Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 541
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880442

ABSTRACT

Electronic endoscope is one of the crucial tools for minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment. Along with the continuous development of clinical applications, conventional electronic endoscope has not been able to meet all the clinical requirements. In recent years, with the rapid development of the material, sensor and electronic technologies, electronic endoscope has attracted many researchers and companies' attention. Nowadays, because of being suitable for some special mobile medical scenes like field operations, natural calamities and hospital first aids, various portable electronic endoscopes have been developed and applied in clinic. The present study aims to give a review on portable electronic endoscopes development and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Electronics , Endoscopes
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the treatment effects of periodontal endoscope-assisted and traditional subgingival scaling on residual pockets.@*METHODS@#A total of 13 patients with periodontitis from Dept. of Periodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University were recruited. After 4-6 weeks of initial treatment, the residual pockets with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and attachment loss (AL) of ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing were examined with traditional (control group) and periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling (endoscopy group) in a randomly controlled split-mouth design. At baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment, plaque index (PLI), PD, AL, and bleeding index (BI) were measured. Differences in these clinical parameters within and between groups and patient-reported outcomes were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of the 694 sites of 251 teeth were included in this trial. Both groups showed significant improvement in each periodontal parameters 6 weeks and 3 months after treatment (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Periodontal endoscope-assisted subgingival scaling resulted in better effects than traditional subgingival scaling when the residual pockets were in a single-rooted tooth, with a PD of ≥5 mm but without vertical alveolar bone resorption and furcation involvement.


Subject(s)
Dental Plaque Index , Dental Scaling , Endoscopes , Humans , Periodontitis/therapy
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 695-702, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128849

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de promover, por meio de acesso único e com o uso de endoscópio flexível, ampla exploração da cavidade peritoneal de equinos em estação, foi concebida uma cânula laparoscópica para dar sustentação ao endoscópio e possibilitar o acesso sob visualização. O procedimento foi realizado a partir da fossa paralombar. Após pequena incisão cutânea, o endoscópio foi inserido na cânula e os músculos e o peritônio foram divulsionados mediante rotação da cânula. Logo depois da perfuração do peritônio, foi realizada a exploração da cavidade e a identificação das estruturas. Em seguida à exploração do lado ipsilateral ao acesso, realizou-se a transposição do conjunto cânula/endoscópio ventralmente à porção caudal do cólon descendente, seguida de exploração do lado contralateral. Concluída a técnica, foi executado, para fins de comparação, o mesmo procedimento por meio da fossa paralombar contralateral. Foi possível a transposição do conjunto cânula/endoscópio para o lado contralateral ao acesso em todos os procedimentos. Também foi possível a identificação da maioria das estruturas abdominais tanto pelo acesso esquerdo quanto pelo direito. A abordagem por acesso único mostrou-se viável para a exploração ampla da cavidade peritoneal, demonstrando ser uma alternativa à técnica laparoscópica convencional.(AU)


A laparoscopic cannula was designed to support a single access approach with a flexible endoscope for the wide exploration of the peritoneal cavity of standing horses. It provides support to the endoscope and allows access to the peritoneal cavity with a visual aid. This procedure was performed through the paralumbar fossa. After a small cutaneous incision, the endoscope was inserted into the cannula, and the muscles and peritoneum were divulsed through the rotation of the cannula. After the peritoneal perforation, cavity exploration and identification of structures were performed. After the exploration of the ipsilateral side of the access, the cannula/endoscope was transposed ventrally to the caudal portion of the descending colon; this was followed by the exploration of the contralateral side. Once this process was completed, the same procedure was performed through the contralateral paralumbar fossa for comparison. It was possible to transpose the cannula/endoscope set to the contralateral access side in all procedures. Further, it was possible to identify most of the abdominal structures in both the left and right access. This single access approach proved to be feasible for the extensive exploration of the peritoneal cavity, thereby indicating it can be an alternative to the conventional laparoscopic technique.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peritoneum/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopes/veterinary , Video-Assisted Surgery/veterinary , Cannula , Horses , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826621

