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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922263

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect and mechanism of metformin on intestinal epithelial barrier injury in ulcerative colitis. A cell model of colitis was established by co-culture of human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 and human monocyte cell line THP-1. The colitis model cells were treated with metformin at concentration of for Flow cytometry was used to detect Caco-2 cell apoptosis, and Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of tight junction proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins. After metformin treatment, the apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells was decreased from (14.22±2.34)% to 0.61)% (=3.119, <0.05), and the expression levels of tight junction protein-1 and claudin-1 increased (=5.172 and 3.546, both <0.05). In addition, the expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum-related proteins glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12, as well as the phosphorylation level of PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) decreased (all <0.05). Metformin may alleviate the intestinal epithelial barrier damage in colitis by reducing intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and increasing the expression of tight junction proteins, which may be associated with the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caco-2 Cells , Colitis, Ulcerative , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Metformin/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888114

ABSTRACT

To explore the protective effect and mechanism of ethyl acetate extract from Bidens bipinnata on hepatocyte damage induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. Tunicamycin was used to establish the damage model in L02 cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) colorimetric assay was used to investigate the survival rate of ethyl acetate extract from B. bipinnata in L02 cells injury induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress; the protein expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecule glucose regulated protein 78(GRP78), PKR-like ER kinase(PERK), eukaryotic initiation factor-2(eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4(ATF4), C/EBP homologous protein(CHOP), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bal-2 associated X apoptosis regulator(Bax) were examined by Wes-tern blot. The expressions of the above proteins were also detected after endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor(4-phenyl butyric acid) and CHOP shRNA-mediated knockdowns were added. The expressions of GRP78, PERK, CHOP in L02 cells were observed by immunofluorescence method. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract from B. bipinnata could significantly increase the survival rate of L02 cell injury caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress in a dose and time-dependent manner(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression levels of GRP78, PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, CHOP and Bax in the drug treatment groups were significantly down-regulated(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated(P<0.01). After endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor and CHOP shRNA-mediated knockdowns were added, the expression levels of GRP78, PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, CHOP, Bax in the drug treatment groups were significantly down-regulated(P<0.01), whereas Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated(P<0.01). Immunofluorescence results showed that the expressions of GRP78, PERK, CHOP were consistent with the Western blot method. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract from B. bipinnata has a significant protective effect on the damage of L02 cells caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the down-regulation of apoptosis in cells through the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Apoptosis , Bidens , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Hepatocytes , Transcription Factor CHOP/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 418-428, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878572

ABSTRACT

As an extremely important organelle in eukaryotic cells, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in the synthesis and processing of biomacromolecules, material transport, ion homeostasis maintenance, signal transduction, exchange of materials and signals between organelles. Many important human diseases, such as cancers, autoimmune diseases, pathogenic infections, neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes, are closely related to ER dysfunction. With the development of nanotechnology, the exploration and application of ER-targeted nanodrugs gradually become a research hotspot in the field of nanomedicine, bioengineering, material chemistry and other fields. In this paper, the relationship between ER dysfunction and disease occurrence, the principle of designing ER-targeted nanodrugs and their biomedical application are reviewed. ER-targeted nanodrugs are designed based on nanodrug carriers or self-assembly of bioactive molecules. These nanodrugs could target the ER in an active or passive manner and function by disrupting or maintaining the ER functions. The ER-targeting nanodrugs have a wide application prospect in cancer therapy, immune regulation, nervous system repairment, and so on.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Homeostasis , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878543

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle where folding and post-translational modification of secretory and transmembrane proteins take place. During virus infection, cellular or viral unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER in an event called ER stress. To maintain the equilibrium homeostasis of the ER, signal-transduction pathways, known as unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated. The viruses in turn manipulate UPR to maintain an environment favorable for virus survival and replication. Herpesviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that produce over 70 viral proteins. Modification and maturation of large quantities of viral glycosylated envelope proteins during virus replication may induce ER stress, while ER stress play both positive and negative roles in virus infection. Here we summarize the research progress of crosstalk between herpesvirus infection and the virus-induced ER stress.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Herpesviridae , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 115-125, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878241

