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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284


ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.

Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 692-697, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894841


BACKGROUND Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. OBJECTIVE The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil. METHODS The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities. FINDINGS Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine. MAIN CONCLUSION Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the fitness of the plants living in the rupestrian grassland.

Plasmodium/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Magnoliopsida/classification , Magnoliopsida/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Tropical Climate , Biological Assay , Candida/drug effects , Endophytes/chemistry
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 733-745, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843309


AbstractPasteurella multocida is an important veterinary pathogen causing infections in animals and birds. Nowadays, different reports have described the severity of infections, increasing resistance of micro-organisms to antibiotics, and the contribution of ethnoveterinary practices towards the treatment of various ailments of animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of the ethanolic extracts of endophytic fungi against P. multocida Capsular Type A strains. A total of six endophytic fungi were isolated from two tropical ethnoveterinary plants: Garcinia xanthochymus H. and Polygonum chinense L. The ethanolic extracts of the endophytic fungi were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial activity by the well diffusion method. Besides, we evaluated the treatment of mice with the potent fungal extract and observed the effects in different organs under electron microscopy. Our results showed that four fungi had antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogen. The best antibacterial activity was showed by the extract of the endophytic fungi, Glomerella magna isolated from G. xanthochymus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 46.9 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration of 750 µg/mL. Treatment of mice with the potent fungal extract caused a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogen growth in vital organs, results that was also confirmed by histopathological studies made by scanning electron microscopy. The present findings indicated that the endophytic fungi G. magna has the potential to provide an effective treatment against infections caused by Pasteurella multocida. However, the isolation of bioactive components needs further investigation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 733-745. Epub 2016 June 01.

ResumenPasteurella multocida es un importante patógeno veterinario que causa infecciones en animales y aves. Hoy en día, diferentes informes han descrito la gravedad de las infecciones, aumentando la resistencia de los microorganismos a los antibióticos, y la contribución de las prácticas etnoveterinarias hacia el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades de los animales. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la eficacia antibacteriana de los extractos etanólicos de hongos endófitos contra cepas de P. multocida tipo capsular A. Un total de seis hongos endófitos fueron aisladas de dos plantas etnoveterinarias tropicales: Garcinia xanthochymus H. y Polygonum chinense L. Los extractos etanólicos de los hongos endófitos fueron sometidos a la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro por el método de difusión. Además, se evaluó el tratamiento de ratones con el extracto de hongos potente y observamos los efectos en diferentes órganos bajo el microscopio electrónico. Nuestros resultados mostraron que cuatro hongos tenían actividad antimicrobiana contra el patógeno seleccionado. La mejor actividad antibacteriana la mostró el extracto de los hongos endófitos, Glomerella magna aislado de G. xanthochymus, con una concentración inhibitoria mínima de 46.9 mg/ml y la concentración bactericida mínima de 750 mg/ml. El tratamiento de ratones con el extracto de hongos potente causó un considerable efecto inhibidor sobre el crecimiento de patógenos en órganos vitales, resultados que también fueron confirmados por estudios histopatológicos realizados por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los presentes hallazgos indican que el hongos endófitos G. magna tienen el potencial de proporcionar un tratamiento eficaz contra las infecciones causadas por Pasteurella multocida. Sin embargo, el aislamiento de componentes bioactivos necesita más investigación.

Animals , Rabbits , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects , Polygonum/microbiology , Garcinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Pasteurella multocida/ultrastructure , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Liver/ultrastructure , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 96-101, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775130


Abstract One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 µg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 µg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 µg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 µg/mL and 74.62 µg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

Animals , Alternaria/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Endophytes/chemistry , Lactones/isolation & purification , Alternaria/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Bacteria/drug effects , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Lactones/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Magnaporthe/drug effects , Nematoda/drug effects , Plant Roots/microbiology , Salvia/microbiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 248-254, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709468


The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Endophytes/chemistry , Garlic/microbiology , Trichoderma/chemistry , Trichodermin/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Botrytis/drug effects , Cluster Analysis , Colletotrichum/drug effects , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , /genetics , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichodermin/isolation & purification
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(8): 643-649, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684525


MP [4-(3′,3′-dimethylallyloxy)-5-methyl-6-methoxyphthalide] was obtained from liquid culture of Pestalotiopsis photiniae isolated from the Chinese Podocarpaceae plant Podocarpus macrophyllus. MP significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa tumor cell lines. After treatment with MP, characteristic apoptotic features such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in DAPI-stained HeLa cells. Flow cytometry showed that MP induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate protein and mRNA expression. MP caused significant cell cycle arrest by upregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 protein and p21CIP1 mRNA levels in HeLa cells. The expression of p73 protein was increased after treatment with various MP concentrations. mRNA expression of the cell cycle-related genes, p21CIP1 , p16INK4a and Gadd45α, was significantly upregulated and mRNA levels demonstrated significantly increased translation of p73, JunB, FKHR, and Bim. The results indicate that MP may be a potential treatment for cervical cancer.

Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzofurans/administration & dosage , Endophytes/chemistry , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Xylariales/chemistry , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Cell Cycle Proteins/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , /drug effects , /drug effects , DNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Forkhead Transcription Factors/drug effects , Cycadopsida , /drug effects , HeLa Cells , Nuclear Proteins/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription, Genetic , Transcription Factors/drug effects , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/drug effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 411-419, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683327


Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae) and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae) against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM) extracts and liquid culture media (LCM) from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts. .

Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Basidiomycota/chemistry , Endophytes/chemistry , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects