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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(3): 470-478, 2024-04-24. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554119

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las duplicaciones gástricas son entidades congénitas poco frecuentes que se diagnostican principalmente en las etapas tempranas de la vida, y rara vez en pacientes adultos. El objetivo de este artículo fue presentar el caso de un adulto con esta patología, tratado exitosamente mediante cirugía. Caso clínico. Mujer de 26 años de edad con epigastralgia crónica refractaria a manejo médico, a quien durante endoscopia digestiva superior se le identificó una lesión quística sugestiva de tumor estromal gastrointestinal, confirmada por ultrasonido endoscópico. Resultados. Se realizó una resección quirúrgica laparoscópica asistida por endoscopia, con buena evolución postoperatoria. El estudio anatomo-patológico informó la presencia de un quiste de duplicación gástrica. Conclusiones. A pesar de las ayudas diagnósticas disponibles en la actualidad, esta patología representa un reto diagnóstico importante que, en muchas ocasiones solo puede ser confirmado mediante el estudio anatomo-patológico. En paciente asintomático, continúa la controversia entre observarlo o llevarlo a cirugía, por el riesgo de malignidad. Actualmente, el manejo de las duplicaciones gástricas en adultos se considera eminentemente quirúrgico. Las resecciones laparoscópicas y el uso de endoscopia intraoperatoria permiten garantizar la resección completa de la lesión, preservando la mayor cantidad de tejido sano adyacente y previniendo estenosis o deformidades gástricas que afecten su adecuado funcionamiento.


Introduction. Gastric duplications are rare congenital entities that are diagnosed primarily in early life, and rarely in adult patients. The objective of this article was to present the case of an adult with this pathology, successfully treated by surgery. Clinical case. A 26-year-old woman with chronic epigastralgia refractory to medical management, who during upper digestive endoscopy was identified with a cystic lesion suggestive of gastro-intestinal stromal tumor, confirmed by endoscopic ultrasound. Results. A laparoscopic surgical resection assisted by endoscopy was performed, with good postoperative evolution. The anatomopathological study reported the presence of a gastric duplication cyst. Conclusions. Despite the diagnostic adjuncts currently available, this pathology represents an important diagnostic challenge that, in many cases, can only be confirmed through pathology. In asymptomatic patients, the controversy continues between observing them or taking them to surgery due to the risk of malignancy. Currently, the management of gastric duplications in adults is considered eminently surgical. Laparoscopic resections and the use of intraoperative endoscopy ensure complete resection of the lesion, preserving the greatest amount of adjacent healthy tissue and preventing gastric stenosis or deformities that affect its proper functioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Stomach , Laparoscopy , Endosonography
2.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550844

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hemorragia digestiva alta tiene una elevada morbimortalidad. La endoscopía digestiva alta es el estudio de elección para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Objetivo: Describir la conducta ante la hemorragia digestiva alta. Métodos: Para la revisión bibliográfica se consultaron artículos científicos indexados en idioma español e inglés, relacionados con la hemorragia digestiva, publicados en las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, Medline y Cochrane, pertenecientes a autores dedicados al estudio de este tema. Desarrollo: La hemorragia digestiva alta se clasifica, según la etiología de origen, en variceal y no variceal. La mayoría de los pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta el sangrado se autolimita. La causa más habitual es la úlcera péptica, pero en caso de sangrado masivo la etiología más frecuente es la variceal. El empleo precoz de la terlipresina en los pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta variceal mejora el control del sangrado y disminuye la mortalidad. Se debe hacer uso de escalas validadas de estratificación del riesgo: escala de riesgo de Rockall (tiene como propósito principal predecir la mortalidad y riesgo de resangrado del paciente) y la escala de Glasgow-Blatchford). Conclusiones: Sospechar la presencia de hemorragia digestiva alta, estratificar su riesgo e instaurar el manejo inicial y apropiado constituye una prioridad para el médico de urgencia(AU)


Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding presents high morbidity and mortality. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the study of choice for its diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: For the bibliographic review, the consultation was carried out of scientific articles indexed in Spanish and English, related to gastrointestinal bleeding, published in the databases PubMed, SciELO, Medline and Cochrane, belonging to authors dedicated to the study of this subject. Development: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is classified, according to the etiology of origin, into variceal and nonvariceal. In most patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding the bleeding as such is self-limiting. The most common cause is peptic ulcer; however, in the case of massive bleeding, the most frequent etiology is variceal. Early use of terlipressin in patients with variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding improves bleeding control and decreases mortality. Validated risk stratification scales should be used: Rockall risk scale (its main purpose is to predict patient mortality and risk of bleeding recurrence) and the Glasgow-Blatchford scale. Conclusions: Suspecting the presence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, stratifying its risk, as well as instituting initial and appropriate management, are a priority for the emergency physician(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Terlipressin/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/etiology , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 900, 16 octubre 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524723