ABSTRACT

In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key quality control organelle for cellular protein synthesis and processing. It also serves as an important site for Ca


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoribonucleases , Humans , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , eIF-2 Kinase
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 261-274, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878043

ABSTRACT

There have been recent extensive studies and rapid advancement on the pathogenesis underlying idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and intricate pathogenesis of IPF has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to clarify the logical relationship between these mechanisms. An extensive search was undertaken of the PubMed using the following keywords: "etiology," "pathogenesis," "alveolar epithelial cell (AEC)," "fibroblast," "lymphocyte," "macrophage," "epigenomics," "histone," acetylation," "methylation," "endoplasmic reticulum stress," "mitochondrial dysfunction," "telomerase," "proteases," "plasminogen," "epithelial-mesenchymal transition," "oxidative stress," "inflammation," "apoptosis," and "idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis." This search covered relevant research articles published up to April 30, 2020. Original articles, reviews, and other articles were searched and reviewed for content; 240 highly relevant studies were obtained after screening. IPF is likely the result of complex interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors: environmental exposures affect epigenetic marks; epigenetic processes translate environmental exposures into the regulation of chromatin; epigenetic processes shape gene expression profiles; in turn, an individual's genetic background determines epigenetic marks; finally, these genetic and epigenetic factors act in concert to dysregulate gene expression in IPF lung tissue. The pathogenesis of IPF involves various imbalances including endoplasmic reticulum, telomere length homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, Th1/Th2 imbalance, M1-M2 polarization of macrophages, protease/antiprotease imbalance, and plasminogen activation/inhibition imbalance. These affect each other, promote each other, and ultimately promote AEC/fibroblast apoptosis imbalance directly or indirectly. Excessive AEC apoptosis and impaired apoptosis of fibroblasts contribute to fibrosis. IPF is likely the result of complex interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. The pathogenesis of IPF involves various imbalances centered on AEC/fibroblast apoptosis imbalance.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Apoptosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fibroblasts , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880864

ABSTRACT

C18 ceramide plays an important role in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the function of ceramide synthase 1, a key enzyme in C18 ceramide synthesis, in oral squamous cell carcinoma is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between ceramide synthase 1 and oral cancer. In this study, we found that the expression of ceramide synthase 1 was downregulated in oral cancer tissues and cell lines. In a mouse oral squamous cell carcinoma model induced by 4-nitroquinolin-1-oxide, ceramide synthase 1 knockout was associated with the severity of oral malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical studies showed significant upregulation of PCNA, MMP2, MMP9, and BCL2 expression and downregulation of BAX expression in the pathological hyperplastic area. In addition, ceramide synthase 1 knockdown promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Overexpression of CERS1 obtained the opposite effect. Ceramide synthase 1 knockdown caused endoplasmic reticulum stress and induced the VEGFA upregulation. Activating transcription factor 4 is responsible for ceramide synthase 1 knockdown caused VEGFA transcriptional upregulation. In addition, mild endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by ceramide synthase 1 knockdown could induce cisplatin resistance. Taken together, our study suggests that ceramide synthase 1 is downregulated in oral cancer and promotes the aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma and chemotherapeutic drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mice , Mouth Neoplasms , Oxidoreductases
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 216-223, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115779

ABSTRACT

The clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), for example the progressive memory loss, are produced by neuronal loss and synaptic dysfunction. These events have been associated with histopathological alterations in AD brain, including the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Recent studies suggest that cellular stress produced by the aggregation of misfolded proteins leads to alterations in protein homeostasis, that is regulated for the most part by endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER is the main compartment involved in the folding and secretion of proteins and is drastically affected in AD neurons. Recent evidence implicates the participation of adaptive responses to stress within the ER in the disease process through a signaling pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) which alleviates the protein aggregation and ER stress. Based on the involvement of ER stress in several diseases, efforts are being done to identify small molecules that can inhibit or activate selective UPR components. Here, we review the findings suggesting a functional role of ER stress in the etiology of AD. Possible therapeutic strategies to mitigate ER stress in the context of AD are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Signal Transduction , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Unfolded Protein Response , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786072

