a secondary care hospital in Spain. The reported variables were: comorbidities, isolated microorganisms, susceptibility to antimicrobial treatment and visual prognosis. Results: 9 cases of EE were analyzed. All had some underlying disease, diabetes mellitus being the most frequent. Seven of the nine cases had a history of eye injury. Extraocular source of infection was identified in 7 cases, with predominantly gastrointestinal disease. Most microorganisms were isolated from blood cultures. The visual prognosis was unfavorable in five patients and was associated with virulent microorganisms and delayed treatment. Conclusions: EE is a rare disease that involve immunocompromised patients with ophthalmic disease. To improve prognosis, appropriate diagnosis and early treatment is require. Therefore, we recommend funduscopy examination in patients with sepsis, risk factors and prior history of ocular disease.


La endoftalmitis endógena (EE) es una patología poco prevalente aunque grave. Nuestro objetivo es describir los casos de EE diagnosticados en un hospital secundario español, con particular atención a los factores de riesgo y la posible mejora del pronóstico. Material y Métodos: Revisamos las historias clínicas de los pacientes diagnosticados de EE entre 1996-2011. Las variables recogidas fueron: co-morbilidades, microorganismo/s aislados y su susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos, tratamiento administrado y pronóstico visual. Resultados: Se estudiaron nueve casos de EE. Todos presentaban alguna enfermedad de base, siendo diabetes mellitus la más frecuente. Siete de los nueve casos presentaron antecedentes de lesión ocular. La probable fuente extraocular se identificó en siete casos, predominando el foco gastrointestinal. La mayoría de microorganismos se aisló de hemocultivos. El pronóstico visual fue desfavorable en cinco pacientes, asociándose a microorganismos virulentos y al retraso terapéutico. Conclusiones: La EE es una enfermedad inusual que afecta a pacientes con inmunidad disminuida y antecedentes oftalmológicos. Para mejorar el pronóstico se requiere un diagnóstico acertado y un tratamiento precoz, todo un reto para médicos clínicos y microbiólogos. Por ello, recomendamos realizar un fondo de ojo a los pacientes con sepsis, factores de riesgo de EE y antecedentes de patología ocular.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Endophthalmitis/complications , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jul-Sept; 30(3): 359-361
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143987

ABSTRACT

Post-operative Nocardia endophthalmitis has an aggressive course and poor visual prognosis. It often masquerades as severe post-operative uveitis or toxic anterior segment syndrome due to the absence of vitreous involvement resulting in a delay in diagnosis. The poor prognosis in Nocardia endophthalmitis is due to severe intra-ocular inflammation which may lead to phthisis. Therefore, treatment with corticosteroids after appropriate antibiotics have been initiated may improve the outcome. This is an interventional case report highlighting the typical features of Nocardia endophthalmitis, which when diagnosed early and managed medically with antibiotics and steroids, resulted in an excellent visual outcome in our patient.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/pathology , Eye/pathology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Nocardia/isolation & purification , Nocardia Infections/diagnosis , Nocardia Infections/drug therapy , Nocardia Infections/pathology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications/pathology
16.
Odonto (Säo Bernardo do Campo) ; 20(39): 141-143, jan.-jun. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-790170

ABSTRACT

Introdução: uma das queixas apresentadas por pacientes portadores de prótese ocular é o desconforto, causado pela presença de secreção contaminada na cavidade anoftálmica. Objetivo: o intuito de minimizar este quadro e, baseados em estudos sobre os efeitos e propriedades antiinflamatórias, antibióticas e analgésicas do Aloe vera, os autores propõem, através de um estudo prospectivo, a análise da ação deste fitoterápico. Metodologia: foram selecionados 30 pacientes portadores de prótese ocular apresentando inflamação, exsudato, dor e/ou desconforto, não usuários de qualquer tipode medicamento tópico. Receberam um frasco conta gotas contendo Aloe vera, diluído em soro fisiológico na proporção de 1:1, devendo aplicar 2 gotas, 3 vezes ao dia durante 4 semanas; comparecendo ao Ambulatório de Prótese Buco Maxilo Facial da FOUSP para avaliação semanal. Foi aplicado um questionário auto-afirmativo em que os participantes da pesquisa avaliaram sua melhora atribuindo nota de 0 a 10.Resultado: observou-se que 93,3% dos pacientes obtiveram melhora com eliminação da secreção e inflamação e destes, 46,6% relataram melhora já na segunda semana;6,6% não conseguiram concluir a pesquisa por motivos diversos. Conclusão: foi observado que a aplicação do Aloe vera, quando seguida a recomendação, demonstrou ser eficaz no controle das afecções da cavidade anoftálmica.


Introduction: one of the complaints made by patients with ocular prosthesis is the discomfort caused by the presence of infected secretions in the patients. Aim: in order to minimize this framework and based on studies of the effects and anti-inflammatory properties, antibiotic and analgesic properties of Aloe vera, the authors propose, through a prospective study, the analysis of action of this herbal medicine.Methodology: it was selected 30 patients with ocular prosthesis showing inflammation, exudate, pain or discomfort, not users of any type of medicine topic. Received a dropper bottle containing Aloe vera, diluted in saline at a ratio of 1:1, and apply 2 drops, 3 times daily for 4 weeks, attending the Clinic of Maxillofacial Prosthesis FOUSP for the weekly evaluation. It was applied a self-administered so that the research participants rated their improvement by assigning a score from0 to 10. Results: it was observed that 93.3% of patients improved with the elimination of inflammation and secretion of these, 46.6% reported improvement in the second week, 6.6% could not complete the study for various reasons. Conclusion: the application of Aloe vera, when followed the recommendation has proved effective in controlling diseases of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aloe , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye, Artificial/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections/drug therapy , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194316

ABSTRACT

A 75-year-old female was transferred to our clinic three days after uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the right eye that had been carried out at a local clinic. Under the diagnosis of postoperative endophthalmitis, the patient underwent pars plans vitrectomy, IOL explantation, silicone oil tamponade, and intravitreal antibiotic injection. Even after the procedure, the patient's condition was further aggravated, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli were identified on bacterial identification test. Although meropenem was applied locally and systemically, the patient had no-light perception visual acuity.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Phacoemulsification , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Visual Acuity , beta-Lactamases
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135483

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Though not frequently but there are reports showing phacoemulsifiers as a potent source of infection in post-operative cases of endophthalmitis. This study was carried out to find antibiogram and genetic relatedness between Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis outbreak (3 patients) and internal tubings of 5 phacoemulsifiers. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of the 8 bacterial isolates were observed. Genetic analysis of the bacterial isolates was done using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and PCR ribotyping. The resulting DNA band patterns were examined visually and by computer assisted analysis using unweighted pair group method. Results: The three P. aeruginosa patient isolates were found to be different from the five phacoemulsifier isolates in sensitivity towards 3 antibiotics and by genetic analysis (33 and 44% homology by RAPD assay and PCR ribotyping). Two of the patient isolates shared 100 per cent genetic homology by RAPD assay and another pair shared 100 per cent homology by PCR ribotyping. The five isolates from phacoemulsifiers did not share significant genetic homology. There was significant genetic variation between bacterial isolates from patients and phaco emulsifiers. Interpretation & conclusion: Though the three P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from the patients were phenotypically similar and genetically close, they differed from the phaco-machine isolates both genetically, and in their antibiogram profile. However, the five phacoemulsifier isolates were genetically diverse though they shared the same antibiogram profile. Therefore the Ringer’s lactate from phacomachines could not be conclusively proven to be the source of infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Humans , Phacoemulsification , Postoperative Complications , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification
19.
International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 2010; 2 (1): 64-66
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98507

ABSTRACT

A 55 year old male presented with abdominal pain and vomiting, followed by a sudden onset of left eye pain, with decreased visual acuity. After clinical and laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis, secondary to pyogenic liver abscess, secondary to Klebsiella pneumonia. The patient was managed with intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime for 2 weeks, which afforded a resolution. Cases of endogenous endophthalmitis pyogenic liver abscess are more commonly reported in the Far East. K. pneumonia primary liver abscess, particularly those associated with metastatic infection, are more commonly reported in Taiwan and are community acquired [1-3]. This paper reports the first case of endogenous endophthalmitis pyogenic liver abscess in the Middle East


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/complications , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171960

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for the treatment of chronic uveitis in her left eye, which had started two weeks after an uncomplicated cataract extraction. She was treated with topical steroids with an initially good response, yet she subsequently developed severe inflammation and plaque-like material around the intraocular lens, despite continuous steroid therapy. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy, smear and culture of the aqueous and vitreous fluids, and intravitreal antibiotic injection under the impression of Propionibacterium acne (P. acne) endophthalmitis. As a result of the smear and culture of the vitreous fluid identified as an Acremonium species, she was treated with intravenous amphotericin B injections for five days, followed by oral voriconazole administration. During the post-operative 18-month follow-up, she was stable without significant relapse of uveitis. In this case, the best correction of visual acuity was an improvement from 20/40 to 20/20.


Subject(s)
Acremonium/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
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