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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 86-90, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003578

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: This study aims to describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and evolution of endophthalmitis cases occurred at an ophthalmologic center in Brazil. Methods: This is a review of medical records of patients undergoing cataract surgery from 2008 to 2014. Clinical variables associated with the outcome of postoperative endophthalmitis were evaluated. Results: during the study period, 27,609 cataract surgeries were performed. It was identified 35 cases of endophthalmitis. The overall incidence of endophthalmitis was 0.13%, with an annual variation from 0.04% to 0.27%. The main signs and symptoms in patients with endophthalmitis were ocular pain and low visual acuity associated with conjunctival hyperemia and hypopyon. Gram-positive microorganisms were the most frequent etiological agents. All patients received an intra-vitreous injection of antibiotics as immediate treatment. The final visual acuity was equal to or worse than the ability to count the examiner's fingers in 57.1% of the patients. Evisceration or enucleation was required in 3 patients. Conclusion: The incidence of endophthalmitis and the majority of signs and symptoms found in this study were in agreement with literature in the field. Although the incidence rate is low, the loss of vision experienced by most patients with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery highlights the need for efforts to prevent infection and early diagnosis to avoid such complications.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever a incidência, a apresentação clínica e a evolução dos casos de endoftalmites ocorridos em um centro oftalmológico no Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão de prontuários dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata no período de 2008 a 2014. Foram avaliadas as variáveis clínicas associadas ao desfecho de endoftalmite pós-operatória. Resultados: durante o período do estudo, foram realizadas 27.609 cirurgias de catarata. Foram identificados 35 casos de endoftalmite. A incidência global de endoftalmite foi de 0,13%, com variação anual de 0,04% a 0,27%. Os principais sinais e sintomas em pacientes com endoftalmite foram dor ocular e baixa acuidade visual associado à hiperemia conjuntival e hipópio. Os microrganismos gram-positivos foram os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes. Todos os pacientes receberam uma injeção intravítreo de antibióticos como tratamento imediato. A acuidade visual final foi igual ou pior que a capacidade de contar os dedos do examinador em 57,1% dos pacientes. Evisceração ou enucleação foi necessário em 3 pacientes. Conclusão: A incidência de endoftalmite e a maioria dos sinais e sintomas encontrados neste estudo estão de acordo com os reportados na literatura. Embora a taxa de incidência seja baixa, a perda de visão experimentada pela maioria dos pacientes com endoftalmite após a cirurgia de catarata destaca a necessidade de esforços para medidas de prevenção de infecção e diagnóstico precoce para evitar tais complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction/methods , Medical Records , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Infection Control
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 31(3): 1-8, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985573

ABSTRACT

La candidiasis es la causa más común de endoftalmitis endógena. La afectación ocular se produce entre los 3 y los 15 días siguientes a la fungemia. Las dos formas características de presentación son la coriorretinitis candidiásica, que afecta a la coroides y a la retina sin afectar claramente al vítreo, y la endoftalmitis candidiásica, con presencia de lesiones vítreas redondeadas, de aspecto algodonoso (perlas vítreas), características de esta infección. Los síntomas visuales precoces más habituales son la visión borrosa y los flotadores. Se recomienda entonces realizar fondo de ojo en las 2 primeras semanas del diagnóstico de candidemia para prevenir complicaciones oculares y usar la afectación ocular como indicador de probable infección fúngica invasiva. La anfotericina B, el fluconazol, el voriconazol, el posaconazol y el ravuconazol, así como las equinocandinas entre las que se encuentran la caspofungina han demostrado su utilidad en el tratamiento de la coriorretinitis, pero la efectividad disminuye en los casos de afectación vítrea si no se asocian a vitrectomía(AU)


Candidiasis is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. Ocular damage occurs within 3 and 15 days after fungemia. The two characteristic forms of presentation are Candida chorioretinitis, affecting the choroid and the retina with no clear impact on the vitreous, and Candida endophthalmitis, with the presence of rounded cottony vitreous lesions (vitreous pearls), characteristic of this infection. The most common early visual symptoms are blurred vision and floaters. It is thus recommended to perform funduscopy within the first two weeks after the candidemia diagnosis to prevent ocular complications and use the ocular damage as an indicator of probable invasive fungal infection. Amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and ravuconazole, as well as echinocandins, among them caspofungin, have proven useful in the treatment of chorioretinitis, but effectiveness is lower in vitreous damage cases when they are not associated to vitrectomy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitrectomy/methods , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Chorioretinitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Risk Factors , Candidemia/etiology , Fundus Oculi
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 339-340, July-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950464

