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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Manihot , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Fungi
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928156

ABSTRACT

Two new polyketides, lasobutone A(1) and lasobutone B(2), along with three known compounds, guignardianone C(3), guignardic acid(4), and 4-hydroxy-17R-methylincisterol(5), were isolated from the endophytic fungi Xylaria sp. by silica gel, MCI, and preparative HPLC, which was separated from the Chinese medicinal material Coptis chinensis and cultivated through solid fermentation with rice. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, such as MS, NMR, IR, UV, and ECD. Compounds 2 and 4 showed inhibitory activities against the nitric oxide(NO) production in the LPS-induced macrophage RAW264.7 with IC_(50) values of 58.7 and 42.5 μmol·L~(-1) respectively, while compound 5 exhibited cytotoxic activities against HT-29 with IC_(50) value of 14.3 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Coptis chinensis , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungi , Polyketides/chemistry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921629

ABSTRACT

The endophytes of medicinal plants play an important role in promoting the quality formation of the host. Therefore, this paper made a review of endophytes of medicinal plant Atractylodes lancea. According to previous studies, A. lancea boasts endophytes, such as fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes, among which the beneficial microorganisms help the growth and development of A. lancea. There is a close interaction between the volatile oil of A. lancea and endophytes. Different endophytes vary in regulating the composition and content of the volatile oil of A. lancea, which might contribute to the quality formation of A. lancea. However, the information of the endophytic flora of A. lancea obtained by traditional culture and isolation is not enough to reflect the real situation of the endophytes of A. lancea. Little is known about the endophytes of A. lancea from different chemical types and different habitats, which is not conducive to the study of the ecological relationship between A. lancea and endophytes and limits the development and utilization of the endophytes. Therefore, at the end of this paper, the authors put forward suggestions for future research on endophytes in A. lancea, including:(1)mining the core endophyte resources of A. lancea by combining high-throughput sequencing with traditional culture and isolation;(2)exploring the relationship between the diversity of endophytes and chemical types of A. lancea;(3)strengthening the application of endophytes in A. lancea cultivation, in order to facilitate the cultivation efficiency and quality of A. lancea.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Endophytes , Fungi , Oils, Volatile , Plants, Medicinal
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887984

ABSTRACT

In order to reveal the distribution and population characteristics of endophytic fungi from Zanthoxylum nitidum and the antibacterial potential,this study performed molecular identification and analyzed the genetic diversity and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from Z. nitidum in Guangxi. Through culture and molecular identification,35 strains,belonging to 15 genera,12 families,10 orders,4 classes,and 2 phyla,were isolated from various tissues of Z. nitidum,of which Colletotrichum and Fusarium were the dominant genera,respectively accounting for 20% of total strains. The diversity of endophytic fungi was significantly different among roots,stems,and leaves,as manifested by the significantly higher Shannon index( H') in stems( 1. 678) than in roots( 0. 882 1) and leaves( 0. 515 4). The antimicrobial activity analysis showed that 14. 28% of endophytic fungi inhibited at least one indicator pathogen. Among them,Fusarium sp. ZN-34 and Fusarium sp. ZN-26 separately demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In general,Fusarium sp. ZN-26 and Phialemoniopsis plurioloculosa ZN-35 were advantageous in suppressing the two bacteria owing to the broad spectrum and strong efficacy. In summary,Z. nitidum in Guangxi boasts rich endophytic fungi with the majority showing strong antibacterial activity,which can be used as candidates for the extraction and separation of basic antibacterial substances and the development of natural antibacterial agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , China , Colletotrichum , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/genetics , Genetic Variation , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Zanthoxylum
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879109

