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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 362-369, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and Ramularia sp. were endophytic fungi isolated from Rumex gmelini Turcz (RGT), all of these three strains could produce some similar bioactive secondary metabolites of their host. However the ability to produce active components degraded significantly after cultured these fungi alone for a long time, and were difficult to recover. In order to obtain more bioactive secondary metabolites, the co-culture of tissue culture seedlings of RGT and its endophytic fungi were established respectively, and RGT seedling was selected as producer. Among these fungi, Aspergillus sp. showed the most significant enhancement on bioactive components accumulation in RGT seedlings. When inoculated Aspergillus sp. spores into media of RGT seedlings that had taken root for 20 d, and made spore concentration in co-culture medium was 1 × 104 mL-1, after co-cultured for 12 d, the yield of chrysophaein, resveratrol, chrysophanol, emodin and physcion were 3.52-, 3.70-, 3.60-, 4.25-, 3.85-fold of the control group. The extreme value of musizin yield was 0.289 mg, which was not detected in the control groups. The results indicated that co-culture with endophytic fungi could significantly enhance bioactive secondary metabolites production of RGT seedlings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Ascomycota/metabolism , Rumex/metabolism , Rumex/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/growth & development , Time Factors , Coculture Techniques , Rumex/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/metabolism , Seedlings/microbiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/growth & development
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 269-278, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889232

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 276 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in 14 sites in Henan Province, China. The inhibitory activity of these bacteria against pathogenic fungus Phytophthora sojae 01 was screened in vitro. Six strains with more than 63% inhibitory activities were further characterized through optical epifluorescence microscopic observation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, potential plant growth-promoting properties analysis, and plant inoculation assay. On the basis of the phylogeny of 16S rRNA genes, the six endophytic antagonists were identified as belonging to five genera: Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, and Bacillus. The strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DD161 had the strongest inhibitory activity (71.14%) against the P. sojae 01, which caused morphological abnormal changes of fungal mycelia; such changes include fracture, lysis, formation of a protoplast ball at the end of hyphae, and split ends. Except for Ochrobactrum haematophilum DD234, other antagonistic strains showed the capacity to produce siderophore, indole acetic acid, and nitrogen fixation activity. Regression analysis suggested a significant positive correlation between siderophore production and inhibition ratio against P. sojae 01. This study demonstrated that nodule endophytic bacteria are important resources for searching for inhibitors specific to the fungi and for promoting effects for soybean seedlings.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Root Nodules, Plant/microbiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Antibiosis , Phylogeny , Phytophthora/cytology , Phytophthora/growth & development , Phytophthora/drug effects , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/metabolism , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Cluster Analysis , China , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 59-66, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889203

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Trees/microbiology , Acacia/microbiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Trees/growth & development , Brazil , Acacia/growth & development , Wetlands , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 40-46, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974339

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial endophytes are considered to have a beneficial effect on host plants, improving their growth by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of four endophytic Bacillus strains to solubilize iron phosphate (Fe-P), produce siderophores and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro, and to evaluate their plant growth promotion ability in greenhouse conditions by inoculation into pearl millet cultivated in a P-deficient soils without P fertilization, with Araxá rock phosphate or soluble triple superphosphate. All strains solubilized Fe-P and three of them produced carboxylate-type siderophores and high levels of IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Positive effect of inoculation of some of these strains on shoot and root dry weight and the N P K content of plants cultivated in soil with no P fertilization might result from the synergistic combination of multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Specifically, while B1923 enhanced shoot and root dry weight and root N P content of plants cultivated with no P added, B2084 and B2088 strains showed positive performance on biomass production and accumulation of N P K in the shoot, indicating that they have higher potential to be microbial biofertilizer candidates for commercial applications in the absence of fertilization.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Food/metabolism , Pennisetum/growth & development , Pennisetum/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphates/metabolism , Bacillus/genetics , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Pennisetum/metabolism , Endophytes/genetics , Iron/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 59-63, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039274

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this work, four isolates of endophytic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Glomerella cingulata and Nigrospora sphaerica), deposited in the culture collection 'University Recife Mycologia' (URM) at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, were characterized for the genes ITS 1 and 4 (region 5.8 S) and evaluated for taxol production.


Subject(s)
Paclitaxel/biosynthesis , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Microbiology/organization & administration , Preservation, Biological , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/genetics
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 530-536, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889139

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mangrove is an important ecosystem in the world. Mangrove ecosystems have a large capacity in retaining heavy metals, and now they are usually considered as sinks for heavy metals. However, the mechanism of why the soil of mangrove ecosystems can retain heavy metal is not certain. In this research, endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 was isolated and identified from the roots of Kandelia candel. When this fungus was added, it protected the growth of K. candel under Cu stress. This can be illustrated by analyzing chlorophyll A and B, RWC and WSD to leaves of K. candel. Purpureocillium sp. A5 reduces uptake of Cu in K. candel and changes the pH characterization of soil. Furthermore, A5 increase the concentration of Cu complexes in soil, and it enhanced the concentration of carbonate-bound Cu, Mn-Fe complexes Cu and organic-bound Cu in soil. Nevertheless, a significant reduction of the Cu ion was noted among A5-treated plants. This study is significant and illustrates a promising potential use for environmental remediation of endophytes, and also may partially explain the large capacity of mangrove ecosystems in retaining heavy metals.