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is crucial to limiting vascular disease. Previously we reported that acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, might play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis via an inflammatory response involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Curcumin has been known to improve vascular function and have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin prevents the induction of inflammatory response caused by acrolein.METHODS: Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were examined in acrolein-stimulated HUVECs. Induction of proteins, mRNA, prostaglandin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using immunoblot analysis, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively.RESULTS: Curcumin attenuates inflammatory response via inhibition of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin production in acrolein-induced human endothelial cells. This inhibition by curcumin results in the abolition of phosphorylation of protein kinase C, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cAMP response element-binding protein. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses the production of ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α caused by acrolein.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that curcumin might be a useful agent against endothelial dysfunction caused by acrolein-induced inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Acrolein , Atherosclerosis , Curcumin , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endothelial Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Smoke , Tobacco , Vascular Diseases
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2599-2609, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877854

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial injury and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are considered to be the key mechanisms of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles that form close physical contact with a specific domain of the ER, known as mitochondrial-associated membranes. The close physical contact between them is mainly restrained by ER-mitochondria tethering complexes, which can play an important role in mitochondrial damage, ER stress, lipid homeostasis, and cell death. Several ER-mitochondria tethering complex components are involved in the process of renal I/R injury. A better understanding of the physical and functional interaction between ER and mitochondria is helpful to further clarify the mechanism of renal I/R injury and provide potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to describe the structure of the tethering complex and elucidate its pivotal role in renal I/R injury by summarizing its role in many important mechanisms, such as mitophagy, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion, apoptosis and necrosis, ER stress, mitochondrial substance transport, and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Mitophagy , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816628

ABSTRACT

Since parathyroid hormone (PTH) was first isolated and its gene (PTH) was sequenced, only eight PTH mutations have been discovered. The C18R mutation in PTH, discovered in 1990, was the first to be reported. This autosomal dominant mutation induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequent apoptosis in parathyroid cells. The next mutation, which was reported in 1992, is associated with exon skipping. The substitution of G with C in the first nucleotide of the second intron results in the exclusion of the second exon; since this exon includes the initiation codon, translation initiation is prevented. An S23P mutation and an S23X mutation at the same residue were reported in 1999 and 2012, respectively. Both mutations resulted in hypoparathyroidism. In 2008, a somatic R83X mutation was detected in a parathyroid adenoma tissue sample collected from a patient with hyperparathyroidism. In 2013, a heterozygous p.Met1_Asp6del mutation was incidentally discovered in a case-control study. Two years later, the R56C mutation was reported; this is the only reported hypoparathyroidism-causing mutation in the mature bioactive part of PTH. In 2017, another heterozygous mutation, M14K, was detected. The discovery of these eight mutations in the PTH gene has provided insights into its function and broadened our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mutation progression. Further attempts to detect other such mutations will help elucidate the functions of PTH in a more sophisticated manner.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Case-Control Studies , Codon, Initiator , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Exons , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hypoparathyroidism , Introns , Parathyroid Diseases , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress of Kupffer cells (KCs) and KCs-derived tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) in medicating apoptosis of hepatic stellate cell (HSC).@*METHODS@#Sixty male SD rats were randomized into control group, model group, ER- stress group, depletion group and KCs block group (=15). The 4 groups of rats were given intraperitoneal injections (twice a week for 8 weeks) of normal saline (2 mg/kg); 40% CCl4 solution (in peanut oil, 2 mg/kg); 40% CCl4 solution (2 mg/kg) and tunicamycin (1 mg/kg); and 40% CCl4 solution (2 mg/kg) and tunicamycin (1 mg/kg) followed by clodronate liposomes (50 mg/kg), respectively. After the treatments, samples of the liver tissue and serum were collected from the rats from the 4 groups to isolate KC cells, which were co-cultured with LX2 cells. In the depletion group, the rats were injected with anti-rat TNFR mAb (0.35 mg/kg) via the portal vein before isolating the KCs. Liver function examination, Eirius red staining, ELISA, immuno- histochemical staining, and RT-PCR were performed to assess the liver function, liver fibrosis, KC phenotypes, expression of the in fl ammatory factors, and the number of active HSC was detected. The isolated KCs were treated with tunicamycin before co-culture with LX2 cells, and ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to examine KC phenotypes, in fl ammatory factors, LX2 cell apoptosis and TNFR/caspase8 pathway activity.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the rats in the control group, the rats in the model group had significantly increased ALT and AST levels, Sirius red staining-positive area, and Desmin-positive cells (activated HSCs) ( < 0.05) with significantly lowered number of CD16-positive KCs (M1), and TNF- protein and mRNA expression ( < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the rats in ER-stress group showed significantly decreased ALT and AST levels, Sirius red staining positivity and Desmin-positive cells ( < 0.05) and increased number of CD16-positive KCs and TNF- expressions ( < 0.05). In the depletion group, compared with the ER-stress group, the rats had significantly increased ALT and AST levels of, Sirius red staining positivity and Desmin-positive cells ( < 0.05) and reduced CD16- positive KCs and TNF-expressions ( < 0.05). In the cell co-culture experiment, the model group showed significantly reduced TUNEL-positive LX2 cells, CD16-positive cells, and expressions of TNFR1, cleaved caspase- 8 and cleaved caspase- 3 in the KCs ( < 0.05) with increased Desmin-positive LX2 cells ( < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the ER- stress group exhibited significantly increased TUNEL-positive LX2 cells, CD16-positive cells and expressions of TNFR, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3 in the KCs ( < 0.05) and decreased Desmin-positive LX2 cells ( < 0.05). In the depletion group, blocking TNFR resulted in significantly decreased expressions of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3 compared with those in ER- stress group ( < 0.05) although there was no significant changed in TNFR expression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ER stress of KCs promotes the transformation of KCs towards M1 phenotype and increases the expression of TNF-, which triggers the apoptosis of HSCs through the TNFR/caspase-8 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 8 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Kupffer Cells , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828367

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of Bidens pilosa decoction on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by high fat and high glucose in mice. Bald/c mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, metformin(200 mg·kg~(-1)) treatment group, Bidens pilosa decoction(10 g·kg~(-1)) treatment group, metformin and B. pilosa decoction(100 mg·kg~(-1)+5 g·kg~(-1)) treatment group. Except for the normal group, mice in the other four groups were fed with high-fat and high-glucose diet for 8 weeks to establish the non-alcoholic fatty liver model. After 4 weeks of treatment, blood was collected from the eyeballs, the mice were sacrificed, and relevant indicators were detected. The results showed that compared with the model group, blood lipid and blood glucose levels of each treatment group were significantly lower(P<0.05); HE staining results showed that liver pathological damage in each treatment group was significantly improved; oil red O staining results showed fat distribution in each treatment group significantly reduced(P<0.01); immunohistochemical staining showed that glucose regulated the protein expression of protein 78(GRP78) in liver tissues of each treatment group was also significantly reduced(P<0.01); Western blot results showed that endoplasmic reticulum stress signal pathway-related factors GRP78, phosphorylated-protein kinase R-like ER kinase(p-PERK), eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2α(eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4(ATF4), C/EBP homologous protein(Chop), inositol requiring 1α(IRE1α), and cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 12(cleaved-caspase-12) were significantly reduced(P<0.01). The results of the combined drug treatment group were better than those of the single drug treatment group. These results showed that B. pilosa decoction had the effect in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver, and its mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)-related factors, and the reduction of the apoptosis of hepatocytes caused by ERS and the down-regulation of blood lipid and blood glucose levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bidens , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoribonucleases , Glucose , Mice , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pilea umbrosa (Urticaceae) is used by local communities (district Abbotabad) for liver disorders, as anticancer, in rheumatism and in skin disorders.@*METHODS@#Methanol extract of P. umbrosa (PUM) was investigated for the presence of polyphenolic constituents by HPLC-DAD analysis. PUM (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was administered on alternate days for eight weeks in rats exposed with carbon tetrachloride (CCl). Serum analysis was performed for liver function tests while in liver tissues level of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical markers were also studied. In addition, semi quantitative estimation of antioxidant genes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis related genes were carried out on liver tissues by RT-PCR analysis. Liver tissues were also studied for histopathological injuries.@*RESULTS@#Level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) decreased (p < 0.05) whereas level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), HO and nitrite increased in liver tissues of CCl treated rat. Likewise increase in the level of serum markers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin was observed. Moreover, CCl caused many fold increase in expression of ER stress markers; glucose regulated protein (GRP-78), x-box binding protein1-total (XBP-1 t), x-box binding protein1-unspliced (XBP-1 u) and x-box binding protein1-spliced (XBP-1 s). The level of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was aggregated whereas suppressed the level of antioxidant enzymes; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Additionally, level of fibrosis markers; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad-3 and collagen type 1 (Col1-α) increased with CCl induced liver toxicity. Histopathological scrutiny depicted damaged liver cells, neutrophils infiltration and dilated sinusoids in CCl intoxicated rats. PUM was enriched with rutin, catechin, caffeic acid and apigenin as evidenced by HPLC analysis. Simultaneous administration of PUM and CCl in rats retrieved the normal expression of these markers and prevented hepatic injuries.@*CONCLUSION@#Collectively these results suggest that PUM constituted of strong antioxidant chemicals and could be a potential therapeutic agent for stress related liver disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urticaceae , Chemistry
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 190-204, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827068