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery (BSCS) has gained popularity among eye surgeons in many countries. This study examines the case of a 77-year-old patient who developed bilateral Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis following bilateral simultaneous cataract surgery. Immediate bilateral vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotics injection were performed. Ultimately, both eyes were eviscerated due to pain refractory to treatment and no light perception.


RESUMO A cirurgia bilateral simultânea de catarata ganhou popularidade entre cirurgiões oftalmológicos em muitos países. Este estudo examina o caso de um paciente de 77 anos que desenvolveu endoftalmite bilateral por Pseudomonas aeruginosa após uma cirurgia bilateral simultânea de catarata. Vitrectomia bilateral imediata e injeção de antibióticos intravítreos foram realizadas. Em última análise, ambos os olhos foram eviscerados devido à dor refratária ao tratamento e sem percepção de luz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas Infections/etiology , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pseudomonas Infections/surgery , Pseudomonas Infections/diagnosis , Vitrectomy , Cataract Extraction/methods , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Eye Evisceration
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(2): 92-94, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950441

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the safety parameters associated with intracameral moxifloxacin application five weeks after cataract surgery. Methods: The study was a prospective case series set in a private hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A consecutive sample of 1,016 cataract surgeries was evaluated. The inclusion criteria were patients with indications for cataract surgery, a minimum of 55 years of age, and no history of allergy to quinolones. Patients were prepared for surgery using a 5% povidone solution diluted as a topical antiseptic agent. The operative technique was phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. A 0.3-mL syringe was partially filled with moxifloxacin and 150 µg/0.03 mL of moxifloxacin was administered through the surgical incision at the end of the surgery. Postoperatively, patients were prescribed: (1) 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops 5 times daily for 1 week, and (2) 1% prednisolone acetate eyedrops 5 times daily for 1 week, followed by 4 times daily for 1 week and, subsequently, 2 times daily for 3 weeks. The outcomes were incidence of acute endophthalmitis, mean changes from baseline to 5 postoperative weeks in corneal endothelial cell density, corrected distance visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Results: The mean age was 67 ± 5 years, and 56.2% of the patients were female. There were no cases of endophthalmitis. The mean preoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 58 letters ± 10 (SD), and the mean postoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 80 letters ± 4 (SD). The mean change in corneal endothelial cell density was 249 cells/mm (-10.3%). There was almost no difference in intraocular pressure. No study-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: The results suggest moxifloxacin is a safe option for intracameral use after cataract surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar alguns parâmetros de segurança da moxifloxacino intracameral nas cinco semanas após a cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: O estudo foi uma série de casos prospectivos. O cenário era um hospital privado em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foi considerada uma amostra consecutiva de 1.016 cirurgias de catarata. Os critérios de inclusão foram pacientes com indicação para cirurgia de catarata, com pelo menos 55 anos de idade e sem história de alergia a quinolonas. Os pacientes foram preparados para cirurgia usando uma solução de povidona a 5% diluída como agente anti-séptico tópico. A técnica operatória foi a facoemulsificação com implante de lente intraocular. Uma seringa de 0,3 mL foi parcialmente preenchida com moxifloxacino. Os pacientes receberam 150 µg/0,03 mL de moxifloxacino através da incisão cirúrgica no final da cirurgia. No pós-operatório, os pacientes foram prescritos: (1) moxifloxacino 0,5% 5 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana e (2) colírio de acetato de prednisolona a 1% 5 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana, seguido de 4 vezes ao dia durante 1 semana e, posteriormente, 2 vezes diariamente por 3 semanas. Os desfechos foram a incidência de endoftalmite aguda, variações entre os valores basais e os na 5ª semana pós-operatória referente à densidade celular endotelial corneana, acuidade visual corrigida para longe e pressão intraocular. Resultados: A média da idade foi de 67 ± 5 anos, e 56,2% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Não houve casos de endoftalmite. A acuidade visual corrigida para longe préoperatório médio foi de 58 letras ± 10 (SD), e a acuidade visual corrigida para longe pósoperatório médio foi de 80 letras ± 4 (SD). A alteração média na densidade celular endotelial corneana foi de 249 células/mm (10,3%). Não houve diferença na pressão intraocular. Não foram observados eventos adversos relacionados ao estudo. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que o moxifloxacino é uma opção segura para o uso intracameral após a cirurgia de catarata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraocular/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Visual Acuity/physiology , Endophthalmitis/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Moxifloxacin , Intraocular Pressure/physiology
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): 165-167, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 0.05 mL intracameral injection of moxifloxacin in patients who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implant. Methods: Retrospective study comprising patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implant between January 2009 and December 2013. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A followed standard endophthalmitis prevention protocol and group B followed the same protocol plus intracameral injection of 0.05 mL of moxifloxacin hydrochloride at 5.45 mg/mL, immediately after IOL implant. Results: Medical records from 7,195 eyes of 3,751 patients (median age: 67.8 ± 8.96, range: 48-83 years, 53.8% female) were evaluated. Group A included 3,515 eyes of 1,838 patients and group B included 3,680 eyes of 1,913 patients. The incidence of endophthalmitis in group A was 0.22% (8:3,515 eyes) and in group B was 0.03% (1:3,680 eyes, p=0.0198, Fischer's exact test). No toxicity or inflammation related to the use of moxifloxacin was observed. Conclusions: There was a 7.3-fold lower ratio of endophthalmitis in the group that received moxifloxacin intracameral injection. This study provides further evidence that moxifloxacin is an effective intracameral prophylactic antibiotic.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da injeção intracameral de 0,05 mL de moxifloxacina em pacientes que realizaram facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo pacientes submetidos a facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular entre janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2013. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo A seguiu o protocolo padrão de prevenção de endoftalmite e o grupo B seguiu o mesmo protocolo associado à injeção intracameral de 0,05 mL de cloridrato de moxifloxacino a 5,45 mg/mL, imediatamente após o implante de lentes intra-oculares (LIO). Resultados: Foram avaliados registros clínicos de 7.195 olhos de 3.751 pacientes (mediana de idade de 67,8 ± 8,96, faixa de 48-83 anos, 53,8% de mulheres). O grupo A incluiu 3.515 olhos de 1.838 pacientes e o grupo B incluiu 3.680 olhos de 1.913 pacientes. A incidência de endoftalmite no grupo A foi de 0,22% (8:3.515 olhos) e no grupo B de 0,03% (1:3.680 olhos, p=0,0198, teste exato de Fischer). Não foi observada toxicidade ou inflamação relacionada com o uso de moxifloxacino intracameral. Conclusões: Houve uma proporção 7,3 vezes menor de endoftalmite no grupo que recebeu injeção de moxifloxacino. Este estudo fornece mais evidências que o moxifloxacino intracameral é um antibiótico profilático intracameral eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Time Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Injections, Intraocular/methods , Moxifloxacin , Anterior Chamber/drug effects
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): 168-171, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the indications and frequency of evisceration after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods: The medical records of all patients who underwent evisceration after PK between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015 at Ankara Training and Research Hospital were reviewed. Patient demographics and the surgical indications for PK, diagnosis for evisceration, frequency of evisceration, and the length of time between PK and evisceration were recorded. Results: The frequency of evisceration was 0.95% (16 of 1684), and the mean age of the patients who underwent evisceration was 56.31 ± 14.82 years. The most common indication for PK that resulted in evisceration was keratoconus (37.5%), and the most common underlying cause leading to evisceration was endophthalmitis (56.25%). The interval between PK and evisceration ranged from 9 to 78 months. Conclusions: Although keratoplasty is one of the most successful types of surgery among tissue transplantations, our findings show that it is associated with a possible risk of evisceration.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as indicações e a frequência de evisceração ocular após cirurgia de ceratoplastia penetrante ou transplante de córnea (PK). Métodos: Foram analisados os registros médicos de todos os pacientes submetidos à evisceração após PK entre 1º de janeiro de 1995 e 31 de dezembro de 2015 no Hospital de Treinamento e Pesquisa de Ankara. Foram registradas a demografia do paciente e as indicações cirúrgicas de PK, diagnóstico de evisceração, frequência de evisceração, tempo entre PK e evisceração. Resultados: A frequência de evisceração foi de 0,95% (16 de 1684) e a média de idade foi de 56,31 ± 14,82 anos. A indicação mais comum para PK que terminou na evis ceração foi o ceratocone (37,5%) e a causa subjacente à evisceração foi a endoftalmite (56,25%). O intervalo entre PK e evisceração variou de 9 a 78 meses. Conclusão: Embora a ceratoplastia seja uma das cirurgias mais bem sucedidas entre os transplantes de tecidos, pode-se deduzir do estudo que não é tão inócua, pois pode evoluir para a evisceração ocular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/adverse effects , Eye Evisceration/statistics & numerical data , Reoperation , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Medical Records , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Corneal Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(1): 33-36, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-844065