ABSTRACT

The research on endophytes of medicinal plants mainly relies on the traditional culture and isolation methods. Because of their functions such as promoting host growth, improving stress resistance, promoting the accumulation of medicinal active ingredients or directly producing medicinal active ingredients, the endophytes of medicinal plants have gradually attracted wide attention. However, it was found that the strains isolated by traditional methods were not the true dominant endophytes of medicinal plants by comparing the results of traditional culture isolation with high-throughput sequencing. The blind and random nature of traditional methods leads to the lack of standards in terms of medium selection, culture time and interaction between species. On the contrary, high-throughput sequencing technology is an emerging molecular biology technology developed in recent decades. Due to its high resolution level and indepen-dent culture, it can be used for thorough analysis of the community structure and diversity of environmental microorganisms. Therefore, we proposed the strategy of using high-throughput sequencing technology to guide the traditional culture and isolation of endophytes from medicinal plants. Firstly, the endophytic structure and diversity of medicinal plants were completely clear by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the dominant endophytes of the host were unequivocal. Then according to the characteristics of each dominant endophytes design or query suitable medium for its growth to culture and isolation. Finally, the function of the isolates was studied. This method can prevent researchers from missing out on the important functional strains of the host, expand the research scope of endophytes of medicinal plants, and facilitate the in-depth excavation and utilization of endophytes of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Endophytes/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Plants, Medicinal , Research Design
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1742-1749, 01-09-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147925

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported that ß-(1→3,1→6)-ᴅ-glucans produced by endophytes Diaporthe sp. G27-60 and G65-65 (GenBank accession codes JF766998 and JF767007, respectively) are promising anti-proliferation agents against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2-C3A) cells. However, the literature fails to describe the effects of Diaporthe exopolysaccharides (EPS) on eukaryotic healthy cells. The fungus Metarhiziumanisopliae has been employed as model-system to evaluate the toxicity of pharmaceutical and agricultural-interest substances, taking into account, among other parameters, the speed of conidia germination. Current study verified the effect of different concentrations of Diaporthe ß-glucans on the germination speed of M. anisopliae. Conidia were incubated with ß-glucans treatments (50, 200 and 400 µg/mL) at 28ºC, sampled during 24 h and analyzed by light microscopy. At the end of a 24-h incubation, the amount of germinated conidia reached ≈99% for controls and ranged between 97.7 and 98.6% for treatments. Bayesian analysis indicated that Diaporthe glucans had no toxicity on M. anisopliaeand the curve of germination occurred as expected for this fungal strain. Considering the validity of filamentous fungi as model-systems, results are important data on the toxicity of endophytic EPS on healthy cells and may be associated with our previous results obtained for these polymers against tumor cells.


Anteriormente, um estudo mostrou que ß-(1→3,1→6)-ᴅ-glucanas produzidas pelos endófitos Diaporthe sp. G27-60 e G65-65 (códigos de acesso no GenBank JF766998 e JF767007, respectivamente) são agentes promissores com ação antiproliferativa contra células HepG2-C3A (hepatoma humano) e MCF-7 (adenocarcinoma mamário humano). No entanto, os efeitos de exopolissacarídeos (EPS) produzidos por fungos do gênero Diaporthe em células eucarióticas sadias não estão descritos na literatura atual. O fungo Metarhiziumanisopliae tem sido utilizado como sistema-modelo para avaliar a toxicidade de substâncias de interesse farmacêutico e agronômico, considerando, entre outros parâmetros, a velocidade de germinação de conídios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de ß-glucanas produzidas por Diaporthe sp. sobre a velocidade de germinação de M. anisopliae. Os conídios foram incubados com os tratamentos de ß-glucanas (50, 200 e 400 µg/mL) a 28 ºC, com amostras coletadas ao longo de 24 h, e analisados por microscopia de luz. Ao final das 24 h de incubação, o total de conídios germinados nos controles foi de ≈99%, e variou entre 97,7 e 98,6% para os tratamentos. A análise bayesiana indicou que as glucanas de Diaporthe sp. não apresentaram toxicidade sobre M. anisopliae, e a curva de germinação atendeu ao esperado para essa linhagem fúngica. Considerando a validade dos fungos filamentosos como sistemas-modelo, esses resultados representam dados importantes sobre a toxicidade dos EPS de endófitos sobre células sadias e podem ser associados aos resultados anteriormente obtidos para esses polímeros em testes contra células tumorais.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Endophytes , Fungi
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 209-214, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089298