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle for protein folding, post-transcriptional modification and transport, which plays an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. A variety of internal and external environmental stimuli can cause the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then result in ER stress. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and initiates a cluster of downstream signals to maintain ER homeostasis. However, severe and persistent ER stress activates UPR, which eventually leads to apoptosis and diseases. In recent years, a lot of researches suggest that ER stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, atherosclerosis and vascular calcification, high blood pressure and aortic aneurysm. ER stress might be one of the important targets for treatment of multiple CVD. Herein, the regulation mechanism of ER stress by activating UPR pathways in various common CVD and the new research advances in relationship of ER stress and CVD are briefly reviewed.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Unfolded Protein Response
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effect of iridoid glycoside of radix scrophulariae (IGRS) on endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion @*METHODS@#Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were pretreated with IGRS (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) for 24h, and the @*RESULTS@#The damage caused by OGD/R to PC12 cells was significantly reduced by IGRS, with significant effect on increasing survival rate and reducing LDH release (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#IGRS has neuroprotective effect, which may alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating SERCA2, maintaining calcium balance, and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Glucose , In Vitro Techniques , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Oxygen , PC12 Cells , Rats , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Snails/chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the development of osteoblast apoptosis and osteolysis in osteolytic bone tissue, and to explore the causes of artificial joint loosening, so as to provide new ideas and theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of artificial joint loosening.@*METHODS@#The animal model of osteolysis induced by wear particles was established by mouse skull, and randomly divided into 4 groups, 7 rats in each group:group 1, blank control group;group 2, wear particles tial6v4 nano alloy powder (TiNPs) group;group 3, endoplasmic reticulum stress response positive control (TiNPs+Tg) group; group 4, endoplasmic reticulum stress response inhibitor (TiNPs+4-PBA) group. The pathological changes of osteolysis were observed by toluidine blue staining, HE staining and ALP staining;the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress response marker protein was detected by Western Blotting;the apoptosis of osteoblasts in osteolytic skull tissue was detected by TUNEL and Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#Wear particles TiNPs can induce osteolysis in vitro, aggravate the infiltration of inflammatory cells and inhibit the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts. At the same time, wear particles can also up regulate the markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress response and promote the apoptosis of osteoblasts in osteolytic bone tissue. After adding 4-PBA, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress (4-PBA), on the basis of wear particles TiNPs, the symptoms of osteolysis were significantly relieved, bone erosion and inflammatory infiltration were significantly reduced, the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts were improved, the number of apoptotic osteoblasts decreased sharply, and the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress marker protein gradually decreased.@*CONCLUSION@#Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the formation of osteolysis and plays an important role in the occurrence and development of osteolysis. At the same time, endoplasmic reticulum stress can be used as a new therapeutic target to provide new ideas and methods for clinical reversal or treatment of osteolysis and aseptic loosening.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteolysis/chemically induced , Rats
18.
Biol. Res ; 52: 34, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoralen is a coumarin-like and coumarin-related benzofuran glycoside, which is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to treat patients with kidney and spleen-yang deficiency symptom. Psoralen has been reported to show estrogen-like activity, antioxidant activity, osteoblastic proliferation accelerating activity, antitumor effects and antibacterial activity. However, the antitumor mechanism of psoralen is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of psoralen in human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 and the mechanism of antitumor effects. RESULTS: Psoralen inhibited proliferation of SMMC7721 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and promoted apoptosis. Further, psoralen activated the ER stress signal pathway, including the expansion of endoplasmic reticulum, increasing the mRNA levels of GRP78, DDIT3, ATF4, XBP1, GADD34 and the protein levels of GDF15, GRP78, IRE1α, XBP-1s in a time-dependent manner. Psoralen induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase by enhancing CyclinD1 and reducing CyclinE1 expression. Moreover, TUDC couldn't inhibit the psoralen-induced ER stress in SMMC7721 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Psoralen can inhibit the proliferation of SMMC7721 cells and induce ER stress response to induce cell apoptosis, suggesting that psoralen may represent a novel therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Ficusin/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Ficusin/therapeutic use , Ficusin/chemistry , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 527-536, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777159