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os autores relatam um caso de endoftalmite fúngica endógena bilateral ocorrida após nefrostomia descompressiva decorrente de pielonefrite obstrutiva secundária a nefrolitíase tratada, inicialmente, com injeção intravítrea de voriconazol (100 ìg/0.1 ml) porém evoluiu sem resposta terapêutica sendo necessária a vitrectomia posterior (23G).


ABSTRACT The authors report a case of bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis occurred after decompression nephrostomy due to secondary obstructive pyelonephritis the treated nephrolithiasis initially with intravitreal voriconazole (100 mg / 0.1 ml) but evolved without therapeutic response requiring the posterior vitrectomy (23G).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal , Pyelonephritis/complications , Vitrectomy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 330-332, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827977

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA) was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at the level of hand movements, and the cornea was edematous. Topical high-dose dexamethasone and oral steroids were initiated considering the diagnosis of TASS. Subsequently, the patient's VA increased, and the corneal edema decreased. We believe that the use of re-sterilized cannulas may have been the likely cause of TASS. Although DALK can be performed without interfering with the anterior chamber, one should keep in mind that TASS may occur in response to the solution used to hydrate the incision site and the air injected into the anterior chamber.


RESUMO Apresentamos o relato de uma paciente com 31 anos de idade, que desenvolveu síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (TASS) após o procedimento de transplante lamelar anterior profundo (DALK). Ela apresentava ceratocone e, apesar de ter usado lentes de contato rígidas por muitos anos no olho esquerdo, apresentou deterioração da visão nesse olho que foi submetido a procedimento DALK. A acuidade visual (VA) era de conta dedos a três metros. O procedimento DALK de rotina foi realizado utilizando técnica de bolha grande (Big Bubble). A incisão de entrada da córnea foi hidratada ao final da cirurgia que foi terminada com a injeção de ar na câmara anterior. No primeiro dia de pós-operatório a VA era de percepção de movimentos da mão e a córnea estava edemaciada. Dexametasona tópica em alta dose e esteróides orais foram iniciadas ao se considerar o diagnóstico de TASS. Acreditamos que o uso de cânulas reesterilizadas podem ter sido a causa provável da TASS. A VA melhorou e o edema da córnea do diminuiu durante a evolução. Embora o procedimento DALK foi realizado sem interferir com câmara anterior, deve-se ter em mente que TASS pode ocorrer com a solução utilizada para hidratar o local da incisão e o ar injetado na câmara anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Anterior Eye Segment/pathology , Syndrome , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Endophthalmitis/pathology , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Edema , Keratoconus/surgery , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(3): 228-230, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787697

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, and frequently devastating, ophthalmic disease. It occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, or those with diabetes mellitus, cancer or intravenous drugs users. Candida infection is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. Ocular candidiasis develops within days to weeks of fungemia. The association of treatment for pancreatitis with endophthalmitis is unusual. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition may explain endogenous endophthalmitis. We report the case of a patient with pancreatitis treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition who developed bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis that was successfully treated with vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B.