ABSTRACT

Severe cases infected with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), named by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Feb. 11, 2020, tend to present a hypercatabolic state because of severe systemic consumption, and are susceptible to stress ulcers and even life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment constitute an irreplaceable part in the handling of severe COVID-19 cases. Endoscopes, as reusable precision instruments with complicated structures, require more techniques than other medical devices in cleaning, disinfection, sterilization, and other reprocessing procedures. From 2016 to 2019, health care-acquired infection caused by improper endoscope reprocessing has always been among the top 5 on the list of top 10 health technology hazards issued by the Emergency Care Research Institute. Considering the highly infective nature of COVID-19 and the potential aerosol contamination therefrom, it is of pivotal significance to ensure that endoscopes are strictly reprocessed between uses. In accordance with the national standard "Regulation for Cleaning and Disinfection Technique of Flexible Endoscope (WS507-2016)," we improved the workflow of endoscope reprocessing including the selection of chemicals in an effort to ensure quality control throughout the clinical management towards COVID-19 patients. Based on the experience we attained from the 12 severe COVID-19 cases in our hospital who underwent endoscopy 23 times in total, the article provides an improved version of endoscopic reprocessing guidelines for bedside endoscopic diagnosis and treatment on COVID-19 patients for reference.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Cross Infection , Disinfection , Methods , Endoscopes , Virology , Equipment Contamination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peracetic Acid , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Sterilization , Methods , Workflow
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effectiveness of periodontal endoscope as an adjuvant therapy for the non-surgical periodontal treatment of patients with severe and generalized periodontitis.@*METHODS@#Patients (n=13) were divided into three groups: patients treated with conventional subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP) (n=7, 408 sites) (group A), SRP using periodontal endoscope (n=4, 188 sites) (group B) or SRP with periodontal endoscope 3 months after initial SRP (n=2, 142 sites) (group C). Two subgroups were divided into 2 subgroups according to PD at the baseline: 46 mm as subgroup 2. Probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), gingival recession (GR) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded.@*RESULTS@#The results of 3 months after treatment showed all PD, AL, and GR values in group A1 were less than those in group B1 (P6 mm, the application of periodontal endoscopy can increase the effect, reducing PD and GR, which may be an effective supplement to the current non-surgical periodontal treatment.


Subject(s)
Dental Scaling , Endoscopes , Follow-Up Studies , Gingival Hemorrhage , Humans , Periodontal Attachment Loss , Periodontal Index , Periodontal Pocket , Periodontitis , Root Planing , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(1): 25-30, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002179

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Feeding, swallowing and breathing are fundamental activities for the survival and well-being of humans; these functions are performed by themost complex neuromuscular unit of the human body, which, when altered, may raise morbidity and mortality rates. Objective To evaluate deglutition in patients with mental disability in order to determine the incidence and the severity of dysphagia. Methods A total of 189 institutionalized adult patients with mental disability were analyzed using a 3.2 mm flexible fiberscope (Machida, Japan 1995). The following food consistencies were tested: pasty, thickened liquid and liquid. Results Among the total of 189 patients, 101 (53.4%) were female aged between 14 and 55 years old. Most of them 120 (63.5%) had profound mental deficiency, 58 (30.7%) had severe mental deficiency, 9 (4.8%) had moderate mental deficiency, and 2 (1.1%) had mild mental deficiency. Gender and the degree of mental deficiency did not influence significantly the degree of dysphagia. Age, degree of disability and interaction between age groups and degrees of disability influenced significantly the degree of dysphagia. Younger patients are more likely to present more severe dysphagia. Stabilization occurs between 31 and 40 years of age, and above this age, a greater chance of less severe dysphagia, because the increase in the degree of mental deficiency decreases the probability of more severe dysphagia. Conclusion The population that mostly presented severe dysphagia was characterized by being mostly female, with profound mental deficiency, with an average age of 36.7 years. There was no relationship between gender and the degree of mental disability concerning the degree of dysphagia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Deglutition Disorders/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy/methods , Intellectual Disability/complications , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endoscopes , Patient Acuity
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719320

ABSTRACT

A cholesterol granuloma is the most common primary lesion of the petrous apex, and accounts for 40% of the pathologies that arise in this region. The primary treatment for symptomatic lesions is by surgery to decompress and drain or to completely remove the lesion. Here we describe the use of infralabyrinthine approach to access a lesion through the temporal bone and completely remove it with the assistance of a 0-degree endoscope. A 43-year-old man visited our clinic for diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2.3-cm cholesterol granuloma located in the left petrous apex that caused deviation of the left abducens nerve. The tumor was completely removed using the endoscopic-assisted infralabyrinthine approach; the patient is currently being followed up, and there is no evidence of disease recurrence. This case report describes the successful completion of a petrous apex cholesterol granuloma that preserved the cochlear and vestibular systems.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve , Adult , Cholesterol , Diplopia , Endoscopes , Granuloma , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pathology , Recurrence , Temporal Bone
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742005