Subject(s)
Copper/metabolism , Rhizophoraceae/metabolism , Rhizophoraceae/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Hypocreales/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Copper/analysis , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Hypocreales/genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 480-488, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780842

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4–8 d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80 °C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata.


Subject(s)
Chaetomium/isolation & purification , Chaetomium/metabolism , Houttuynia/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Phylogeny , Chaetomium/classification , Chaetomium/genetics , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 977-989, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769669

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 359-366, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749714

ABSTRACT

Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Piper/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 49-57, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748247

ABSTRACT

Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds), comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%), Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%), Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53%) and Trichoderma piluliferum (7.37%). Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen’s index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus, Gibberella baccata, Penicillium commune, and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes. Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum. Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri. All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum. It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Biodiversity , Bauhinia/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Fungi/metabolism , Hydrolases/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , Brazil , Bacteria/drug effects , Biological Products/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , South America , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1333-1339, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741284

ABSTRACT

Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.


Subject(s)
Agave/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/metabolism , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data , Promoter Regions, Genetic , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1503-1511, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741306

ABSTRACT

Extracellular lipases from the endophytic yeast Candida guilliermondii isolated from castor leaves (Ricinus communis L.) were produced using low-cost raw materials such as agro-industrial residues and applying them in the esterification of oleic acid for evaluating their potential use in biodiesel production. After partial purification using ammonium sulfate, the enzyme was characterized and presented higher activity (26.8 ± 1.5 U mL-1) in the presence of 5 mmol L-1 NaCl at 30 ºC and pH 6.5. The production through submerged fermentation was formerly performed in 150 mL erlenmeyer flasks and, once the enzyme production was verified, assays in a 14 L bioreactor were conducted, obtaining 18 ± 1.4 U mL-1. The produced enzyme was applied in the oleic acid esterification under different solvents: hexane, cyclohexane or cyclohexanone) and different acid:alcohol molar ratios. Higher ester conversion rate (81%) was obtained using hexane and the molar ratio of 1:9 was the best conditions using methanol. The results suggest the potential for development of endophytic yeast in the production of biocatalyst through submerged fermentation using agroindustrial residues as culture medium.


Subject(s)
Candida/enzymology , Candida/metabolism , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/metabolism , Candida/growth & development , Candida/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Esterification , Endophytes/enzymology , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oleic Acid/metabolism , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Ricinus/microbiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 621-625, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723126

ABSTRACT

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.


Subject(s)
Azospirillum brasilense/isolation & purification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Hordeum/microbiology , Nitrogen Fixation , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Seeds/microbiology , Antibiosis , Azospirillum brasilense/classification , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolism , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Pseudomonas/classification , Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 153-162, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709458

ABSTRACT

Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms have been investigated under different ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. However, the systematic exploration of biomolecules with potential for biotechnological products from this interaction still is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aimed the evaluation of the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi obtained from roots, stems and leafs of Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Amazon. 156 endophytic fungi were isolated and above 80% were identified by morphological examination as belonging to the genera Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Xylaria, Nectria, Penicillium and Fusarium. Fermented broth of those fungi were assayed for antimicrobial activity and four inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Penicillium avellaneum. As the strain named MgRe2.2.3B (Nectria haematococca) had shown the most promising results against those pathogenic strains, its fermented broth was fractioned and only its two low polar fractions demonstrated to be active. Both fractions exhibited a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 µg.mL-1 against S. aureus and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 µg.mL-1 against P. avellaneum. These results demonstrate the diversity of fungal genera in M. guianensis and the potential of these endophytic fungi for the production of new antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Biodiversity , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Myrtaceae/microbiology , Brazil , Bacteria/drug effects , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Stems/microbiology
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 287-293, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709489

ABSTRACT

To optimize the medium for high zofimarin production, sucrose maltose, glucose, tryptone and peptone were used in an orthogonal array design experiment, where the highest value of zofimarin produced was 25.6 µg/mL. This value was about 3 times higher than that obtained with Czapek yeast extract (CzYE) culture medium. A study with Plackett-Burman design showed that sucrose, maltose, glucose and NaNO3 were significant factors in zofimarin production. Further studies using central composite design (CCD) showed the significance of glucose and the interactions of these critical components affecting zofimarin production. Multiple regression analysis of the data yielded a poor fit as shown by the mismatch of the model with these variable factors. When a polynomial equation was applied, the maximum zofimarin production was predicted to be 201.9 µg/mL. Experimental verification yielded a much lower amount of zofimarin, at around 70 µg/mL. Reconsideration of the CCD data and repetition of some runs with high zofimarin production resulted in reproducible zofimarin yield at 79.7 µ/mL. Even though the amount was lower than the predicted value, the medium optimization study was considered to be quite successful as the yield increased to around 8 times that obtained with the original CzYE culture medium.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Endophytes/metabolism , Xylariales/metabolism , Indenes/metabolism
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 629-637, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688594

ABSTRACT

The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4-60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0-11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (µg/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1-0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plantgrowth promoting agent.


Subject(s)
Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Sophora/microbiology , Antibiosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cluster Analysis , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/growth & development , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Plant Development , Phosphates/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Pseudomonas/classification , Pseudomonas/genetics , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Siderophores/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Sophora/growth & development , Temperature
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