RESUMO Endoftalmite endógena é uma condição oftalmológica rara e frequentemente devastadora. Ocorre principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos, diabéticos, com neoplasias ou usuários de drogas intravenosas. Infecção por Candida é a causa mais comum de endoftalmite endógena. A candidíase ocular ocorre de dias a semanas após a fungemia. A associação de endoftalmite e o tratamento para pancreatite é rara. O tratamento com antibióticos de amplo espectro e alimentação parenteral total podem explicar uma endoftalmite endógena. Neste estudo, reportamos o caso de um paciente com pancreatite tratado com antibióticos de amplo espectro e alimentação parenteral total que desenvolveu endoftalmite endógena bilateral presumida por Candida que foi tratado com sucesso com vitrectomia e injeção intravítrea de amfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Eye Infections, Fungal/surgery , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Vitrectomy , Candida , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Fluorescein Angiography , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Administration, Oral , Ultrasonography , Parenteral Nutrition , Intravitreal Injections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 26(1): 180-188, ene.-abr. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-683105

ABSTRACT

La endoftalmitis endógena puede ocurrir en aquellos casos de inflamación de los tejidos oculares internos secundaria a infección intraocular, resultado de la diseminación hematógena de los microorganismos desde un foco distal al ojo. Es el grupo menos frecuente de todas las endoftalmitis (5 por ciento), es preferentemente unilateral, y en la mayoría de los pacientes se aprecia al menos un foco extraocular infeccioso. Aunque puede darse en pacientes sanos inmunocompetentes, esta enfoftalmitis afecta fundamentalmente a pacientes con uno o más factores de riesgo, entre ellos, enfermedades crónicas, procedimientos quirúrgicos, neoplasias, usuarios de drogas administradas por vía parenteral, inmunodeficiencias, catéteres intravenosos. Se presenta un caso de una paciente diabética con una endoftalmitis endógena secundaria a un tumor renal, cuyo cuadro inicial apuntaba hacia un coma diabético y en la medida que evolucionó y a través del estudio oftalmológico se logró un completo diagnóstico y tratamiento de su problema de salud


The endogenous endophthalmitis may occur in cases of internal tissue inflammation secondary to intraocular infection, as a result of the hematogenous dissemination of microorganisms from a distal focus to the eye. It is the less frequent group of all types of endophthalmitis (5 percent), preferably unilateral, and most of the cases present with an extraocular infectious focus. Although it may appear in healthy immuno competent patients, this endophthalmitis mainly affects patients with one or more risk factors such as chronic illnesses, surgical procedures, neoplasias, parenterally administered drug users, immunodeficiencies and intravenous catheters. A case of a diabetic female patient with endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to a renal tumor was presented. Her initial clinical picture pointed to diabetic coma, but as the disease evolved and based on the ophthalmological study, it was possible to reach a complete diagnosis and to apply a treatment for her health problem


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/therapy , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Kidney Neoplasms/therapy , Nephrectomy
11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 Jul-Aug; 60(4): 317-319
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144861

ABSTRACT

The article reports a case and review of the literature of endophthalmitis presenting as isolated retinal vasculitis. A 26-year-old male was observed to have white-centered retinal hemorrhages and retinal vasculitis following an occult scleral perforation. At presentation, the visual acuity was 20/60. With clinical suspicion of early endophthalmitis, he underwent wound exploration, scleral tear repair, vitreous biopsy and administration of intravitreal antibiotics. Microbiology evaluation revealed significant presence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis. Final visual acuity improved to 20/20 at 6 weeks postoperatively. Literature search revealed eight similar cases, all of them due to Staphylococcus species. Retinal vasculitis and white-centered retinal hemorrhages can be a presenting sign of early endophthalmitis, especially with non-fulminant pathogens like S. epidermidis.