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La necrosis esofágica aguda es un síndrome raro que se caracteriza endoscópicamente por una apariencia negra circunferencial irregular o difusa de la mucosa esofágica intratorácica, la afectación es generalmente del esófago distal y la transición abrupta de mucosa normal en la unión gastroesofágica, con extensión proximal variable. CASOS. Se presentan dos casos con diferentes comorbiliades, presentación de signos y síntomas, antecedentes y tratamiento, teniendo en común el diagnóstico a través de endoscopía digestiva alta. RESULTADOS. Caso clínico 1: tratamiento clínico basado en hidratación, suspensión de vía oral, omeprazol intravenoso y sucralfato; mala evolución clínica caracterizada por: disfagia, intolerancia oral y recurrencia del sangrado digestivo alto, se realiza colocación de gastrostomía endoscópica. Caso clínico 2: esófago con mucosa con fibrina y parches de necrosis extensa, se realiza compensación tanto de foco infeccioso pulmonar como hidratación y nutrición, en estudios complementarios se observa masa colónica, con estudio histopatológico confirmatorio de adenocarcinoma de colon en estado avanzado. DISCUSIÓN. La esofagitis necrotizante aguda es una entidad inusual, de baja prevalencia e incidencia, asociada con estados de hipoperfusión sistémica y múltiples comorbilidades que favorezcan un sustrato isquémico. Al revisar los reportes de casos que hay en la literatura médica, los casos que reportamos se correlaciona con las características clínicas, epidemiológicas, endoscópicas y factores de riesgo causales de la enfermedad. La presentación clínica más frecuente es el sangrado digestivo alto, que se debe correlacionar con el hallazgo endoscópico clásico. Nuestro primer caso reportado termina con la colocación de una gastrostomía para poder alimentarse. CONCLUSIÓN. El pronóstico de la necrosis esofágica aguda es malo y se requiere un alto índice de sospecha clínica y conocimiento de esta infrecuente patología para un diagnóstico temprano y un manejo oportuno. Se requiere una evaluación por endoscopia digestiva alta. Es una causa de sangrado gastrointestinal que conlleva tasas altas de mortalidad, principalmente en adultos mayores frágiles. El reconocimiento temprano y la reanimación agresiva son los principios fundamentales para un mejor resultado de la enfermedad.


INTRODUCTION. Acute esophageal necrosis is a rare syndrome that is characterized endoscopically by an irregular or diffuse circumferential black appearance of the intrathoracic esophageal mucosa, the involvement is generally of the distal esophagus and the abrupt transition of normal mucosa at the gastroesophageal junction, with variable proximal extension. CASES. Two cases are presented with different comorbidities, presentation of signs and symptoms, history and treatment, having in common the diagnosis through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. RESULTS. Clinical case 1: clinical treatment based on hydration, oral suspension, intravenous omeprazole and sucralfate; poor clinical evolution characterized by: dysphagia, oral intolerance and recurrence of upper digestive bleeding, endoscopic gastrostomy placement was performed. Clinical case 2: esophagus with mucosa with fibrin and patches of extensive necrosis, compensation of both the pulmonary infectious focus and hydration and nutrition is performed, in complementary studies a colonic mass is observed, with a confirmatory histopathological study of colon adenocarcinoma in an advanced state. DISCUSSION. Acute necrotizing esophagitis is an unusual entity, with low prevalence and incidence, associated with states of systemic hypoperfusion and multiple comorbidities that favor an ischemic substrate. When reviewing the case reports in the medical literature, the cases we report correlate with the clinical, epidemiological, endoscopic characteristics and causal risk factors of the disease. The most common clinical presentation is upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which must be correlated with the classic endoscopic finding. Our first reported case ends with the placement of a gastrostomy to be able to feed. CONCLUSION. The prognosis of acute esophageal necrosis is poor and a high index of clinical suspicion and knowledge of this rare pathology is required for early diagnosis and timely management. Evaluation by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is required. It is a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding that carries high mortality rates, mainly in frail older adults. Early recognition and aggressive resuscitation are the fundamental principles for a better outcome of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Gastrostomy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal Diseases , Gastroenterology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Necrosis , Pathology , Omeprazole , Sucralfate , Deglutition Disorders , Mortality , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Ecuador , Esophageal Mucosa
4.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(111): 49-53, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427113

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) es una neoplasia maligna angioproliferativa de bajo grado, causada por la infección por virus herpes humano tipo 8 (HHV-8). El tracto gastrointestinal está involucrado en el 40% de los casos y constituye la neoplasia maligna gastrointestinal más común en pacientes con sida. Se presenta el caso de un paciente 32 años con antecedente de VIH de larga data, sin tratamiento, que relató episodios de proctorragia intermitente y pérdida de peso en los últimos dos meses. Presentaba lesiones cutáneas elevadas en forma de placas violáceas que predominaban en tronco y miembros superiores. Se realizó videocolonoscopía, la que evidenció en el área próxima a la válvula ileocecal y en el colon ascendente, lesiones sobreelevadas, eritematosas, friables y sangrantes, las cuales se biopsiaron. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó un perfil inmunohistoquímico compatible con SK. Al momento de la escritura de este artículo el paciente se encontraba bajo tratamiento quimioterápico (doxorrubicina liposomal, seis ciclos) e iniciando tratamiento antirretroviral (lamivudina ­ tenofovir ­ dolutegravir). Se presenta el siguiente caso para destacar la importancia del enfoque multidisciplinario del paciente con VIH/sida y fundamentalmente el rol de la endoscopía digestiva tanto alta como baja en pacientes con dolor abdominal, sangrado digestivo u otros síntomas abdominales, con el fin de descartar patologías del tracto gastrointestinal y, particularmente, el SK


Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade angioproliferative malignancy caused by infection with human herpes virus -8. The gastrointestinal tract is involved in 40% of cases, being the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in patients with AIDS. We present the case of a 32-year-old patient with a long-standing history of HIV without treatment, who reported episodes of intermittent proctorrhagia and weight loss in the last two months. He presented raised skin lesions in the form of violaceous plaques that predominate on the trunk and upper limbs. A videocolonoscopy was performed, revealing raised, erythematous, friable, bleeding lesions near the ileocecal valve and in the ascending colon, which were biopsied. The anatomopathological study shows an immunohistochemical profile compatible with KS. At the time of writing this article, the patient was under chemotherapy treatment (liposomal doxorubicin, 6 cycles) and starting antiretroviral treatment (lamivudine - tenofovir - dolutegravir). The following case is presented to highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary approach of the patient with HIV / AIDS and fundamentally the role of both upper and lower digestive endoscopy in those cases that present with abdominal pain, digestive bleeding and other abdominal symptoms, in order to rule out gastrointestinal tract pathologies and particularly KS


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , HIV/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 259-267, 20230303. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425198

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las fístulas derivadas de enfermedades neoplásicas del tracto digestivo, así como las fugas posteriores a procedimientos quirúrgicos, no son infrecuentes y ocasionan una morbilidad importante cuando se manejan de forma quirúrgica. También durante los procedimientos endoscópicos se pueden presentar perforaciones y, si se logra un manejo no operatorio, se alcanza una adecuada recuperación. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características clínicas y los resultados de los pacientes con perforaciones, fístulas y fugas del tracto gastrointestinal, manejadas endoscópicamente con clip sobre el endoscopio. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de pacientes con perforación, fuga o fístula postoperatoria, llevados a endoscopía digestiva con colocación de clip sobre el endoscopio, en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología en Bogotá, D.C., Colombia, entre enero de 2016 y abril de 2020. Resultados. Se incluyeron 21 pacientes, 52,4 % de ellos mujeres. La mediana de edad fue de 66 años y del diámetro del defecto fue de 9 mm. En el 95 % se logró éxito técnico. Hubo éxito clínico temprano en el 85,7 % de los casos. El 76,1 % de los pacientes permanecieron sin síntomas a los 3 meses de seguimiento. Conclusiones. El manejo de perforaciones, fugas y fístulas con clip sobre el endoscopio parece ser factible y seguro. En la mayoría de estos pacientes se logró la liberación del clip y la identificación endoscópica del cierre inmediatamente después del procedimiento; sin embargo, en el caso de las fístulas, no se alcanzó el éxito clínico tardío en todos los casos


Introduction. Fistula of the digestive tract derived from neoplastic diseases as well as leaks following surgical procedures are not uncommon and usually cause significant morbidity when are managed surgically. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures may present perforations during their performance; if they are managed non-operatively, an adequate recovery is obtained. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and the short- and long-term outcomes of patients with perforations, fistulas and leaks of the gastrointestinal tract managed endoscopically with over the scope clip (OTSC). Methods. Descriptive, retrospective study of patients brought to digestive endoscopy with OTSC placement with diagnosis of postoperative perforation, leak or fistula at the National Cancer Institute in Bogota, Colombia, between January 2016 and April 2020. Results. Twenty-one patients were taken for OTSC application for the management of perforations, leaks and fistulas of the gastrointestinal tract, 52.4% of them were women. The median age was 66 years. The median diameter of the defect was 9 mm. Technical success was achieved in 95%. Early clinical success was described in 85.7% of the cases; 76.1% of patients remained symptom-free at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions. Management of perforations, leaks and fistulas with OTSC appears to be feasible and safe. In most of these patients, clip release and endoscopic identification of closure was achieved immediately after management; however, in the case of fistulas, late clinical success was not achieved in all cases


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Intestinal Fistula , Intestinal Perforation , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Anastomotic Leak
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 541-545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981991

ABSTRACT

Endoscopy is a common tool for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in children. The presence of bubbles in the gastrointestinal tract is one of the important factors affecting the clarity of endoscopic visual field, and the application of defoamers can significantly reduce bubbles in the gastrointestinal tract, improve the quality of gastrointestinal preparation, and further increase disease detection rate. Various studies have been conducted on gastrointestinal preparation before endoscopy in children, but there still lacks a uniform protocol for the application of defoamers. This article summarizes the use of defoamers in children before digestive endoscopy and related research advances and points out that existing studies on defoamers have a small sample size and that there are still controversies over the selection and timing of administration, so as to provide a reference for in-depth research on defoamers in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis
7.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 427-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985942