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes can help their hosts absorb nutrients and regulate the levels of plant hormones. Moreover, they can modulate the expressions of host genes, assist hosts in eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secreting volatile organic compounds. Therefore, rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes are considered as determinant factors driving processes involved in the growth of host plants. However, the physiological and ecological functions, as well as the molecular mechanism underlying the behavior of rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes in their role in the adaptive capacity of host plants in the karstic high-calcium environment have not been systematically studied. This review summarizes the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes which help host plants to adapt to various kinds of adverse environments. The adaptive capacities of plants growing in adverse environments, partly, or totally, depends on microorganisms co-existing with the host plants.


Resumo Os microorganismos e endófitos da rizosfera podem ajudar seus hospedeiros a absorver nutrientes e regular os níveis de hormônios vegetais. Além disso, eles podem modular as expressões dos genes hospedeiros, auxiliar os hospedeiros na eliminação de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e secretar compostos orgânicos voláteis. Portanto, microorganismos e endófitos da rizosfera são considerados determinantes dos processos envolvidos no crescimento de plantas hospedeiras. No entanto, as funções fisiológicas e ecológicas, bem como o mecanismo molecular subjacente ao comportamento dos microrganismos e endofíticos da rizosfera no seu papel na capacidade adaptativa das plantas hospedeiras no ambiente cárstico de alto teor de cálcio, não foram sistematicamente estudados. Esta revisão resume os mecanismos fisiológicos e moleculares de microrganismos e endófitos da rizosfera que ajudam as plantas hospedeiras a se adaptarem a vários tipos de ambientes adversos. As capacidades adaptativas das plantas que crescem em ambientes adversos, em parte ou totalmente, dependem de microrganismos coexistentes com as plantas hospedeiras.


Subject(s)
Symbiosis , Calcium , Plants , Rhizosphere , Endophytes
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190302, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132249

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a climate change context, the buildup of CO2 will affect plant communities worldwide. This study evaluated the effects of CO2 enrichment on the development and defense of two Cerrado native species Baccharis dracunculifolia and B. platypoda and their associated endophytic fungi richness. The study took place in Open-Top Chambers, two with ambient CO2 concentration (~400 ppm) and two in an enriched environment (~800 ppm). Baccharis platypoda developed 20% more leaves under enriched CO2 conditions, whereas B. dracunculifolia was 30% taller and showed 27% more leaves than those under ambient conditions. In both species, leaf polyphenol concentration did not differ between treatments. Nevertheless, polyphenol content had a positive correlation with plant height on both species' individuals grown under CO2 enriched conditions. Endophytic fungi richness and colonization rate on both plant species did not differ between ambient and enriched conditions. Our results show the positive effect of CO2 fertilizer in at least one of the measured growth parameters. An important new finding was a synergistic increase in growth and chemical defense in both studied species under enriched CO2 conditions, suggesting higher carbon assimilation and accumulation. This study suggests that the effects on primary productivity and secondary metabolites of Baccharis species will potentially reflect on the diversity and distribution of Cerrado plants and their associated animal communities.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/pharmacology , Baccharis/growth & development , Fertilizers , Endophytes/growth & development , Polyphenols/biosynthesis , Baccharis/microbiology , Baccharis/chemistry
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180673, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132156

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Muscodor now transferred to Induratia are known producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many industrial applications. However, the members of this genus have rarely been reported to produce non-volatile metabolites including enzyme. Enzymes of the endophytes are degraders of the polysaccharides available in the host plants and the knowledge of enzyme production by Induratia spp. may provide insights into their possible biotechnological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase, phytase, protease, endo β-1,4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes produced by fungi of the species Induratia coffeana, Induratia yucatanensis and Induratia sp. isolated from organic coffee plants. All Induratia spp. were able to produce the extracellular enzymes cellulase, pectinase, protease, and phytase. Eight fungi were able to produce lipase and four produced amylase. The specific activity of endo β-1, 4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes were detected for 9 and 8 endophytic fungi, respectively. This work demonstrated for the first time, the array of enzymes produced by Induratia spp. isolated from Coffea arabica in organic systems in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Coffea/microbiology , Enzyme Activation , Volatile Organic Compounds/metabolism , Endophytes/enzymology , Brazil
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878781

ABSTRACT

In order to screen the endophytic fungi that can enhance the host(Dendrobium catenatum) resistance to Sclerotium delphinii, the antagonism between each of the 43 endophytic fungi and the pathogen S. delphinii were tested. The results showed that 6 endophytic fungi(DCR2, DCR5, DCR21, DCR22, DCR42, DCR43) have strong activities against the pathogen, the inhibition rates were 49.2%, 49.2%, 47.2%, 56.2%, 53.2%, 48.0%, respectively. Then D. catenatum plantlets were inoculated with both S. delphinii and each of these six endophytic fungi. As a result, the incidence rates of leaves and stems of the D. catenatum plantlets inoculated with DCR2 and the pathogen were both significantly lower than those with other treatments, and the plantlet death rate was 0. It showed that DCR2 Trichoderma polysporum could effectively inhibit the southern blight disease of D. catenatum. Through the endophytic fungal re-isolation test, it was found that DCR2 can colonize in the roots, stems, and leaves of D. catenatum. The research will provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of the southern blight disease of D. catenatum. It is also significant for reducing pesticide use, ensuring food safety, and promoting the sustainable development of D. catenatum industry. Furthermore, it will provide a basis for the disease control in other crops.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Dendrobium , Endophytes , Fungi , Hypocreales , Plant Roots
12.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 498-502, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877268

ABSTRACT

@#Background. Cholesterol is an important biomolecule for cells. However, because of certain lifestyle, the amount of cholesterol can increase beyond what our bodies can consume. Increased intake may result in the accumulation of cholesterol in the blood leading to atherosclerosis that can lead to congestive heart failure. With the use of statins, cholesterol levels are reduced therefore lowering the risk for this disease. It does so by inhibiting the hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the first committed enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. In light of the increasing cases of hypercholesterolemia, there is a need to discover novel classes of HMG-CoA inhibitors. Objective. The primary objective of this study was to screen extracts of leaf-associated fungi for their capacity to inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the first committed enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods. Eight (8) plants were sampled for the fungal epiphytes and endophytes on their leaves. The fungal isolates were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed region (ITS) of the 18S rDNA. All fungal isolates were cultured in 20 flasks containing 300 mL potato dextrose broth at 30°C for 14 days. The culture broths were then subjected to reduction in volume using a rotary evaporator. HMG-CoA reductase inhibition assay was carried out using the ethyl acetate extracts from the culture broths. Reagent grade pravastatin was used as the positive control. Results. There were a total of sixty-six (66) fungal taxa that were tested for their capacity to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. Of the 50 that tested positive, there were 25 families represented and 5 isolates were of uncertain status taxonomically (incertae sedis). There were also nine classes that were represented and the class with the most number of isolates was Sordariomycetes. The highest percentage inhibition was observed in Pestalotiopsis lespedezae with 65.01 % inhibition. The other fungi with notable inhibitory activities were Colletotrichum cymbidiicola (64.16%) and Schizophyllum commune (57.85%). Conclusions. This study may be the first report of production of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in the genus Colletotrichum and in the other leaf-associated fungal taxa that tested positive for HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. It is therefore very promising that a novel statin compound, or even a new class of substances with antihypercholesterolemic bioactivity may be discovered from these leaf-associated fungal isolates. The crude extracts of these fungi are prime candidates for downstream fractionation for the subsequent isolation and structure elucidation of the bioactive compound.