Subject(s)
Color , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Humans , Male , Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Retinal Vasculitis/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/pathogenicity , Wounds and Injuries/complications
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 Jul-Aug; 60(4): 311-313
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144858

ABSTRACT

The outcome of four cases of sterile endophthalmitis that developed after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab has been reported here. All four eyes received 1.25 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal bevacizumab from 0.2-ml aliquots for different etiologies. The inflammation predominantly involved the anterior chamber with mild vitreous reaction. All patients were culture negative and regained preinjection visual acuity and were culture negative following intravitreal antibiotic administration. This report highlights that intravitreal bevacizumab can cause sterile endophthalmitis and this has to be kept in mind, and clinical judgment should be used to differentiate it from infective endophthalmitis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Communication , Correspondence as Topic , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Humans , Male , Uveitis/drug therapy , Uveitis/etiology , Uveitis/therapy
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 May; 60(3): 223-225
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139477

ABSTRACT

Limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs) are considered a relatively safe procedure with rapid stabilization and absence of infectious complications. Do we need to readdress this last impression? We report a case of nocardia endophthalmitis associated with an exudate at the site of an LRI in a patient who underwent routine cataract surgery. This case, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of its kind, stressing the need for a cautious approach to the adoption of this method of astigmatic correction.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Diagnosis, Differential , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Limbus Corneae/surgery , Male , Nocardia Infections/etiology , Nocardia asteroides/isolation & purification , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/surgery
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 Jan; 60(1): 41-44
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138787

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber (AC) between manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and phacoemulsification (Phaco). To study the conjunctival flora and bacterial contamination of AC between well-controlled diabetics and non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-eight patients were randomized to manual SICS and Phaco. Sixty-eight patients were excluded for not completing follow-up or for intraoperative complications like posterior capsule rupture. One hundred and fifty patients in each group were finally analyzed. Conjunctival swabs were taken on admission, after one day of topical ofloxacin and 15 min after 5% Povidone Iodine (PI) instillation. AC aspirate at the end of the surgery was also cultured. Results: Fifty-six (18.66%) patients had positive conjunctival swab on admission which was reduced to 19 (6.33%) with topical ofloxacin and to five (1.66%) with instillation of 5% PI. AC contamination in both manual SICS and Phaco was 0.66%. The conjunctival flora in diabetics was similar to non-diabetics. None of the diabetics had AC contamination. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-Square test (with Yates’ correction). Conclusion: Statistically significant reduction in conjunctival flora was achieved with topical ofloxacin and 5% PI instillation and AC contamination in both manual SICS and Phaco was minimal (0.66%). Well-controlled diabetics who underwent cataract surgery in this study had similar conjunctival flora and AC contamination as non-diabetics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anterior Chamber/microbiology , Anterior Chamber/pathology , Anterior Chamber/surgery , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cataract Extraction/methods , Diabetes Complications/complications , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 Nov; 58(6): 540-543
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136125

ABSTRACT

We report risk factors associated with intraocular penetration of caterpillar hair seen at our institute from January 2005 to December 2007. Records of all patients with caterpillar hair induced ophthalmitis (CHIO) were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics, anatomic location of lodgment of the caterpillar hair, treatment methods, and outcomes. Out of a total of 544 cases of CHIO, 19 eyes (seven in the anterior chamber and 12 in the posterior segment) experienced intraocular penetration (3.5%). The presence of deep intracorneal hair (80 cases, 14.7%) was found to be the only risk factor for intraocular penetration (P < 0.001). The removal of intracorneal hair was possible in only 29 out of 80 eyes (36%) and this was associated with a significantly reduced risk of intraocular penetration (P = 0.022). Patients with retained intracorneal hairs should be counseled regarding risk of intraocular penetration and closely followed up for at least six months.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign-Body Migration/complications , Foreign-Body Migration/diagnosis , Hair , Humans , Infant , Larva , Lepidoptera , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 Sept; 58(5): 365-373
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136090

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the results and extrusion rates of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation through a needle-generated scleral tunnel, without a tube-covering patch, in children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the charts of 106 Mexican children implanted with 128 AGVs operated between 1994 and 2002, with the needle track technique, at our institution, with at least six months follow up was done. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) control, tube extrusions or exposure and other complications. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 96.9% survival rate at six months, 82.4% at one year, 78.7% at two years, 70% at three years and 41.6% at four years. Total success at the last follow-up (IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg without medications) was achieved in 30 eyes (23.5%), 58 eyes (45.3%) had qualified success (only topical hypotensive drugs) and 40 eyes (31.3%) were failures. The mean pre- and post-operative IOP at the last follow up was 28.4 mmHg (SD 9.3) and 14.5 mmHg (SD 6.3), respectively. No tube extrusions or exposures were observed. Tube-related complications included five retractions, a lens touch and a transitory endothelial touch. The risk of failure increased if the eye had any complication or previous glaucoma surgeries. Conclusion: Medium-term IOP control in Mexican children with glaucoma can be achieved with AGV implantation using a needle-generated tunnel, without constructing a scleral flap or using a patch to cover the tube. There were no tube extrusions, nor any tube exposures with this technique.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Female , Glaucoma Drainage Implants/adverse effects , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sclera/surgery
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2010 May; 58(3): 252-253
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136069