ABSTRACT

Objective: By investigating the correlation between quantitative parameters of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and commonly used activity assessment indicators of Crohn's disease (CD), and comparing the predictive power of laboratory inflammatory indicators with CEUS on Crohn's disease (CD), the significance of CEUS was evaluated. Methods: A case-control study. From October 2019 to December 2021, the clinical data of 67 patients with CD who were diagnosed by endoscopy and underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed in the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, and their routine ultrasound and CEUS parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fecal calprotectin (FC), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and simplified endoscopic score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD) were collected. Using SES-CD as the standard, the patients were divided into a remission group and an active group, and the correlation of laboratory inflammatory indexes and contrast-enhanced ultrasound parameters with CDAI and SES-CD were evaluated. Besides, the ROC curve was used to analyze the predictive efficacy of each index on CD endoscopic activity. Results: A total of 67 patients were included in this study. According to the SES-CD score, there were 17 patients in the remission group and 50 patients in the active group. Except for the coefficient of the enhancement wash in slope and time to peak (TTP), the peak intensity (PI), area under the angiography curve, and laboratory inflammatory indexes were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05), which also showed a moderate positive correlation with CDAI and SES-CD (P<0.05). ROC analysis showed that among the non-invasive indicators, PI and area under the angiography curve had the highest AUCs for predicting CD endoscopic activity, which were 0.912 and 0.891, respectively; with SES-CD taking >3 as the cut-off value, the corresponding sensitivities were 78.0% and 72.0%, with specificities of 100.0% and 94.1%, respectively. Conclusion: CEUS can objectively and repeatedly evaluate the disease activity of CD patients, and has great clinical application value, which can be used as a reliable imaging method for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 859-867, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Gastrointestinal endoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The satisfaction degree of gastrointestinal endoscopy can directly affect the patient's compliance and further impact the treating effect. At present, there is no scale to evaluate the satisfaction degree of gastrointestinal endoscopy in China. This study aims to develop a satisfaction scale of gastrointestinal endoscopy suitable for national conditions and to evaluate its reliability and validity, which provides a tool for clinic to evaluate patients' satisfaction with gastrointestinal endoscopy.@*METHODS@#The original gastrointestinal endoscopy satisfaction scale was compiled by literature review, consulting senior endoscopists and experts. Through the first round of survey about 120 patients, the original scale was analyzed and modified according to the results to get the gastrointestinal endoscopy satisfaction scale (formal scale). The formal scale was used to conduct the second round of survey about 200 patients. The reliability and validity of the scale were analyzed and evaluated according to the survey results.@*RESULTS@#The reliability of the original scale was good but the validity was poor. The formal scale had 2 dimensions and 10 items, the Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability were 0.889 and 0.823. The structure validity index χ2/df was 2.513, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.094, goodness of fit index (GFI) was 0.914, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) was 0.861, comparative fit index (CFI) was 0.946, normed fit index (NFI) was 0.915. The aggregate validity was general, the discriminative validity was good, and the direct score of patients was strongly correlated with the total score of the scale.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The gastrointestinal endoscopy satisfaction scale has good reliability and validity, which can be used as a tool to evaluate patients' satisfaction with gastrointestinal endoscopy in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reproducibility of Results , China , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Patient Compliance , Personal Satisfaction
9.
Cir. Urug ; 7(1): e305, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1505951

ABSTRACT

La esofagitis necrotizante aguda es un trastorno poco común que puede ser causa de hemorragia digestiva alta. Predomina en el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida. El diagnóstico es endoscópico y muestra una mucosa esofágica de apariencia negra que afecta al esófago distal en toda su circunferencia y se detiene abruptamente en la unión gastroesofágica. Clínicamente suele presentarse con hematemesis y melenas, shock hipovolémico por sangrado masivo, siendo otras manifestaciones el dolor epigástrico, molestia retroesternal y disfagia. Se vincula a pacientes con antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular, alcoholismo, diabetes mellitus, desnutrición, hernia hiatal, estenosis gastroduodenal, cáncer, así como pacientes en shock, traumatizados, sometidos a cirugía mayor e inmunosuprimidos. El tratamiento se basa en fluidoterapia, inhibidores de la bomba de protones y suspensión de la vía oral, siendo controvertido el uso de antibioticoterapia. Su pronóstico es malo y dependerá de la gravedad de la enfermedad esofágica y del terreno del paciente, con una mortalidad de hasta el 36 %. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 81 años, hipertenso, que presenta hematemesis, confirmándose en la endoscopía una esofagitis necrotizante aguda, que evoluciona favorablemente con tratamiento médico.


Acute necrotizing esophagitis is a rare disorder that can cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It predominates in males in the sixth decade of life. The diagnosis is endoscopic and shows a black-appearing esophageal mucosa that affects the entire circumference of the distal esophagus and stops abruptly at the gastroesophageal junction. Usually, patients present with hematemesis and melena, with other manifestations such as epigastric pain, retrosternal discomfort, dysphagia, and hypovolemic shock. Almost all patients reported comorbidities: cardiovascular disease, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, hiatal hernia, gastroduodenal stenosis, and malignant neoplasia; is related as well to patients with shock, trauma, undergoing major surgery, and immunosuppression. The treatment is based on fluid reposition, proton pump inhibitors and suspension of the oral route, the use of antibiotic therapy being controversial. Its prognosis is poor and will depend on the severity of the esophageal disease and the patient comorbidities, with a mortality rate up to 36 %. Case: A 81-year-old male patient with hypertension, who presented hematemesis, confirmed by endoscopy as acute necrotizing esophagitis, whose evolution was favorable with medical treatment.