Subject(s)
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Endophytes , Cholesterol
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 933-940, may./jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048705

ABSTRACT

Endoglucanases are enzymes widely employed in different industrial fields, albeit with high production costs. Studies on new microbial sources and low-cost substrates are highly relevant, including those on agro-industrial. Current analysis evaluates peanut hull (PH) and sawdust (SD) as substrates for submerged cultures of 14 endophytic fungi isolated from grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) cultivars Bordô and Concord. Endophytes were grown on a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) medium and the cup plate assay showed that eight strains (belonging to genera Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Phoma) had positive results: enzymatic halos ranged from 10.8±0.02to 15.5±0.07 mm in diameter. Diaporthe sp. strains (GenBank accession codes KM362392, KM362368 and KM362378) and Fusariumculmorum KM362384 were highlighted as the most promising sources. Further, PH and SD as substrates for the fermentation of these fungi were evaluated by the cup plate assay and endoglucanase activity assay. Highest halo diameters were obtained for Diaporthe sp. KM362392: 16.1±0.01 mm (CMC), 14.5±0.01 mm (PH) and 14.7±0.03 mm (SD). The fungus also presented the highest levels of endoglucanase activity: analysis of variance revealed that CMC (3.52±0.98 µmol/min), PH (2.93±0.23 µmol/min) and SD (3.26±0.38 µmol/min) were similarly efficient as substrates. Results deepen knowledge on V. labrusca endophytes that may be endoglucanase sources, eventhough further optimizations in submerged cultures with PH and SD should be undertaken to increase theenzymatic production from these wastes.


Endoglucanases são enzimas amplamente empregadas em diferentes setores industriais; embora sua produção apresente custos elevados. Estudos sobre novas fontes microbianas e substratos mais baratos são de grande importância, incluindo os resíduos agroindustriais. Nesse estudo, casca de amendoim (CA) e serragem (SE) foram testadas como substratos para o cultivo submerso de 14 fungos endofíticos isolados das cultivares Bordô e Concord de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) Os endófitos foram crescidos em meio contendo carboximetilcelulose (CMC) e o ensaio cup plate mostrou resultados positivos para oito fungos (pertencentes aos gêneros Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Phoma); os halos enzimáticos variaram entre 10,8±0,02 e 15,5±0,07 mm de diâmetro. Linhagens de Diaporthe sp. (códigos de acesso no GenBank KM362392, KM362368 e KM362378) e Fusariumculmorum KM362384 se destacaram como produtores mais promissores. Então, o uso de CA e SE como substratos para a fermentação desses fungos foi avaliado pelo ensaio cup plate e pela quantificação da atividade de endoglucanase. Os maiores halos enzimáticos foram obtidos para Diaporthe sp. KM362392: 16,1±0,01 mm (CMC), 14,5±0,01 mm (CA) e 14,7±0,03 mm (SE). Esse fungo também apresentou os maiores níveis de endoglucanase: a análise de variância revelou que CMC (3,52±0,98 µmol/min), CA (2,93±0,23 µmol/min) e SE (3,26±0,38 µmol/min) foram substratos similarmente eficientes. Esses resultados expandem o conhecimento sobre endófitos de V. labrusca que são fontes de endoglucanases; futuras otimizações quanto ao cultivo submerso com CA e SE podem ser utilizadas para aumentar a produção enzimática a partir do uso desses resíduos.


Subject(s)
Waste Products , Cellulase , Substrates for Biological Treatment , Enzymes , Agribusiness , Endophytes
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180407, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055392

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diverse microorganisms are living as endophytes in plant tissues and as epiphytes on plant surfaces in nature. Commercial formulations of bacteria antagonist to plant pathogenic microbes and ice nucleation active bacteria have been utilized as an environmentally safe method to manage plant disease and to prevent frost damage respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the leaf and sheath of sugarcane (CP69-1026 CP57-614, CP48-103, CP73-21, and CP70-1143 cultivars) verities grown in the field in Khuzestan province, Iran. Bacteria were found in both sheaths and leaves of sugarcane plants which they were significantly higher in density in leaves and which most were endophytic. The bacterial strains were 10 groups on the basis of the biochemical characteristic, which their 16S rRNA encoding gene from representatives were amplified and subjected to sequencing. Results of sequences analyze using blast software from the NCBI website and phylogenetic analysis showed that the representative strains belonged to a wide variety of phylogenetic groups. These results indicated that they were closely related to Burkholderia and Ralstonia from β-Proteobacteria, Mesorhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Sphingomonas from α-Proteobacteria, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium and Leifsonia from Actinobacteria and Xanthomonas from γ-Proteobacteria. This is the first report of the presence of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria from sugarcane in Khuzestan, Iran.