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate whether G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) could alleviate hippocampal neuron injury under cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) by acting on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). The CIRI animal model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Female ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, ischemia-reperfusion injury (MCAO), vehicle (MCAO+DMSO), and GPER-specific agonist G1 (MCAO+G1) groups. The neurobehavioral score was assessed by the Longa score method, the morphological changes of the neurons were observed by the Nissl staining, the cerebral infarction was detected by the TTC staining, and the neural apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region was detected by TUNEL staining. The distribution and expression of GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein 78) in the hippocampal CA1 region were observed by immunofluorescent staining. The protein expression levels of GRP78, Caspase-12, CHOP and Caspase-3 were detected by Western blot, and the mRNA expression levels of GRP78, Caspase-12, and CHOP were detected by the real-time PCR. The results showed that the neurobehavioral score, cerebral infarct volume, cellular apoptosis index, as well as GRP78, Caspase-12 and CHOP protein and mRNA expression levels in the MCAO group were significantly higher than those of control group. And G1 reversed the above-mentioned changes in the MCAO+G1 group. These results suggest that the activation of GPER can decrease the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons and relieve CIRI, and its mechanism may involve the inhibition of ERS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain Ischemia , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Cell Biology , Caspase 12 , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Female , Heat-Shock Proteins , Metabolism , Neurons , Cell Biology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Estrogen , Physiology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Reperfusion Injury , Transcription Factor CHOP , Metabolism
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 279-286, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777188

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of S100 calcium binding protein A16 (S100A16) in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and its possible biological mechanism. HepG2 cells (human hepatoma cell line) were cultured with fatty acid to establish fatty acid culture model. The control model was cultured without fatty acid. Each model was divided into three groups and transfected with S100a16 over-expression, shRNA and vector plasmids, respectively. The concentration of triglyceride (TG) in the cells was measured by kit, and the lipid droplets was observed by oil red O staining. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to find the interesting proteins interacting with S100A16, and the interaction was verified by immunoprecipitation. The further mechanism was studied by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The results showed that the intracellular lipid droplet and TG concentrations in the fatty acid culture model were significantly higher than those in the control model. The accumulation of intracellular fat in the S100a16 over-expression group was significantly higher than that in the vector plasmid transfection group. There was an interaction between heat shock protein A5 (HSPA5) and S100A16. Over-expression of S100A16 up-regulated protein expression levels of HSPA5, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and pIREα1, which belong to endoplasmic reticulum stress HSPA5/IRE1α-XBP1 pathway. Meanwhile, over-expression of S100A16 up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of adipose synthesis-related gene Srebp1c, Acc and Fas. In the S100a16 shRNA plasmid transfection group, the above-mentioned protein and mRNA levels were lower than those of vector plasmid transfection group. These results suggest that S100A16 may promote lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress HSPA5/IRE1α-XBP1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoribonucleases , Physiology , Heat-Shock Proteins , Physiology , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Physiology , S100 Proteins , Physiology , Triglycerides , X-Box Binding Protein 1 , Physiology
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