ABSTRACT

Endophthalmitis is a rare and serious post-surgical complication. We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis after an uneventful cataract surgery caused by a commensal organism, Gemella haemolysans. The patient was successfully treated with vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotics like vancomycin, along with topical cefazolin.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Staphylococcaceae
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 72(1): 28-32, jan.-fev. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-510017

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for the treatment of infectious endophthalmitis. METHODS: 35 cases of endophthalmitis secondary to phacoemulsification (20 patients), trabeculectomy (8 patients), perforating trauma (2 patients), trauma (2 patients), corneal transplantation (1 patient), vitrectomy (1 patient) and corneal ulceration (1 patient) were retrospectively studied. Patients were separated into two groups: Group 1 (n=24): intravitreal antibiotic injection, associated with topical and oral antibiotics; Group 2 (n=11): vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injection and silicone oil injection. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 48 months (mean of 16 months). RESULTS: From 24 patients in group 1, 11 patients (45.83 percent), had infection controlled with intravitreal antibiotic injection only; 13 patients (54.15 percent) regressed to uncontrolled endophthalmitis, in which two patients (8.33 percent) were submitted to evisceration and one patient (4.16 percent) had corneal melting. The remaining 10 patients (41.66 percent) with uncontrolled endophthalmitis were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. Six patients (25 percent) from Group I had retinal detachment during the first month of follow-up and also required pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. In Group 2 patients (n=11), all of them had controlled infection at the first procedure. In one case (9.09 percent), a severe proliferatative vitreoretinopathy induced loss of vision. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that silicone oil tamponade might be beneficial in the treatment strategy of infectious endophthalmitis.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da vitrectomia pars plana com tamponamento com óleo de silicone no tratamento de endoftalmite aguda. MÉTODOS: Trinta e cinco pacientes com endoftalmite, sendo 20 secundário à facoemulsificação, 8 por trabeculectomia, 2 por trauma perfurante, 2 por trauma, 1 por transplante de córnea, 1 por vitrectomia, e 1 por úlcera de córnea, foram estudados retrospectivamente. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos. Grupo 1 (n=24): injeção de antibiótico intravítreo (AIV), associado com antibióticos oral e sistêmico; Grupo 2 (n=11): vitrectomia com AIV e óleo de silicone. O seguimento variou de 1 a 48 meses (média de 16 meses). RESULTADOS: Dos 24 pacientes no Grupo 1, 11 (45,83 por cento) tiveram controle da infecção apenas com injeção AIV, 13 (54,15 por cento) não controlaram a endoftalmite, sendo que, dois destes (8,33 por cento) foram submetidos à evisceração e um (4,16 por cento) evoluiu para "melting" corneano. Os outros 10 (41,66 por cento) pacientes foram submetidos à vitrectomia pars plana e óleo de silicone. Seis pacientes (25 por cento) do Grupo 1 tiveram descolamento de retina e também necessitaram de vitrectomia pars plana e óleo de silicone. No Grupo 2 (n=11), todos tiveram controle da infecção no primeiro procedimento e não necessitaram de mais intervenções, exceto pela remoção do óleo de silicone três meses depois. CONCLUSÃO:Os resultados sugerem que o tamponamento por óleo de silicone parece ser benéfico na estratégia de tratamento da endoftalmite infecciosa aguda.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Silicone Oils/administration & dosage , Vitrectomy/methods , Acute Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Silicone Oils/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Vitrectomy/adverse effects , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210153

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of unilateral scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (SF-PCIOLs) in pediatric complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support. METHODS: This study involved five eyes of five children who underwent unilateral SF-PCIOL. All patients had a unilateral complicated traumatic cataract associated with anterior or posterior segment injury. Visual acuity (VA), IOL position, and postoperative complications were assessed during follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of patients at the time of SF-PCIOL was 90 months (range, 66-115). The mean duration of follow-up time after surgery was 22 months (range, 5-55). In all patients, the best-corrected VA was either improved or was stable at last follow-up following SF-PCIOL implantation. There were no serious complications. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral scleral fixation of PCIOL can be a safe and effective procedure for pediatric, unilateral, complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support in selected cases.