ABSTRACT

In the reproductive age, many women have several uterine myomas and present with abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and occasionally infertility. There are three surgical approaches to perform myomectomy, including robotic-assisted, laparoscopic, and abdominal myomectomy. Compared to laparoscopic procedures, robotic myomectomy allows free approach of myoma bases using fine instruments and endoscopes. Fine uterine wall sutures can be performed layer-by-layer with robots. However, robotic surgery is difficult to perform because there is no sense of touch during the operation. We report two clinical myomectomy cases with replaced lack of haptic feedback during robot surgery. The patients received robotic myomectomy with/without right ovarian cystectomy and adhesiolysis. Sixty-five leiomyomas were removed in case 1. Forty-six leiomyomas were removed in case 2. Lack of haptic feedback is replaced by more developed visual sense during robot myomectomy of multiple tiny intramural myomas, and robotic surgery can be performed much more effectively even in complicated cases.


Subject(s)
Cystectomy , Dysmenorrhea , Endoscopes , Female , Humans , Infertility , Leiomyoma , Myoma , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Sutures , Uterine Hemorrhage , Uterine Myomectomy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741831

ABSTRACT

Foreign body (FB) ingestion of children is a common pediatric emergency requiring medical attention. Pediatric emergency physicians and gastroenterologists often encounter nervous and distressed situations, because of children presenting with this condition in the common clinical practice. When determining the appropriate timing and indications for intervention, physicians should consider multiple patient- and FB-related factors. The utilization of a flexible endoscopy is considered safe and effective to use in these cases, with a high success rate, for the effective extraction of FBs from the gastrointestinal tract of a child. Additionally, a Foley catheter and a magnet-attached Levin tube have been used for decades in the case of FB removal. Although their use has decreased significantly in recent times, these instruments continue to be used for several indications. Using a Foley catheter for this purpose does not require special training and does not necessarily require sedation of the patient or fluoroscopy, which serve as advantages of utilizing this method for foreign object retrieval. An ingested magnet or iron-containing FB can be retrieved using a magnet-attached tube, and can be effective to retrieve an object from any section of the upper gastrointestinal tract that can be reached. Simple and inexpensive devices such as Foley catheters and magnet-attached tubes can be used in emergencies such as with the esophageal impaction of disk batteries if endoscopy cannot be performed immediately (e.g., in rural areas and/or in patients presenting at midnight in a facility, especially in those without access to endoscopes or emergency services, or in any situation that warrants urgent removal of a foreign object).


Subject(s)
Catheters , Child , Eating , Emergencies , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Esophagus , Fluoroscopy , Foreign Bodies , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Methods , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Urinary Catheterization
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788745