Subject(s)
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Saccharum/microbiology , Endophytes , Phylogeny
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773163

ABSTRACT

To determine the inhibitory effect of endophytic fungi from Dysosma versipellis on HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction,the protein-protein interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1( HIV-1) integrase and lens epithelial growth factor p75 protein( LEDGF/p75) was used as a target. The homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence( HTRF) technique was used in the inhibitory activity assay. The results showed that eight endophytic fungi with anti-IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction activity were screened out from fifty-three strains with different morphological characteristic. Among them,106 strain showed strong inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction with IC50 value of 5. 23 mg·L-1,and was identified as a potential novel species of Magnaporthaceae family by the analyses of ITS-rDNA,LSU and RPB2 sequences data. This study demonstrated that potential natural active ingredients against the HIV-1 IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction exist in the endophytic fungi of D. versipellis. These results may provide available candidate strain resources for the research and development of new anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drugs.


Subject(s)
Berberidaceae , Microbiology , Endophytes , Fungi , Chemistry , HIV Integrase , Metabolism , HIV-1 , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Metabolism , Protein Binding
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773130

ABSTRACT

The endophytic fungi from root,main stem,branch and leaf of Scrophularia ningpoensis were isolated from Zhejiang,whether these strains could yield harpagide or harpagoside were tested by HPLC and LC-MS. According to the morphological characteristic and the similarity of the nucleotide sequence of internal transcribed spacer( ITS) between r DNAs,the strains producing harpagide or harpagoside were identified. The results showed that 210 strains were isolated from the samples,which were classified into 9 orders,13 families and 17 genera by morphological study. Harpagide was detected in endogenous fungi ZJ17 and harpagoside was detected in endogenous fungi ZJ25 by HPLC coupled with LC-MS. ZJ17 was identified as Alternaria alternate and ZJ25 was identified as A.gaisen by its morphology and authenticated by ITS( ITS4 and ITS5 regions and the intervening 5. 8 S rDNA region).


Subject(s)
China , DNA, Fungal , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Endophytes , Classification , Metabolism , Fungi , Classification , Metabolism , Glycosides , Iridoid Glycosides , Metabolism , Pyrans , Metabolism , Scrophularia , Microbiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773104

ABSTRACT

Using the White as basic medium, the effects of the exogenous IBA and endophytic fungal elicitor on the growth of in vitro roots cultures of Dysosma versipellis and production of podophyllotoxin were investigated in this study. The results showed that the IBA and the endophytic fungus Zasmidium syzygii elicitor could increase the content of podophyllotoxin of in vitro roots of D. versipellis after 3 weeks. The White medium added with 3 mg·L~(-1) IBA induced the highest increase of podophyllotoxin(1 830.86 μg·g~(-1)), which was 2.07 folds greater than the control, and followed by 1.5 mg·L~(-1) IBA, fungal elicitor, 1 mg·L~(-1) IBA, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) IBA and 4.5 mg·L~(-1) IBA, which was 1.82, 1.71, 1.63, 1.43 and 1.1 folds greater than the control, respectively. The results also showed that the growth of roots was certain positively correlated with the change of IBA concentration. Therefore, 3 mg·L~(-1) IBA was the most suitable for the production of podophyllotoxin in the in vitro roots of D. versipellis, and the stimulating effect of Z. syzygii fungal elicitor was between 1.5 mg·L~(-1) and 1 mg·L~(-1) IBA, which was a potential natural elicitor to induce the accumulation of podophyllotoxin in future production.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Berberidaceae , Chemistry , Endophytes , Plant Roots , Podophyllotoxin , Tissue Culture Techniques
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774578