Subject(s)
Anterior Eye Segment/injuries , Aphakia, Postcataract/surgery , Cataract/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Injuries/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Male , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Sclera/surgery , Suture Techniques , Visual Acuity
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 71(6): 902-907, nov.-dez. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-503464

ABSTRACT

A injeção intravítrea é atualmente a técnica mais utilizada no tratamento de várias doenças vítreorretinianas. Neste artigo serão discutidas a técnica e complicações da injeção intravítrea de drogas no tratamento de doenças vítreorretinianas. Em resumo, a técnica envolve várias etapas. Inicialmente dias antes da injeção pode-se realizar aplicação de antibióticos e acetazolamida para prevenção de infecção e redução da pressão intra-ocular. Antes do procedimento deve-se dilatar a pupila e executar anestesia tópica com colírios ou gel anestésico. A antissepsia pré-operatória envolve aplicação de colírios de iodo-povidona 5 por cento no fundo de saco conjuntival ao menos 10 minutos antes do procedimento. A injeção deve ser realizada no centro cirúrgico com uso de luvas estéreis e máscara pelo cirurgião. O olho deve ser exposto com blefarostato estéril, e proteção com "sterile-drape" para evitar contato entre a agulha e pálpebras/cílios. A agulha deve ser posicionada no momento da injeção a 3,5 - 4 mm do limbo, e leve mobilização da conjuntiva com um cotonete estéril ou uma pinça facilitam a penetração da agulha através da conjuntiva e esclera. A agulha deve ser inserida gentilmente para dentro da cavidade vítrea até 6 mm de profundidade. Imediatamente após a injeção o paciente deve ser examinado por técnica de oftalmoscopia binocular indireta. Caso a acuidade visual seja ausência de percepção luminosa ou oclusão vascular arterial retiniana seja observada, terapias para diminuição da pressão como paracentese na camada anterior ou massagem por oculopressão diretamente sobre o globo ocular devem ser imediatamente tomadas. A alta ambulatorial deve ser realizada quando o cirurgião estiver ciente da ausência de complicações intra-operatórias; o paciente deverá sair do centro cirúrgico com curativo oclusivo. O paciente deve ser submetido a exame oftalmológico completo no primeiro dia pós-operatório quando associação de antibióticos com corticosteróides...


Intravitreal injections are the standard technique applied in the treatment of some vitreoretinal diseases. In this paper the technique and complications of intravitreal injections are presented. In summary, the procedure involves various consecutive steps. Initially, days before the treatment topical antibiotics and acetazolamide may be prescribed for reduction of the ocular flora and intraocular pressure. Before the injection, the pupil should be dilated and topical anesthesia should be achieved. Injection shall be performed in the operating room under sterile conditions, the surgeon should wear surgical gloves and mask. The eye is then exposed with sterile blepharostat and sterile-drape thereby providing protection of the needle against the contact with contaminated lashes and lids. Injection is done 3.5 mm from the limbus through the pars plana. The needle should be inserted up to 6 mm into the vitreous cavity. Immediately after injection the patient must be examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy to verify central artery perfusion and complications as vitreous hemorrhage. Visual acuity better than light perception should be detected right after injection. If persistent central retinal artery occlusion is diagnosed, anterior chamber paracentesis should be performed. The patient may be discharged with an occlusive patch. Examination at the first postoperative day should exclude various complications such as endophthalmitis, and topical steroid and antibiotics should be prescribed for 7 days. Some complications encountered after intravitreal injections include retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, uveitis, ocular hypertension, or endophthalmitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Vitreous Body , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Injections/adverse effects , Injections/methods , Needles , Postoperative Care , Preoperative Care , Retinal Detachment/etiology , Retinal Detachment/prevention & control , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy
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