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Anomalous muscles of the wrist are infrequently encountered during carpal tunnel surgery. Anatomic variants of the palmaris longus (PL), flexor digitorum superficialis, lumbricalis and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) have been reported but are usually clinically insignificant. Anomalies of the wrist muscles, encountered during endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery have rarely been described. I conducted this study to evaluate muscular anomalies of the volar aspect of the wrist, encountered during endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery.METHODS: I studied a consecutive series of 1235 hands in 809 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who underwent single-portal endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) from 2002 to 2014. Nine hundred seventy-three hands in 644 patients who had minimal 6-month postoperative follow-up were included in the study. The postoperative surgical outcome was assessed at least 6 months after surgery.RESULTS: In eight patients, anomalous muscles were found under the antebrachial fascia at the proximal wrist crease and superficial to the ulnar bursa, passing superficial to the transverse carpal ligament . Those anomalous muscles were presumed to be variants of the PL or accessory ADM muscle, necessitating splitting and retraction to enter the carpal tunnel during the ECTR procedure. Other muscle anomalies were not seen within the carpal tunnel on the endoscopic view. The surgical outcome for all eight wrists was successful at the 6-month postoperative follow-up.CONCLUSION: Carpal tunnel surgeons, especially those using an endoscope should be familiar with unusual findings of anomalous muscles of the wrist because early recognition of those muscles can contribute to avoiding unnecessary surgical exploration and unsuccessful surgical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Fascia , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Ligaments , Muscles , Surgeons , Wrist
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 402-408, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic assistive devices have been developed to reduce the complexity and improve the safety of surgeries involving the use of endoscopes. We developed an assistive robotic arm for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and evaluated its efficiency and safety in this in vitro pilot study. METHODS: ESD was performed using an auxiliary transluminal endoscopic robot. An in vitro test bed replicating the intra-abdominal environment and pig stomachs were used for the experiment. Participants were divided into skilled operators and unskilled operators. Each group performed ESD 10 times by using both conventional and robot-assisted methods. The perforation incidence, operation time, and resected mucous membrane size were measured. RESULTS: For the conventional method, significant differences were noted between skilled and unskilled operators regarding operation time (11.3 minutes vs 26.7 minutes) and perforation incidence (0/10 vs 6/10). Unskilled operators showed a large decrease in the perforation incidence with the robot-assisted method (conventional method vs robot-assisted method, 6/10 vs 1/10). However, the operation time did not differ between the conventional and robot-assisted methods. On the other hand, skilled operators did not show differences in the operation time and perforation incidence between the conventional and robot-assisted methods. Among both skilled and unskilled operators, the operation time decreased with the robot-assisted method as the experiment proceeded. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical safety of unskilled operators greatly improved with robotic assistance. Thus, our assistive robotic arm was beneficial for ESD. Our findings suggest that endoscopic assistive robots have positive effects on surgical safety.


Subject(s)
Arm , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Hand , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Pilot Projects , Self-Help Devices , Stomach , Surgery, Computer-Assisted
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 140-148, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763836

ABSTRACT

A laser endoscopy system was developed in 2012. The system allows blue laser imaging (BLI), BLI-bright, and linked color imaging (LCI) to be performed as modes of narrow-band light observation; these modes have been reported to be useful for tumor detection and characterization. Furthermore, an innovative endoscopy system using four-light emitting diode (LED) multilight technology was released in 2016 to 2017 in some areas in which laser endoscopes have not been approved for use, including the United States and Europe. This system enables blue light imaging (this is also known as BLI) and LCI with an LED light source instead of a laser light source. Several reports have shown that these modes have improved tumor detection. In this paper, we review the efficacy of BLI and LCI with laser and LED endoscopes in tumor detection and characterization.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Europe , United States
16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 247-251, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures are difficult and cumbersome owing to the limitation of currently available endoscopic devices. This study aimed to develop an endoscopic guidetube for multipurpose endoscopic procedures and assess its use in a realistic GI endoscopic simulator. METHODS: The guidetube used is a soft overtube composed of neoprene and is designed to assist various endoscopic procedures on demand. In total, 15 types of procedures were performed in GI simulators. Four procedures were performed in the stomach model and 11 in the colon model. The procedures include repeated endoscopic insertion and foreign body removal in various positions. The mean insertion and procedure time were assessed in each session. All procedures were performed by 5 expert endoscopists. RESULTS: Endoscopic procedures with the new guidetube were faster and more effective than the conventional endoscopic techniques. The mean insertion time of the endoscope with the guidetube was significantly shorter than that without the guidetube. The guidetube was safely inserted without scratch using low pushing force. Objects of various sizes larger than the endoscopic channel were easily removed by the guidetube-assisted endoscopic procedures. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study shows that guidetube-assisted endoscopic procedures are faster, easier, safer and cheaper than conventional endoscopic procedures.


Subject(s)
Colon , Endoscopes , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Neoprene , Stomach
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 273-277, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763430

ABSTRACT

Conventional endoscopy often misses early gastric cancers with minimal red discoloration because they cannot be distinguished from inflamed mucosa. We treated a patient with a small early gastric cancer that was difficult to diagnose using conventional endoscopy. Conventional endoscopy using a small-caliber endoscope showed only subtle red discoloration of the gastric mucosa. However, blue laser imaging showed a clearly discolored area measuring 10 mm in diameter around the red lesion, which was distinct from the surrounding inflamed mucosa. Irregular vessels on the tumor surface (suspicious for early gastric cancer) were observed even with small-caliber endoscopy. Biopsy revealed a well-moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, and endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Histopathological examination of the specimen confirmed well-moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma localized to the mucosa with slight depression compared to the surrounding mucosa, consistent with the endoscopic findings. This small early gastric cancer became clearly visible with blue laser imaging using small-caliber endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Depression , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Gastric Mucosa , Humans , Mucous Membrane , Stomach Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763306