ABSTRACT

In order to explore endophytes diversity and difference in Dendrobium huoshanense,in this paper,the metagenomics method was used to analyze the endophytic bacteria and fungi community of 5 groups include 30 samples in different growth years. The results indicate that 3 540 bacterial OTUs were identified from D. huoshanense,and there are 138 OTUs in 5 groups simultaneously;2 168 fungal OTUs were identified,and 143 OTUs exist in 5 groups simultaneously. The dominate endophytic bacteria community are Sphingomonas sp.,Acinetobacter sp.,Burkholderia sp.,Methylobacterium sp.,Enterococcus sp.,Bacillus sp.,the difference endophytic bacteria community are Oceanobacillusd sp.,Actinomycetospora sp.,Paenibacillus sp.. The dominate endophytic fungi community are Zasmidium sp.,Zymoseptoria sp.,Alternaria sp.,Cladosporium sp.,Fusarium sp.,the difference endophytic fungi community are Cyphellophore sp.,Fusarium sp.. The results of clustering revealed that both the endophytic bacteria and the endophytic fungi,ⅢY2 and ⅢY3 are complete clustered,and ⅡY1 and ⅢY1 are also cluster completely. These enriched the species and resources of endophytic bacteria and fungi in D. huoshanense,and provided a theoretical reference for the reasonable harvest of D. huoshanense.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Bacteria , Dendrobium , Endophytes , Fungi , Fusarium , Phylogeny
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773731

ABSTRACT

A total of 27 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from Huperzia serrata,which were richly distributed in the stems and leaves while less distributed in roots. The 27 strains were identified by Internal Transcribed Spacer( ITS) r DNA molecular method and one of the strains belongs to Basidiomycota phylum,and other 26 stains belong to 26 species,9 general,6 families,5 orders,3 classes of Ascomycota Phylum. The dominant strains were Colletotrichum genus,belonging to Glomerellaceae family,Glomerellales order,Sordariomycetes class,Ascomycota Phylum,with the percentage of 48. 15%. The inhibitory activities of the crude extracts of 27 endophytic fungal strains against acetylcholinesterase( ACh E) and nitric oxide( NO) production were evaluated by Ellman's method and Griess method,respectively. Crude extracts of four fungi exhibited inhibitory activities against ACh E with an IC50 value of 42. 5-62. 4 mg·L~(-1),and some fungi's crude extracts were found to inhibit nitric oxide( NO) production in lipopolysaccharide( LPS)-activated RAW264. 7 macrophage cells with an IC50 value of 2. 2-51. 3 mg·L~(-1),which indicated that these fungi had potential anti-inflammatory activities.The chemical composition of the Et OAc extract of endophytic fungus HS21 was also analyzed by LCMS-IT-TOF. Seventeen compounds including six polyketides,four diphenyl ether derivatives and seven meroterpenoids were putatively identified.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Ascomycota , Chemistry , Classification , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Metabolism , Endophytes , Classification , Huperzia , Microbiology , Mice
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777479

ABSTRACT

In order to find new source of antifungal agents, eleven cultivable endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots,stems and leaves of Chelidonium majus by traditional method. Seven of them were identified as Colletotrichum(L1, L2, L3, S1, S3, S4, S5), and three of them were identified as Fusarium(R1,R2,R3) by morphological features and molecular biological technology. The antifungal activity test showed that all the tested fungi displayed some inhibitory activity against five common plant pathogens(C. gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Pyricularia oryza, Alternaria alternate and A. brassicae), and their inhibition rate of some test items were over 60%. Among them, R1, S2, S3 and S4 were more potent than others. This study enriches the understanding of endophytes from Ch. majus and provides a basis for the study of new microbial fungicides.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Virulence , Antibiosis , Ascomycota , Virulence , Chelidonium , Microbiology , Colletotrichum , Chemistry , Endophytes , Chemistry , Fusarium , Chemistry
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