A esofagite necrosante aguda é uma doença rara que pode causar hemorragia digestiva alta. Predomina no sexo masculino na sexta década de vida. O diagnóstico é endoscópico e mostra uma mucosa esofágica circunferencial difusa com aspecto preto que envolve quase universalmente o esôfago distal e para abruptamente na junção gastroesofágica. Clinicamente, geralmente se apresenta com hematêmese e melena, com outras manifestações sendo dor epigástrica, desconforto retroesternal, disfagia e choque hipovolêmico. Está relacionado a pacientes com histórico de doenças cardiovasculares, alcoolismo, diabetes mellitus, desnutrição, hérnia hiatal, estenose gastroduodenal e neoplasia maligna, bem como pacientes em choque, trauma, cirurgia de grande porte e imunossupressão. O tratamento é a medicação dietética higiênica baseada em fluidoterapia, inibidores da bomba de prótons e suspensão da via oral, sendo o uso de antibioticoterapia controverso. Seu prognóstico é ruim e dependerá da gravidade da doença esofágica e do terreno do paciente, com mortalidade de até 36 %. Apresentamos o caso clínico de um paciente hipertenso de 81 anos que apresentou hematêmese, confirmada por endoscopia como esofagite necrosante aguda, que evoluiu favoravelmente com tratamento higiênico-dietético e medicamentoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Esophagitis/drug therapy , Esophagitis/diagnostic imaging , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Fluid Therapy , Hematemesis/etiology , Acute Disease , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Treatment Outcome , Esophagitis/complications , Octogenarians , Necrosis/etiology
10.
Cir. Urug ; 6(1): e304, jul. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1404117

ABSTRACT

La fístula gástrica aguda es una de las principales complicaciones vinculadas a la gastrectomía vertical laparoscópica (GVL). Existen múltiples opciones terapéuticas para su resolución, siendo el tratamiento endoscópico mediante colocación de clips o stents uno de los más importantes. La aplicabilidad de cada método va a depender del tipo de fístula y del estado del paciente. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 35 años, que desarrolla una fístula aguda posterior a una GVL. Se realiza tratamiento endoscópico con colocaciónn del sistema "over-the-scope clip" (Ovesco®) a nivel del orificio fistuloso, con posterior colocaciónn de stent metálico auto expandible.


Acute gastric fistula is one of the main complications associated with laparoscopic vertical gastrectomy (LVG). There are multiple therapeutic options for its resolution, being endoscopic treatment by placing clips or stents one of the most important. The applicability of each method will depend on the type of fistula and the patient's condition. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who developed an acute fistula after LGV. Endoscopic treatment is performed with placement of the over-the-scope clip system (Ovesco®) at the level of the fistulous orifice, with subsequent placement of a self-expanding metal stent.


A fístula gástrica aguda é uma das principais complicações associadas à gastrectomia vertical laparoscópica (GVL). Existem múltiplas opções terapêuticas para a sua resolução, sendo o tratamento endoscópico com colocação de clipes ou stents uma das mais importantes. A aplicabilidade de cada método dependerá do tipo de fístula e do estado do paciente. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 35 anos que apresentou uma fístula aguda após GVL. O tratamento endoscópico foi realizado com a colocação do sistema de clipe over-the-scope (Ovesco®) no nível do orifício fistuloso, com posterior colocação de stent metálico autoexpansível.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastric Fistula/surgery , Laparoscopy , Anastomotic Leak/surgery , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Gastric Fistula/etiology , Gastric Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Gastrectomy/adverse effects
11.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 38(2): e1724, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408704

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de estómago representa la segunda causa de muerte relacionada con neoplasias en el mundo, es responsable del 8 al 10 por ciento de todas las muertes por cáncer. A pesar de un marcado descenso en su incidencia, constituye una de las principales causas de muerte por cáncer en Cuba y el mundo. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento clínico epidemiológico en los pacientes con cáncer gástrico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal de los pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico que acudieron a consulta en el Hospital Universitario General Calixto García, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2018. El universo estuvo constituido por 146 pacientes. Los datos fueron obtenidos de las historias clínicas y procesados mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: De los pacientes estudiados, 67,6 por ciento pertenecían al sexo masculino y tenían entre 60 y 79 años; 51,7 por ciento presentó como factor de riesgo el hábito de fumar. Un total de 124 pacientes padecieron de dolor abdominal. El 100 por ciento de los exámenes complementarios realizados fueron endoscopia y biopsia. Se observó el adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado en un total de 80 pacientes. Al 100 por ciento se le realizó tratamiento quirúrgico. La técnica quirúrgica más empleada fue la gastrectomía subtotal. Conclusiones: Las edades avanzadas de la vida, los antecedentes de úlcera gástrica, el tabaquismo y el alcoholismo son factores epidemiológicos característicos de la población de enfermos aquejados de cáncer gástrico. Los elementos clínicos identificados fueron los habitualmente descritos en la literatura médica. La cirugía en la actualidad es la única modalidad con potencial curativo(AU)


Introduction: Stomach cancer accounts for the second cause of death related to neoplasms worldwide; it is responsible for 8 percent to 10 percent of all cancer deaths. In spite of a marked decrease in its incidence, it constitutes one of the main causes of cancer death in Cuba and worldwide. Objective: To describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of patients with gastric cancer. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with patients with a diagnosis of gastric cancer who attended consultation at Calixto García General University Hospital in the period from January 2014 to December 2018. The universe consisted of 146 patients. The data were obtained from medical records and processed by descriptive statistics. Results: Of the patients studied, 67.6 percent were male and aged 60-79 years. 51.7 percent presented smoking as a risk factor. A total of 124 patients suffered from abdominal pain. 100 percent of the complementary examinations performed were endoscopy and biopsy. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed in a total of 80 patients. The surgical treatment was performed in 100 percent. The most commonly used surgical technique was subtotal gastrectomy. Conclusions: The research suggests that, currently, early diagnosis and surgery is the only modality with curative potential, being able to raise the quality of life, as well as to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
12.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 225-232, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394954

ABSTRACT

Abstract Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication after stem cell transplantation. The digestive tract is affected in many patients who suffer from it, with consequences that can be fatal. The proper approach, which includes endoscopic studies, allows ruling out differential diagnoses and managing the disease early.


Resumen La enfermedad de injerto contra huésped es una complicación frecuente después del trasplante de células madre. El tracto digestivo se afecta en una gran proporción de los pacientes que la sufren, con consecuencias que pueden llegar a ser fatales. El abordaje adecuado, que incluye el uso de estudios endoscópicos, permite descartar diagnósticos diferenciales y brindar un manejo temprano de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/diagnosis , Biopsy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Diagnosis, Differential , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Graft vs Host Disease/pathology , Intestines/pathology
14.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 67-74, mar. 2022. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362702

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia del tracto digestivo superior (HTDS) es el sangrado originado por encima del ángulo de Treitz. A pesar del aumento en las estrategias de prevención, del incremento en los tratamientos con Inhibidor de bomba de protones (IBP) y de la intervención endoscópica temprana, esta patología sigue siendo una causa frecuente de consulta a urgencias, con una morbimortalidad no despreciable y alta carga para el sistema de salud. Esta revisión se enfoca en la HTDS de causa diferente a las varices. La principal causante de esta entidad es la enfermedad ácido-péptica, que es consecuencia del gran consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) y de la infección por Helicobacter Pylori. Otras causas son el síndrome de Mallory Weiss, la esofagitis erosiva, las malformaciones arteriovenosas y la malignidad.


Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) refers to any bleeding originating above the angle of Treitz. Despite an increase in prevention strategies, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and early endoscopic intervention, this pathology continues to be an important cause of admission to the emergency department for gastrointestinal causes, having a pretty high morbidity and mortality in addition to a high burden on the health system. This review focuses on non-variceal UGIB. The main cause of this entity being peptic acid disease, due to great consumption of NSAIDs and Helicobacter Pylori infection. Other causes are Mallory Weiss syndrome, erosive esophagitis, arteriovenous malformations, and malignancy.


A hemorragia do trato digestivo superior (HTDS) é o sangrado originado acima do ângulo de Treitz. Apesar do aumento nas estratégias de prevenção, do incremento nos tratamentos com Inibidor da bomba de prótons (IBP) e da intervenção endoscópica precoce, esta patologia segue sendo uma causa frequente de consulta a urgências, com uma morbimortalidade não depreciável e alta carga para o sistema de saúde. Esta revisão se enfoca na HTDS de causa diferente às varizes. A principal causante desta entidade é a doença ácido-péptica, que é consequência do grande consumo de anti-inflamatórios não esteróideos (AINES) e da infecção por HelicobacterPylori. Outras causas são a síndrome de Mallory Weiss, a esofagites erosiva, as malformações arteriovenosas e a malignidade. Palavras-chave: hemorragia gastrointestinal; úlcera péptica; endoscopia gastrointestinal; inibidores da bomba de prótons; medicina geral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Helicobacter pylori , Gastrointestinal Tract , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagitis , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Mallory-Weiss Syndrome , Neoplasms
15.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-10, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372970

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a incidência de eventos adversos relacionados aos procedimentos endoscópicos gastrointestinais. Método: Estudo de casos múltiplos em serviços ambulatoriais de endoscopia gastrointestinal Tipo III, na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, analisando: Núcleos de Segurança do Paciente; eventos adversos e descontaminação dos endoscópicos. Resultados: Participaram 28,5% dos serviços ambulatoriais de endoscopia gastrointestinal da cidade estudada. Existem Núcleos de Segurança do Paciente, que atuam segundo Planos de Segurança do Paciente, mas sem profissional com dedicação exclusiva. Apenas um serviço monitora pacientes após a endoscopia, fato que dificulta a identificação dos efeitos adversos após procedimentos nessas organizações. Existem protocolos básicos de segurança do paciente na maioria dos serviços. A incidência total de efeitos adversos é 0,3%; e 0,8% para a endoscopia digestiva alta e colonoscopias. Bacteremias, dor abdominal, sangramento e perfuração intestinal são os danos mais frequentes. Todos os ser-viços possuem boa estrutura organofuncional para a realização dos processos de limpeza e desinfecção dos endoscópios. Conclusão: Os serviços pos-suem Núcleos de Segurança do Paciente, e implementam protocolos de segurança recomendados. Os efeitos adversos identificados estão em consonân-cia com a literatura; entretanto, esses dados podem estar subnotificados, uma vez que esses serviços não dispõem de um sistema ativo de vigilância de eventos adversos após exames endoscópicos.


Objective: To analyze the incidence of adverse events related to gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Method: Multiple case study in Type III gastrointestinal endoscopy outpatient services, in the city of Salvador, Bahia, analyzing: Patient Safety Centers (Núcleos de Segurança do Paciente ­ NSP); adverse events and endoscopic decontamination. Results: 28.5% of the gastrointestinal endoscopy outpatient services in the city participated in the study. There are NSPs, which work according to Patient Safety Plans, but without a dedicated professional. Only one service monitors patients after endoscopy, which makes it difficult to identify adverse effects after procedures in these organizations. Basic patient safety protocols exist in most services. The total incidence of adverse effects is 0.3%; and 0.8% for upper digestive endoscopy and colonoscopies. Bacteremia, abdominal pain, bleeding, and intestinal per-foration are the most frequent damages. All services have a good organofunctional structure for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopes. Conclusion: The services have NSPs and implement recommended safety protocols. The adverse effects identified are in line with the literature; however, these data may be underreported, since these services do not have an active surveillance system for adverse events after endoscopic examinations.


Objetivo: Analizar la incidencia de eventos adversos (EA) relacionados con los procedimientos endoscópicos gastrointestinales. Método: Estudio de casos múltiples en servicios ambulatorios de endoscopia digestiva tipo III (SAEG), en Salvador, BA, analizando: Centros de Seguridad del Paciente (CSP); eventos adversos y descontaminación endoscópica. Resultados: Participó el 28,5% de la SAEG. Hay CSP, que funcionan según Planes de Seguridad del Paciente, pero sin un profesional con dedicación exclusiva. Solo un servicio monitorea a los pacientes después de la endoscopia, hecho que dificulta la identificación de EA después de los procedimientos en estas organizaciones. En la mayoría de los servicios existen protocolos básicos de seguridad del paciente. La incidencia total de EA es del 0,3% y del 0,8% para endoscopias digestivas altas y colonoscopias. La bacteriemia, el dolor abdominal, el san-grado y la perforación intestinal son los daños más frecuentes. Todos los servicios cuentan con una buena estructura órgano-funcional para la limpieza y desinfección de endoscopios. Conclusión: Los servicios cuentan con CSP e implementan los protocolos de seguridad recomendados. Los EA identifica-dos están en línea con la literatura, sin embargo, estos datos pueden estar subreportados, ya que estos servicios no cuentan con un sistema de vigilancia activa de eventos adversos después de los exámenes endoscópicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Security Measures , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Patient Safety , Decontamination , Ambulatory Care , Household Work
16.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32403, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391278

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cirurgia bariátrica é atualmente o tratamento indicado para a obesidade mórbida e a técnica do bypass gástrico em Y de Roux (BGYR) largamente utilizada em todo o mundo, mesmo para pacientes superobesos. No Brasil, o BGYR é a técnica de escolha da maioria dos cirurgiões bariátricos. As deiscências de anastomose ou da linha de grampeamento estão entre as complicações cirúrgicas mais temidas. Relato de Caso: Paciente com fístula da anastomose gastrojejunal após bypass gástrico em Y de Roux comunicando com a ferida operatória, foi tratado com sucesso com tratamento endoscópico conservador. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente foi submetido à endoscopia digestiva alta em ambiente de centro cirúrgico com passagem de sonda nasoenteral. Onze dias após, foi realizada uma segunda endoscopia com dilatação da anastomose gastrojejunal com vela de Savary-Gillard. A fístula fechou em 21 contando da data de seu diagnóstico. Conclusão: A partir desse relato, conclui-se que a abordagem conservadora de fístulas pós-BGYR em pacientes estáveis com auxílio endoscópico para o posicionamento da sonda nasoenteral e dilatação com vela pode reservar bons resultados terapêuticos para a condução dessa complicação e evitar intervenções cirúrgicas mais complexas.


Introduction: Bariatric surgery is currently the indicated treatment for morbid obesity and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) technique is widely used worldwide, even for super obese patients. In Brazil, RYGB is the most chosen technique of bariatric surgeons. Although, anastomosis or stapling line dehiscences are one of the most feared surgical complications. Case Report: A patient with gastrojejunal anastomosis fistula after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass communicating with the surgical wound was successfully treated with conservative endoscopic treatment. After diagnosis, the patient underwent upper digestive endoscopy in operating room with introduction of a nasoenteral tube. Eleven days later, a second endoscopy was performed with dilation of the gastrojejunal anastomosis with a Savary-Gilliard bougie. The fistula closed at the day 21 counting from the date of his diagnosis. Conclusion: From this report, it's concluded that the conservative approach of post-RYGB fistulas in stable patients with endoscopic aid for positioning the nasoenteral tube and dilation with a bougie can reserve good therapeutic results for the management of this complication and avoid more surgical interventions complex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Obesity, Morbid , Gastric Bypass , Anastomotic Leak , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Bariatric Surgery , Conservative Treatment
17.
In. Graña, Andrea; Calvelo, Estela; Fagúndez, Yohana. Abordaje integral del paciente con cáncer: atención desde la medicina y especialidades. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2022. p.375-383, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1418068
18.
Ibom Medical Journal15 ; 15(3): 209-214, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398625