ABSTRACT

Although efficacies and proportions of tympanoplasty performed via endoscopic ear surgery (EES) have gradually introduced, it remains unclear whether total EES is a good alternative to microscopic ear surgery (MES). Herein, we aimed to compare therapeutic effects of EES and MES in patients receiving tympanoplasty or myringoplasty. A search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase databases was conducted to compare the efficacies of EES and MES. Two investigators independently reviewed all studies and extracted data with a standardized form. We assessed risk of bias and calculated pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Thirteen studies (607 EES patients and 678 MES patients) met inclusion criteria for quantitative meta-analysis. In pooled analysis, those who undergo EES have 0.99 times the OR of graft success compared to those with MES (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.16; P=0.894). In qualitative analysis, comparable hearing improvement was observed between the two groups, despite inconsistent audiometric evaluation. The air-bone gaps (ABGs) improved 2.02 dB less in EES than in MES (mean difference of improvements of ABGs, 2.02; 95% CI, –3.84 to –0.20; P=0.029); however, substantial heterogeneity and publication bias limited the integrity of this analysis. Further, EES significantly decreased canalplasty rate, wound complications, and operation time, compared to MES. Moreover, patients receiving EES reported higher cosmetic satisfaction than patients receiving MES. EES can be a good alternative to MES in terms of comparable graft success rate and hearing outcomes in patients receiving tympanoplasty or myringoplasty. Moreover, EES was less invasive, resulting in higher cosmetic satisfaction, reduced morbidity, and shorter operation time. Our results may affect decision-making and outcome prediction in cases of EES; however, confirmation is needed to clarify potential bias.


Subject(s)
Bias , Ear , Endoscopes , Hearing , Humans , Myringoplasty , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias , Research Personnel , Therapeutic Uses , Transplants , Tympanoplasty , Wounds and Injuries
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772478

ABSTRACT

According to the national soft endoscope cleaning standard and the difference between the previous and latest version, the origin decontamination equipment is upgraded. Sensory control monitoring results in the last year shows that the average cleaning time for a single endoscope has been reduced from 20 min 55 s to 17 min 16 s. The number of bacterial colony has been reduced from 6.8 to 3.1. The pass rate of sensory control monitoring keeps steady. The upgraded decontamination equipment not only meets the requirements of the latest version of the standard,but also improves the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic endoscope disinfection.


Subject(s)
Disinfection , Endoscopes , Equipment Contamination
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Anomalous muscles of the wrist are infrequently encountered during carpal tunnel surgery. Anatomic variants of the palmaris longus (PL), flexor digitorum superficialis, lumbricalis and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) have been reported but are usually clinically insignificant. Anomalies of the wrist muscles, encountered during endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery have rarely been described. I conducted this study to evaluate muscular anomalies of the volar aspect of the wrist, encountered during endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery. METHODS: I studied a consecutive series of 1235 hands in 809 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who underwent single-portal endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) from 2002 to 2014. Nine hundred seventy-three hands in 644 patients who had minimal 6-month postoperative follow-up were included in the study. The postoperative surgical outcome was assessed at least 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: In eight patients, anomalous muscles were found under the antebrachial fascia at the proximal wrist crease and superficial to the ulnar bursa, passing superficial to the transverse carpal ligament . Those anomalous muscles were presumed to be variants of the PL or accessory ADM muscle, necessitating splitting and retraction to enter the carpal tunnel during the ECTR procedure. Other muscle anomalies were not seen within the carpal tunnel on the endoscopic view. The surgical outcome for all eight wrists was successful at the 6-month postoperative follow-up. CONCLUSION: Carpal tunnel surgeons, especially those using an endoscope should be familiar with unusual findings of anomalous muscles of the wrist because early recognition of those muscles can contribute to avoiding unnecessary surgical exploration and unsuccessful surgical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Fascia , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Ligaments , Muscles , Surgeons , Wrist
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL