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1.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 910-918, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The thoracic small biopsy sampling procedure including transbronchial forceps lung biopsy (TBLB) and endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can be accompanied by rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of sample material to provide immediate feedback for the proceduralist. The present study aims to investigate the supplemental effect of ROSE smear samples for lung cancer molecular test.@*METHODS@#In a retrospective study, 308 patients admitted to our hospital from August 2020 to December 2022 undergoing diagnostic TBLB and EBUS-TBNA with ROSE and subsequently diagnosed as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed. The matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedding (FFPE) tissue section and ROSE smears for tumor cellularity were compared. DNA yields of smears were determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed on adequate smear samples.@*RESULTS@#ROSE smear samples were enriched in tumor cells. Among 308 biopsy samples, 78 cases (25.3%) exhibited inadequate FFPE tissue sections, whereas 44 cases (14.3%) yielded adequate smear samples. Somatic mutations detected in the FFPE tissue section samples were also detected in the matching adequate smear sample.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ROSE smear samples of the thoracic small biopsies are beneficial supplemental materials for ancillary testing of lung cancer. Combined use of cytology smear samples with traditional FFPE section samples can enhance the detection rate of informative mutations in patients with advanced NSCLC. We recommend that the laboratory could further evaluate the ROSE cell smears of the patient when FFPE tissue sections are inadequate, and that adequate cell smears can be used as a supplemental source for the molecular testing of NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Rapid On-site Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 434-445, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360967

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la punción con aguja fina guiada por ultrasonografía endoscópica (PAF-USE) permite un diagnóstico de las lesiones sólidas del páncreas (LSP) con una sensibilidad de alrededor del 85 % en la literatura mundial y aún más baja en nuestro medio, por lo cual se requiere explorar nuevos accesorios (agujas) o técnicas tales como la elastografía, que mejoren esta sensibilidad. Esta última permite la cuantificación de la rigidez del tejido con altos grados de precisión y desde 2001 se ha aplicado al diagnóstico de tumores sólidos de diversos órganos como mama y tiroides, músculo, entre otros; y desde 2006 se ha empleado para las LSP y ha demostrado su utilidad como complemento a las herramientas diagnósticas disponibles, ya que mejora la precisión de la biopsia por PAF-USE al seleccionar el área más sospechosa para ser puncionada y también guía el manejo clínico cuando la PAF-USE es negativa o no concluyente. Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la elastografía cuantitativa de strain ratio (SR) obtenida por ecoendoscopia en las LSP teniendo como patrón de oro el diagnóstico citopatológico. Métodos: 71 pacientes (rango de edad: 35-89, media: 62,2 años); de estos, 35 mujeres fueron sometidas a USE para la evaluación de LSP. El diseño del estudio fue de corte transversal, prospectivo y de un solo centro. La USE se realizó con un ecoendoscopio Pentax lineal y un procesador Hitachi-Noblus. La lesión (área A) y un área de referencia B se seleccionaron para calcular la relación de deformación (B/A, SR expresada en %). Se tomó como punto de corte SR para definir las lesiones malignas (duras) SR > 22 teniendo en cuenta la evidencia actualmente disponible; estos resultados se compararon con la citopatología de las muestras obtenidas por punción guiada por USE. Después de la aplicación de criterios de exclusión, se realiza el análisis estadístico de 56 pacientes y se considera el valor p < 0,05. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP), valor predictivo negativo (VPN) y precisión diagnóstica comparando la elastografía SR con los diagnósticos finales por citopatología. Resultados: la elastografía cuantitativa SR (%) permite detectar las LSP malignas con sensibilidad del 94,6 % (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95 %: 85,4 %-98,2 %), especificidad del 89,3 % (IC 95 %: 78,5 %-95,0 %), VPP del 89,8 % (IC 95 %: 79,5 %-95,3 %); VPN del 94,3 % (IC 95 %: 84,6 %-98,1 %) y exactitud del 92,0 % (IC 95 %: 85,4 %-95,7 %). Conclusión: la elastografía cuantitativa SR por USE en LSP es un complemento útil que mejora la precisión de la PAF-USE al seleccionar el área más sospechosa para ser puncionada y guiar el manejo clínico cuando la PAF-USE es negativa o no concluyente, ya que tiene una alta sensibilidad y especificad en el diagnóstico de las LSP malignas.


Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration allows performing a diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions with an approximate 85% sensitivity, as referenced in specialized literature, and even lower sensitivity as per local research. To yield better sensitivity and to improve the results, it is required to examine new elements (needles) and techniques like elastography. Elastography helps in the quantification of tissue stiffness with a high level of accuracy. Since 2001, elastography has been applied in diagnosing solid forms of cancer (tumors) that affect organs like breasts, the thyroid, and some muscles. This method which has been used to diagnose solid pancreatic lesions (SPL) since 2006 has proved to be useful as a complementary method to the existing diagnostic techniques. It improves the accuracy of the endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) by selecting the more suspicious area to be punctured, and it also guides the clinical treatment after getting a negative EUS-FNA or a non-conclusive result. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostical performance of the strain ratio (SR) quantitative elastography by ecoendoscopy in solid pancreatic lesions, considering the cytopathologic diagnostic as the gold standard. Methods: 71 patients (age range: 35-89 years old, mean: 62.2 years old); out of those 71 patients, The EUS to diagnose SPL, was performed on 35 women. This was a single-center, prospective cross-sectional study design. The EUS was performed with a Pentax linear endoscope and a Hitachi-Noblus ultrasound. The lesion (area A) and a reference area B were selected to calculate the deformation ratio (B/A, SR expressed as a percentage). SR > 22 was selected as a cut-off point to determine the malignant lesions (solid lesions), considering the evidence currently available. The results were compared with their cytopathology interpretation once that the EUS was performed. After the exclusion criteria was applied, a statistical analysis of 56 patients was performed, considering p < 0,05. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), the negative predictive value (NPV) and the diagnostic accuracy, were calculated, comparing the elastography SR with the final diagnostics with the cytopathology interpretation. Results: Quantitative elastography SR (%) allows to detect the malignant SPL with sensitivity 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.4%-98.2%), specificity of 89.3% (CI 95%: 78,5 %-95,0 %), PPV of 89.8% (CI 95 %: 79,5 %-95,3 %); NPV of 94.3% (IC 95 %: 84,6 %-98,1 %) and an accuracy of 92.0% (CI 95 %: 85,4 %-95,7 %). Conclusion: SR quantitative elastography by Endoscopic Ultrasound, EUS is a suitable complement method that improves the EUS-FNA accuracy, by selecting the most suspicious area to be punctured, and it also guides clinical treatment after getting a negative EUS-FNA or a non-conclusive result, due to its high sensitivity and specificity levels to diagnose malignant SPL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pancreas , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endosonography , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Patients , Research , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration
4.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31414, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-MG | ID: biblio-1354532

ABSTRACT

Paciente apresenta dispepsia, vômitos e dor epigástrica uma semana após EDA com biópsia. Exames revelaram elevação de marcadores inflamatórios e tomografia contrastada do abdome, um espessamento parietal circunferencial do corpo gástrico e da região antropilórica. Nova EDA mostrou lesão na grande curvatura do antro, no local onde foi realizada a biópsia endoscópica, com drenagem de secreção purulenta e enantema, condizente com diagnóstico de abscesso gástrico. Realizados antibioticoterapia e drenagem endoscópica com sinais clínicos de melhora. Terceira EDA evidenciou resolução da lesão. Paciente recebeu alta hospitalar em uso de amoxicilina e clavulanato por 10 dias.O abscesso gástrico é uma rara infecção da submucosa e da muscular própria e sua patogênese envolve foco de injúria à mucosa gástrica por trauma penetrante, disseminação de infecções contíguas, fontes de infecção ou casos idiopáticos. Desconforto epigástrico é o sintoma predominante, associado ou não a náusea, vômitos, febre e calafrios. Alterações laboratoriais incluem leucocitose com desvio à esquerda e elevação de marcadores inflamatórios. A propedêutica é realizada por meio de EDA, TC de abdome e ecoendoscopia. A cultura da drenagem purulenta é útil no diagnóstico e no tratamento, sendo o Streptococcus o patógeno mais comum. Antibioticoterapia, associada à drenagem percutânea ou endoscópica é o pilar do tratamento. Cirurgia está reservada para dúvidas diagnóstica, falha de tratamentos menos invasivos ou peritonite.Devido à raridade dos abscessos gástricos e à ausência de marcadores específicos, o diagnóstico requer um alto grau de suspeição e deve ser confirmado por exames endoscópicos e de imagem. É importante também, incluir essa condição nos diagnósticos diferenciais dos tumores intramurais gástricos.


Patient presents dyspepsia, vomiting and epigastric pain one week after upper digestive endoscopy (UDE) with biopsy. Tests revealed elevation of inflammatory markers and contrasted tomography of the abdomen, a circumferential parietal thickening of the gastric body and the anthropiloric region. New UDE showed lesion in the great curvature of the antrum, where the endoscopic biopsy was performed, with purulent secretion and enanthema, consistent with the diagnosis of gastric abscess. Antibiotic therapy and endoscopic drainage evidenced clinical signs of improvement. Third UDE showed resolution of the lesion. Patient was discharged using amoxicillin and clavulanate for 10 days.Gastric abscess is a rare infection of the submucosa and the muscle layer. The pathogenesis involves a focus of injury to the gastric mucosa by penetrating trauma, dissemination of contiguous infections, sources of infection or idiopathic cases. Epigastric discomfort is the predominant symptom, associated with nausea, vomiting and fever. Laboratory changes include leukocytosis with left shift and elevation of inflammatory markers. Propaedeutics is performed by means of UDE, abdominal CT and echoendoscopy. The culture of purulent drainage is useful in diagnosis and treatment, Streptococcus is the most common pathogen. Antibiotic therapy and percutaneous or endoscopic drainage is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for diagnostic doubts, failure of less invasive treatments or peritonitis.Due to the rarity of gastric abscesses and the absence of specific markers, the diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and must be confirmed by endoscopic and imaging testes. It is also important to include this condition in the differential diagnoses of gastric intramural tumors.


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Abdominal Abscess , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Gastritis , Infections
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(4): e20200584, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: EBUS-TBNA cytological sampling is routinely performed for pathological diagnosis, mediastinal staging, and molecular testing in lung cancer patients. EBUS-TBNA samples are not formally accepted for testing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. The objective of the study was to compare the feasibility, reproducibility, and accuracy of PD-L1 expression assessment in cytological specimens and histological samples. Methods: We prospectively collected histological (transbronchial forceps biopsy) and cytological (EBUS-TBNA) samples from peribronchial neoplastic lesions during an endoscopic procedure at the same target lesion for the pathological diagnosis and molecular assessment of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results: Fifteen patients underwent the procedure. Adequate cytological samples (at least 100 neoplastic cells) were obtained in 12 cases (92.3%). Assessment of PD-L1 expression was similar between histological and cytological samples (agreement rate = 92%). Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA cytological specimens were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: The evaluation of PD-L1 expression in EBUS-TBNA cytological specimens is feasible and presents good reproducibility when compared with routine histological samples. EBUS-TBNA cytological samples could be used for the assessment of PD-L1 expression in patients with NSCLC as a minimally invasive approach in stage IV NSCLC cancer patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: A amostragem citológica por meio de EBUS-TBNA é realizada rotineiramente para diagnóstico anatomopatológico, estadiamento mediastinal e teste molecular em pacientes com câncer de pulmão. As amostras obtidas por meio de EBUS-TBNA não são formalmente aceitas para testar a expressão da proteína programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, ligante de morte celular programada 1). O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a viabilidade, reprodutibilidade e precisão da avaliação da expressão de PD-L1 em espécimes citológicos e amostras histológicas. Métodos: Foram coletadas prospectivamente amostras histológicas (obtidas por meio de biópsia transbrônquica com pinça) e citológicas (obtidas por meio de EBUS-TBNA) de lesões neoplásicas peribrônquicas durante um procedimento endoscópico na mesma lesão-alvo para o diagnóstico anatomopatológico e avaliação molecular de câncer pulmonar de células não pequenas (CPCNP) em estágio IV. Resultados: Quinze pacientes foram submetidos ao procedimento. Amostras citológicas adequadas (pelo menos 100 células neoplásicas) foram obtidas em 12 casos (92,3%). A expressão de PD-L1 nas amostras histológicas e citológicas foi semelhante (taxa de concordância = 92%). A sensibilidade e precisão diagnóstica das amostras citológicas obtidas por meio de EBUS-TBNA foram de 88,9% e 100%, respectivamente. Conclusões: A avaliação da expressão de PD-L1 em espécimes citológicos obtidos por meio de EBUS-TBNA é viável e apresenta boa reprodutibilidade quando comparada com amostras histológicas rotineiras. Amostras citológicas obtidas por meio de EBUS-TBNA podem ser usadas para avaliar a expressão de PD-L1 como uma abordagem minimamente invasiva em pacientes com CPCNP em estágio IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , B7-H1 Antigen , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 173-176, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125061

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de pulmón es la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en todo el mundo. Los nódulos pulmonares ubicados en proximidad al mediastino, retrocardíacos, cercanos a grandes vasos o por delante de la columna vertebral pueden resultar de difícil acceso por vía percutánea o broncoscópica. La punción aspiración/biopsia con aguja fina guiada por ecoendoscopía transesofágica (EUS-FNA/FNB) es un método mini invasivo con baja morbilidad que permitiría acceder a estas localizaciones. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con nódulo pulmonar solitario, en el que se obtuvo el diagnóstico de cáncer de pulmón mediante EUS-FNA/FNB.


Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Pulmonary nodules located in the vicinity of the mediastinum, retrocardiac, near the aorta or pulmonary vessels, and in front of the spine, may be difficult to access through a percutaneous or bronchoscopic approach. Fine needle aspiration/biopsy guided by transesophageal echoendoscopy (EUS-FNA/FNB) is a minimally invasive method with low morbidity that could allow access to lesions in these places. We present the case of a patient with a solitary pulmonary nodule, in which the diagnosis of lung cancer was obtained by EUS-FNA/FNB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Endosonography , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy
7.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 820-824, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878684

ABSTRACT

Rapid on-site evaluation(ROSE),an auxiliary sampling quality evaluation technology,can be used to evaluate the adequacy and diagnostic category of samples,judge the histological type of lung cancer,and optimize the gene type of lung cancer.Applying ROSE to endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of suspected lung cancer can improve the puncture success rate and diagnostic rate and reduce complications and puncture attempts.Rose performed via remote cytopathology technology or by trained respiratory specialists may become the future trends.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoscopy , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
8.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 33(4): e1554, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: It is important to obtain representative histological samples of solid biliopancreatic lesions without a clear indication for resection. The role of new needles in such task is yet to be determined. Aim: To compare performance assessment between 20G double fine needle biopsy (FNB) and conventional 22G fine needle aspiration (FNA) needles for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsy. Methods: This prospective study examined 20 patients who underwent the random puncture of solid pancreatic lesions with both needles and the analysis of tissue samples by a single pathologist. Results: The ProCore 20G FNB needle provided more adequate tissue samples (16 vs. 9, p=0.039) with better cellularity quantitative scores (11 vs. 5, p=0.002) and larger diameter of the histological sample (1.51±1.3 mm vs. 0.94±0.55 mm, p=0.032) than the 22G needle. The technical success, puncture difficulty, and sample bleeding were similar between groups. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 88.9%, 100%, and 90% and 77.8%, 100%, and 78.9% for the 20G and 22G needles, respectively. Conclusions: The samples obtained with the ProCore 20G FNB showed better histological parameters; although there was no difference in the diagnostic performance between the two needles, these findings may improve pathologist performance.


RESUMO Racional: As lesões sólidas pancreáticas não ressecáveis cirurgicamente demandam boa amostragem tecidual para definição histológica e condução oncológica . O papel das novas agulhas de ecopunção no aprimoramento diagnóstico ainda necessita elucidação. Objetivo: Comparar as biópsias guiadas por ecoendoscoopia com a nova agulha 20G de bisel frontal duplo (FNB) com a agulha de aspiração fina 22G convencional. Métodos: Este estudo prospectivo avaliou 20 pacientes submetidos à punção de lesões pancreáticas sólidas com ambas agulhas e envolveu análise de amostras teciduais por um único patologista. Resultados: A agulha FNB 20G forneceu amostras de tecido mais adequadas (16 vs. 9, p=0,039) com melhores escores quantitativos de celularidade (11 vs. 5, p=0,002) e maior diâmetro máximo da amostra histológica (1,51±1,3 mm vs. 0,94±0,55 mm, p=0,032) que a agulha 22G. O sucesso técnico, dificuldade de punção e sangramento da amostra foram semelhantes entre os grupos. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia diagnóstica foram 88,9%, 100% e 90% e 77,8%, 100% e 78,9% para as agulhas 20G e 22G, respectivamente. Conclusão: As amostras obtidas com a FNB 20G apresentaram melhores parâmetros histológicos, embora não tenha havido diferença no desempenho diagnóstico entre as duas agulhas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/standards , Needles/classification , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/instrumentation , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Needles/adverse effects
9.
Clinics ; 75: e1759, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133373

ABSTRACT

The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the available evidence base on endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) combined with either endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) or endoscopic ultrasound using the EBUS scope-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) for diagnosing and staging mediastinal diseases. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched to identify suitable studies up to June 30, 2019. Two investigators independently reviewed articles and extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effect models to calculate diagnostic indices that included sensitivity and specificity. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to summarize the overall test performance. Data pooled from up to 16 eligible studies (including 10 studies of 963 patients about EBUS-TBNA with EUS-FNA and six studies of 815 patients with EUS-B-FNA) indicated that combining EBUS-TBNA with EUS-FNA was associated with slightly better diagnostic accuracy than combining it with EUS-B-FNA, in terms of sensitivity (0.87, 95%CI 0.83 to 0.90 vs. 0.84, 95%CI 0.80 to 0.88), specificity (1.00, 95%CI 0.99 to 1.00 vs. 0.96, 95%CI 0.93 to 0.97), diagnostic odds ratio (413.39, 95%CI 179.99 to 949.48 vs. 256.38, 95%CI 45.48 to 1445.32), and area under the SROC curve (0.99, 95%CI 0.97 to 1.00 vs. 0.97, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.00). The current evidence suggests that the combination of EBUS-TBNA with either EUS-FNA or EUS-B-FNA provides relatively high accuracy for diagnosing mediastinal diseases. The combination with EUS-FNA may be slightly better.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Mediastinum/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134861

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in non-neoplastic patients with isolated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (IL). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with isolated IL referred for EBUS-TBNA. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of granulomatous, reactive, and neoplastic lymphadenopathy. In cases of nonspecific granulomas, reactive lymphadenopathy, or inconclusive results, a definitive diagnosis was established by other diagnostic procedures or during a follow-up period of at least 18 months. Results: Among the 58 patients included in the study, EBUS-TBNA established a diagnosis of granulomatous disease in 22 (38%), reactive lymphadenopathy in 15 (26%), cancer in 8 (14%), and other diseases in 3 (5%). Results were inconclusive in 10 (17%), the diagnosis being established by other bronchoscopic procedures in 2 (20%) and by surgical procedures in 8 (80%). A final diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy was established in 12. Of those, 11 (92%) had their diagnosis confirmed during follow-up and 1 (8%) had their diagnosis confirmed by mediastinoscopy. In another 3, a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis or neoplasm was established. For the diagnosis of granulomatous disease, neoplasms, and reactive lymphadenopathy, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 73%, 68%, and 92%, respectively; a specificity of 100%, 100%, and 93%, respectively; an accuracy of 86%, 93%, and 93%, respectively; a PPV of 100%, 100%, and 80%, respectively; and an NPV of 78%, 92%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: In non-neoplastic patients, granulomatous disease and reactive lymphadenopathy appear to be common causes of isolated IL. EBUS-TBNA shows promising results as a first-line minimally invasive diagnostic procedure. The results obtained by EBUS-TBNA can be optimized by examining clinical and radiological findings during follow-up or by comparison with the results obtained with other bronchoscopic methods.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o rendimento diagnóstico da endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA, aspiração transbrônquica com agulha guiada por ultrassonografia endobrônquica) em pacientes não neoplásicos com linfonodomegalia intratorácica (LI) isolada. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes com LI isolada encaminhados para EBUS-TBNA. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, precisão, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) da EBUS-TBNA no diagnóstico de linfadenopatia granulomatosa, reacional e neoplásica. Em casos de granulomas inespecíficos, linfadenopatia reacional ou resultados inconclusivos, o diagnóstico definitivo foi estabelecido por meio de outros procedimentos diagnósticos ou ao longo de pelo menos 18 meses de acompanhamento. Resultados: Nos 58 pacientes incluídos, a EBUS-TBNA permitiu que se estabelecesse o diagnóstico de doença granulomatosa em 22 (38%), linfadenopatia reacional em 15 (26%), câncer em 8 (14%) e outras doenças em 3 (5%). Os resultados foram inconclusivos em 10 (17%), nos quais o diagnóstico foi feito por meio de outros procedimentos broncoscópicos, em 2 (20%), ou de procedimentos cirúrgicos, em 8 (80%). O diagnóstico final de linfadenopatia reacional foi feito em 12. Destes, 11 (92%) receberam confirmação diagnóstica durante o acompanhamento e 1 (8%), por meio de mediastinoscopia. Em outros 3, o diagnóstico final foi sarcoidose ou neoplasia. Para o diagnóstico de doença granulomatosa, câncer e linfadenopatia reacional, a EBUS-TBNA apresentou sensibilidade de 73%, 68% e 92%, respectivamente; especificidade de 100%, 100% e 93%, respectivamente; precisão de 86%, 93% e 93%, respectivamente; VPP de 100%, 100% e 80%, respectivamente; VPN de 78%, 92% e 98%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Em pacientes não neoplásicos, doenças granulomatosas e linfadenopatia reacional parecem ser causas comuns de LI isolada. A EBUS-TBNA apresenta resultados promissores como procedimento diagnóstico minimamente invasivo de primeira linha. Os resultados obtidos pela EBUS-TBNA podem ser otimizados pelos achados clínicos e radiológicos durante o acompanhamento ou pela comparação com os resultados de outros métodos broncoscópicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Bronchi/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190221, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134920

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Accurate mediastinal staging is mandatory in order to assess prognosis and to select patients for surgical treatment. EBUS-TBNA is a minimally invasive procedure that allows sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs). Some studies have suggested that EBUS-TBNA is preferable to surgical mediastinoscopy for mediastinal staging of LC. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy in terms of their effectiveness for mediastinal LN staging in potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis, in which we searched various databases. We included studies comparing the accuracy of EBUS-TBNA with that of mediastinoscopy for mediastinal LN staging in patients with NSCLC. In the meta-analysis, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios, and negative likelihood ratios. We also analyzed the risk difference for the reported complications associated with each procedure. Results: The search identified 4,201 articles, 5 of which (with a combined total of 532 patients) were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy in terms of the sensitivity (81% vs. 75%), specificity (100% for both), positive likelihood ratio (101.03 vs. 95.70), or negative likelihood ratio (0.21 vs. 0.23). The area under the summary ROC curve was 0.9881 and 0.9895 for EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy, respectively. Although the number of complications was higher for mediastinoscopy, the difference was not significant (risk difference: −0.03; 95% CI: −0.07 to 0.01; I2 = 76%). Conclusions: EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy produced similar results for mediastinal staging of NSCLC. EBUS-TBNA can be the procedure of first choice for LN staging in patients with NSCLC.