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Dyspepsia is one of the most common complaints encountered in the general outpatient and gastroenterology clinics in Nigeria. Histopathological assessment of endoscopic gastric mucosa biopsy is crucial to delineate the exact cause of dyspepsia to guide patients' management. This study aimed to determine and document the histopathological basis of dyspepsia among dyspeptic patients at our facility. Material sand Methods: This was a three year descriptive retrospective study and the materials consisted of all gastric endoscopic biopsies taken from clinically diagnosed dyspeptic patients sent to the Department of Histopathology of the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria. Results: The biopsies were from 64 (53.2%) male patients and 56 (46.8%) female patients, giving a male to female ratio of 1.14:1. The age range of the patients was 28-82 years with a mean of 56 years at presentation. Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) bacilli were identified in the samples of 42 (35%) patients but absent in samples of 78 (65%) patients. The histopathological pattern of the aetiological basis of dyspepsia in this study consisted of gastritis (96, 80%), functional (17, 14.2%), adenocarcinoma (4, 3.3%) and polyps (3, 2.5%). H. Pylori bacilli were seen only in patients with gastritis (42/96, 43.8%), and it affected 19 (45.2%) male patients and 23 (54.8%) female patients. Chronic active H. Pylori associated gastritis (24, 25%) was the most common form of gastritis seen during the study period. Conclusion: The main organic cause of dyspepsia in our setting was chronic gastric followed in the distant by gastric adenocarcinoma and polyp. Dyspepsia and H. Pylori associated gastritis did not show a significant gender predilection


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Dyspepsia , Biopsy , Adenocarcinoma
19.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 24-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927437

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#In Singapore, non-anaesthesiologists generally administer sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. The drugs used for sedation in hospital endoscopy centres now include propofol in addition to benzodiazepines and opiates. The requirements for peri-procedural monitoring and discharge protocols have also evolved. There is a need to develop an evidence-based clinical guideline on the safe and effective use of sedation by non-anaesthesiologists during gastrointestinal endoscopy in the hospital setting.@*METHODS@#The Academy of Medicine, Singapore appointed an expert workgroup comprising 18 gastroenterologists, general surgeons and anaesthesiologists to develop guidelines on the use of sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy. The workgroup formulated clinical questions related to different aspects of endoscopic sedation, conducted a relevant literature search, adopted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology and developed recommendations by consensus using a modified Delphi process.@*RESULTS@#The workgroup made 16 recommendations encompassing 7 areas: (1) purpose of sedation, benefits and disadvantages of sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy; (2) pre-procedural assessment, preparation and consent taking for sedation; (3) Efficacy and safety of drugs used in sedation; (4) the role of anaesthesiologist administered sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy; (5) performance of sedation; (6) post-sedation care and discharge after sedation; and (7) training in sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy for non-anaesthesiologists.@*CONCLUSION@#These recommendations serve to guide clinical practice during sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy by non-anaesthesiologists in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Conscious Sedation , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Hospitals , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Singapore
20.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 372-376, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical manifestations and gastroscopic characteristics of upper gastrointestinal ulcer in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the children who underwent gastroscopy and were found to have upper gastrointestinal ulcer for the first time at the Endoscopy Center of Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, from January 2011 to May 2021. According to the cause of the disease, they were divided into primary ulcer group (primary group; n=148) and secondary ulcer group (secondary group; n=25). The clinical data were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 173 children with upper gastrointestinal ulcer were enrolled, with a male/female ratio of 3.9:1. Compared with girls, boys had significantly higher proportions of duodenal ulcer and primary ulcer (P<0.05). Compared with the children aged below 6 years, the children aged 6-14 years had higher proportions of duodenal ulcer and primary ulcer and lower proportions of giant ulcer and multiple ulcers. Of the 148 children in the primary group, 95 (64.2%) had Helicobacter pylori infection. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptom and was observed in 101 children (68.2%). Duodenal ulcer was common and was observed in 115 children (77.7%), followed by gastric ulcer in 25 children (16.9%) and esophageal ulcer in 7 children (4.7%). Multiple ulcers were observed in 32 children (21.6%). Seventy children (47.3%) experienced complications, among which bleeding was the most common complication and was observed in 63 children (43.6%). Of the 25 children in the secondary group, abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptom and was observed in 9 children (36.0%), with a significantly lower incidence rate than the primary group (P<0.05); foreign body in the digestive tract was the most common cause of ulcer and was observed in 17 children (68%), followed by abdominal Henoch-Schönlein purpura in 5 children (20.0%) and Crohn's disease in 3 children (12.0%). The secondary group had a significantly higher proportion of multiple ulcer or giant ulcer than the primary group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Upper gastrointestinal ulcer is more common in boys than girls, and duodenal ulcer and primary ulcer are more common in boys. Children aged 6-14 years often have duodenal ulcer and primary ulcer, and giant ulcer and multiple ulcers are relatively uncommon. Primary ulcer in children has a variety of clinical manifestations, mainly abdominal pain, and duodenal ulcer is relatively common, with bleeding as the main complication. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic manifestations of secondary ulcer are closely associated with the primary causes, and it is more likely to induce huge ulcers and multiple ulcers.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Duodenal Ulcer/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori , Retrospective Studies , Ulcer
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