RESUMO Objetivo: O câncer de pulmão (CP) é uma das principais causas de morte no mundo. Um estadiamento mediastinal preciso é obrigatório para avaliação do prognóstico e seleção de pacientes para tratamento cirúrgico. EBUS-TBNA é um procedimento minimamente invasivo que permite a amostragem de linfonodos mediastinais. Alguns estudos sugerem que a EBUS-TBNA é preferível que a mediastinoscopia cirúrgica no estadiamento mediastinal do CP. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática e meta-análise foi comparar a eficácia da EBUS-TBNA e da mediastinoscopia no estadiamento linfonodal mediastinal do câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas (CPCNP) potencialmente operável. Métodos: Foram pesquisados diversos bancos de dados. Estudos comparando a precisão da EBUS-TBNA e da mediastinoscopia no estadiamento linfonodal mediastinal em pacientes com CPCNP foram incluídos. Na meta-análise, foram calculadas sensibilidade e especificidade, bem como razões de verossimilhança positiva e negativa. A diferença de risco de complicações relatadas para cada procedimento também foi analisada. Resultados: A pesquisa identificou 4.201 artigos, dos quais 5 foram selecionados para a meta-análise (total combinado de 532 pacientes). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre EBUS-TBNA e mediastinoscopia: sensibilidade (81% vs. 75%), especificidade (100% para ambas), razão de verossimilhança positiva (101,03 vs. 95,70) e razão de verossimilhança negativa (0,21 vs. 0,23). A área sob a curva summary ROC para EBUS-TBNA e para mediastinoscopia foi de 0,9881 e 0,9895, respectivamente. Embora o número de complicações tenha sido maior para mediastinoscopia, não foi encontrada diferença significativa (diferença de risco: −0,03; IC95%: −0,07 to 0,01; I2 = 76%). Conclusões: EBUS-TBNA e mediastinoscopia apresentaram resultados semelhantes no estadiamento mediastinal do CPCNP. EBUS-TBNA pode ser o procedimento de primeira escolha no estadiamento linfonodal em pacientes com CPCNP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/surgery , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(4): 337-344, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092959

ABSTRACT

Resumen La ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE) se usa ampliamente para evaluar enfermedades pancreatobiliares, especialmente masas pancreáticas. La USE tiene una buena capacidad para detectar masas pancreáticas, pero no es suficiente para el diagnóstico diferencial de varios tipos de lesiones. La aspiración endoscópica con aguja fina guiada por ultrasonido (USE-PAF) es el método de diagnóstico de elección para masas pancreáticas y su precisión se afecta por diversos métodos de punción. Materiales y métodos: nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la técnica de succión estándar (TS) versus la técnica húmeda híbrida (TH) en el estudio de lesiones sólidas en páncreas, utilizando un diseño prospectivo, con ocultación única, aleatorizado y controlado, que incluye a pacientes con diagnóstico de lesión sólida en páncreas a los que se realizó USE-PAF desde mayo de 2014 a junio de 2016. Resultados: en total incluimos 65 pacientes, 34 (52,3%) se asignaron a USE-PAF con TH y 31 (47,7%) pacientes a USE-PAF con TS. Se encontró que la frecuencia relativa porcentual respecto a la técnica de punción en la USE-PAF en lesiones sólidas de páncreas, que permite obtener la cantidad de tejido adecuado para el diagnóstico citológico, fue de 85,2% para la TH y 71% para la TS, con un OR de 2,35 (IC 95%; 1,2-4,7) a favor de la TH. Conclusión: este estudio sugiere que la TH es superior a la TS en el diagnóstico de las lesiones sólidas del páncreas, por lo cual, dado que la implementación de esta técnica no aumenta costos y es muy sencilla, sugerimos que sea la técnica de elección cuando se necesita puncionar una lesión sólida.


Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreatobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for differential diagnoses of various types of lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the diagnostic method of choice for pancreatic masses, but its accuracy is affected by various puncture methods. Materials and methods: Our objective was to compare the diagnostic yield of examinations of solid lesions in the pancreas by the standard suction technique (ST) with the yield of the hybrid technique (HT) using a prospective, single blind, randomized, controlled design. Patients diagnosed with solid pancreatic lesions who underwent EUS-FNA from May 2014 to June 2016 were included. Results: We included 65 patients, 34 of whom (52.3%) were assigned to EUS-FNA with HT, and 31 of whom (47.7%) were assigned to EUS-FNA with TS. We found that the relative frequency that HT successfully obtained an adequate amount of tissue for the cytological diagnosis was 85.2% while ST's relative frequency of success was 71%. The odds ratio was 2.35 (95% CI; 1.2-4.7) in favor of HT. Conclusion: This study suggests that the TH is superior to ST for diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions. Since implementation of this technique does not increase costs and is very simple, we suggest that it become the technique of choice for EUS-FNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pancreas , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Methods , Ultrasonics , Endosonography
13.
Rev. cuba. med ; 58(3): e1224, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1139024

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El enfrentamiento diagnóstico de las lesiones sospechosas de cáncer pulmonar ha cambiado en los últimos años. Objetivo: Describir el primer caso diagnosticado en Cuba de carcinoma de pulmón por aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina guiada por ultrasonografía endobronquial. Presentación del caso: Se presenta un caso de carcinoma indiferenciado de células pequeñas. El diagnóstico se obtiene mediante la realización de una citología aspirativa con aguja fina de ganglios mediastinales, transbroncoscópica y guiada por ultrasonido endobronquial. Conclusiones: El uso de EBUS-TBNA es una herramienta con un alto rendimiento diagnóstico, con escasas complicaciones descritas y debe considerarse como una posibilidad en el estudio de lesiones adyacentes a la vía aérea central(AU)


Introduction: The diagnostic confrontation of lesions suspected of lung cancer has changed in recent years. Objective: To describe the first case of lung carcinoma, diagnosed in Cuba by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology. Case report: A case of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma is reported. Diagnosis is obtained by performing a fine needle aspiration cytology of the mediastinal lymph nodes, transbronchoscopic and guided by endobronchial ultrasound. Conclusions: The use of EBUS-TBNA is a tool with high diagnostic yield, with few described complications and should be considered as a possibility in the study of lesions adjacent to the central airway(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cytological Techniques/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 39(2): 183-186, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058513

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is considered a pre-malignant lesion difficult to identify by imaging methods. EUS- FNA is an effective technique to obtain material for histopathological study of pancreatic cystic tumors, but it is not free of adverse events. We report a case of a 56 years old patient, with chronic abdominal pain (early 1994). MRI showed pancreatic cystic images. The etiologic diagnosis was doubtful and EUS-FNA was performed. Immediately after a FNA, patient had an episode of acute pancreatitis, requiring hospitalization. During one year after FNA he had five episodes of AP. A new EUS suspected of PanIN, which was confirmed by surgery. After surgery the patient is well and has no more episodes of AP. Although the risk of AP, EUS-FNA should be performed to determine the best treatment for these patients with chronic abdominal pain who have cystic changes of pancreatic gland.


La neoplasia intraepithelial pancreática (PanIN) es considerada una lesión premaligna con dificultad diagnostica mediante métodos imagenlógicos. La EUS-FNA es una técnica efectiva para obtener material para el estudio histopatológico de tumores quísticos pancreáticos, pero no está libre de efectos adversos. Nosotros reportamos un caso de un paciente de 56 años de edad, con dolor abdominal cronico (desde 1994). En la resonancia abdominal se observó un quiste pancreático. El diagnostico etiológico fue dudoso y EUS-FNA fue realizada, después de la cual el paciente presento un cuadro de pancreatitis, requiriendo hospitalización. Durante el periodo de un año posterior a la FNA, éste presento cinco episodios de pancreatitis aguda. Un nuevo estudio ecoendoscopico dio la sospecha de PanIN, la cual se confirmó con la realización de la cirugía. Después de la cirugía quedo asintomático y sin presentar nuevos episodios de pancreatitis aguda hasta el momento. Aunque exista riego de pancreatitis aguda, la EUS-FNA debe realizarse para determinar el mejor tratamiento para pacientes con dolor abdominal crónico que tienen cambios quísticos de la glándula pancreática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatitis/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/adverse effects , Recurrence , Acute Disease
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 12-15, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the importance of preoperative cytology of thyroid nodules and its relationship with mortality risk, recurrence risk, dynamic stratification, and aggressive characteristics (vascular invasion, aggressive histology, incomplete tumor resection, extrathyroidal extension of the tumor, and presence of lymph node and distant metastases). Subjects and methods: Retrospective evaluation of 153 patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and following up at the Hospital Universitário Presidente Dutra between January 1999 and December 2016. Results: In all, 96% of the patients were female, 79.7% had papillary carcinoma and the most common fine-needle aspiration (FNA) result was Bethesda II (29.4%). The mean age was 43.11 ± 12.8 years. Overall, 85% of the patients progressed without any evidence of disease. There was a statistically significant relationship between the presurgical FNA and the presence of extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: The preoperative cytology of the nodule may have an impact on the follow-up of patients with DTC. Future studies in a larger population are required to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Thyroidectomy , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 137-144, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and novel Visual Prostate Symptom Score (VPSS) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), to correlate scores with uroflowmetry and prostate volume and assess patient perceptions regarding pain prior to, and after prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Patients with LUTS who had an indication for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy were included. Patients completed the IPSS-, VPSS- and prostate biopsy pain assessment questionnaires. Assessment included uroflowmetry, post- void residual volume and prostate volume (measured with TRUS). RESULTS: One hundred men were included. There were statistically significant correlations between the VPSS score and IPSS score (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.802); VPSS and Qmax (r = -0.311); VPSS and. Qave (r = -0.344); prostate volume with VPSS (r = 0.194) and Qmax (r = -0.260). The VPSS was quicker to complete than the IPSS (mean 100 vs. 165 seconds). The mean anticipated pain score before biopsy was 2.8 (range 0-6), and after biopsy (experienced pain) it was 1.8 (range 0-5). The pain during biopsy was less than expected in 67% of patients. CONCLUSION: In men with LUTS scheduled to undergo prostate biopsy, the VPSS score correlated positively with the IPSS score. Men with limited education take less time to complete the VPSS. Patient's perception of expected pain or discomfort during TRUSguided prostate biopsy was significantly higher than the pain actually experienced during biopsy. Men with lower education level had significantly higher expectation of pain prior to biopsy, but similar pain during biopsy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Prostatic Diseases/diagnosis , Pain Perception , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Visual Analog Scale , Middle Aged
17.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 102-110, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760175

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer was the 9th most common cancer in Korea in 2016, and the incidence is on the rise. Despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, 5-year survival rate of pancreatic cancer is about 11.7% in Korea, and its prognosis is very poor compared to other cancers. At present, although complete surgical resection is the most effective treatment, only less than 20% of patients are even candidates for resection because diagnosis is usually delayed. So early detection of pancreatic cancer is one of the main objective in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Among imaging modalities, computed tomography-scan is the most widely available, and the most frequently used. However as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) techniques have evolved and based on the results of researches that EUS is superior to computed tomography-scan in the diagnosis of small pancreatic tumor, the role of EUS in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is attracting attention. Herein, the authors focused on the role of EUS in early pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Incidence , Korea , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Ultrasonography
18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 182-185, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742144

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic metastasis from cervical cancer is extremely rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas from uterine cervical cancer. A 70-year-old woman was referred because of a pancreatic mass detected by CT. She had been diagnosed with uterine cervical adenocarcinoma 20 months previously. After concurrent chemoradiotherapy, CT showed no evidence of the cervical mass, and follow-up showed no evidence of recurrence. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreatic mass resulted in a diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma from uterine cervix.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Cervix Uteri , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreas , Recurrence , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
19.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 137-141, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787196

ABSTRACT

EUS currently plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive diseases. In addition, EUS-guided sampling has been applied to pancreaticobiliary lesions for the accurate diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary lesions. Many new instruments and studies for EUS-guided sampling are being developed and attempted. This review introduces and summarizes the key recommendations made in the recent guideline for EUS-guided sampling developed by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Biliary Tract , Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Pancreas , Ultrasonography
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 223-227, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is well known as an important technique for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. But a standard protocol to deal with patients who have a negative pathology result still needs to be defined. Herein, we describe the subsequent procedures of these patients in a single center.@*METHODS@#A total of 1,412 patients with clinical suspected lung cancer and mediastinal metastasis who underwent EBUS-TBNA were collected between September 2010 and December 2016. Among them, 51 patients with nonspecific pathology result were included and retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The 51 patients were stratified into five groups by clinical characterize and follow-up procedures: (1) Diagnosed by other bronchoscopy procedures group (9 cases). Abnormalities of tracheobronchial tree were found during visual examination in the majority of patients (8 cases). Biopsy, endobronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage, and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) were used to get a specific diagnosis. (2) EBUS-TBNA re-biopsy group (11 cases). Patients in this group had normal mucosal appearance and airway lumen. Re-biopsy were performed on patients in this group. (3) Surgery group (6 cases). Patients underwent surgery after negative result of EBUS-TBNA. Five of them were confirmed with non-nodal metastasis after surgery. (4) Underwent other pathology diagnosis group (15 cases). patients in this group had other metastasis sites besides midiastinal lymph node. Computed tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle aspiration and lymph node biopsy were performed. (5) Follow-up group (10 cases). None invasive procedure was used in this group. The median follow up time was 38 months. One patient was diagnosed lymphoma during the follow up.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Diagnostic procedures should be chosen based on the clinical character in EBUS-TBNA negative patients with suspected lung cancer. Long time follow-up is very important in patients whose diagnosis is apparently unknown.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Lung Neoplasms , Pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mediastinum , Retrospective Studies
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