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1.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(4): 308-315, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042620

ABSTRACT

La adaptación al medio extrauterino incluye un aumento considerable de la PaO2, que induce especialmente cambios estructurales y vasoactivos en la circulación pulmonar, que llevarán a una circulación previamente pobremente irrigada, a recibir ∼100% del gasto cardíaco del recién nacido, permitiendo el normal intercambio gaseoso. La regulación local de la circulación arterial pulmonar neonatal basal, es mantenida por un delicado equilibrio entre agentes vasoconstrictores y vasodilatadores. Este equilibrio, permite mantener la circulación pulmonar como un territorio de gran flujo sanguíneo y baja resistencia. La acción de los vasoconstrictores permite la formación de las interacciones entre actina y la cadena liviana de la miosina, esta es inducida en la célula muscular lisa principalmente por dos vías: a) dependiente de calcio, que consiste en aumentar el calcio intracelular, facilitando finalmente la unión de actina y miosina, y b) independiente de calcio, la cual a través de consecutivas fosforilaciones logra sensibilizar a las proteínas involucradas promoviendo la unión de actina y miosina. Estas acciones son mediadas por agonistas generados principalmente en el endotelio pulmonar, como endotelina-1 y tromboxano, o por agonistas provenientes de otros tipos celulares como la serotonina. Los agentes vasodilatadores regulan la respuesta vasoconstrictora, principalmente inhibiendo la señalización que induce la vasocontricción independiente de calcio, a través de la activación de proteínas quinasas que inhibirán la función de la ROCK quinasa, uno de los últimos efectores de la vasocontricción antes de la formación de la unión de actina y miosina. Esta revisión describe estos mecanismos de primordial importancia en las primeras horas de nuestra vida como individuos independientes.


The extrauterine-milieu adaptation includes a considerable increase in PaO2, that specifically induces structural and vasoactive changes at pulmonary circulation. Such changes transform a poor irrigated circulation into a circulation that receive ∼100% of neonatal cardiac output, supporting the normal alveolar-capillary gas exchange. Local regulation of basal neonatal pulmonary circulation is maintaining by a delicate equilibrium between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. This equilibrium, allows to maintain the pulmonary circulation as an hemodynamic system with a high blood flow and a low vascular resistance. Vasocontrictors action allows actin and light-chain myosin interaction. Two main pathways induced this effect in smooth muscle cell: a) a calcium dependent pathway, that increases intracellular calcium, facilitating actin - myosin binding, and b) the independent calcium pathway, which achieves through consecutive phosphorylation reactions sensitize the proteins involved, promoting the binding of actin and light-chain myosin. These actions are mediated by agonists produced mainly in the pulmonary endothelium, such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane, or by agonists from other cell types such as serotonin. Vasodilator agents regulate the vasoconstrictor response, mainly by inhibiting signals that induce calcium-independent vasoconstriction, through activation of protein kinases, which in turn will inhibit the function of ROCK kinase, one of the last effectors of vasoconstriction before formation of the actin and light-chain myosin binding. This review will focus on describing these mechanisms of primal importance in the first hours of our lives as independent individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn/physiology , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Lung/blood supply , Vascular Resistance , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasodilation/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptation, Physiological , Serotonin/physiology , Thromboxanes/physiology , Calcium , Endothelin-1/physiology
3.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 52(4): 581-588, jun. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485825

ABSTRACT

A nefropatia diabética (ND) é uma importante complicação crônica do diabetes melito (DM), sendo uma das principais causas dos novos casos de diálise e está associada ao aumento da mortalidade. Os principais fatores de risco são a hiperglicemia, a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), a dislipidemia e a susceptibilidade genética. O sistema renina-angiotensina (SRA) tem papel importante na gênese e na progressão da ND e existem evidências de interação entre este sistema e as endotelinas. As endotelinas são peptídeos com potente ação vasoconstritora que atuam modulando o tono vasomotor, a proliferação celular e a produção hormonal. Estes peptídeos agem por meio de dois receptores (ET-A e ET-B), que são expressos nas células endoteliais e no músculo liso vascular. A ativação destes receptores nas células renais leva à complexa cascata de alterações, resultando proliferação e hipertrofia das células mesangiais, vasoconstrição das arteríolas aferentes e eferentes e acúmulo de matriz extracelular. Essas alterações hemodinâmicas renais estão associadas com o aparecimento e a progressão da doença renal no DM. Níveis plasmáticos elevados de endotelina-1 (ET-1) têm sido relatados em pacientes com DM e há algumas evidências que sugerem que o aumento da produção de ET-1 poderia levar a dano glomerular. O uso de drogas antagonistas do receptor da ET-1 em situações de DM experimental tem mostrado propriedades nefroprotetoras, reforçando a importância deste sistema na ND.


Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is a major chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and one of the main causes of new cases for dialysis, being associated with increasing mortality. The main risk factors for DN are hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and genetic susceptibility. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in genesis and progression of DN and there is evidence of an interrelationship between this system and the endothelins. Endothelins are powerful vasoconstrictor peptides and act as modulators of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. These peptides act through two types of receptors (ET-A and ET-B) and are expressed on endothelial cells and vascular smooth-muscle cells. Activation of this receptor in renal cells leads to a complex signaling cascade resultanting in stimulation of mesangial cell hypertrophy, proliferation, contraction, and extracellular matrix accumulation. These hemodinamic renal alterations are associated with the onset and progress of renal disease in DM. Elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been reported in patients with DM. There is evidence suggesting that an increase in the production of ET-1 leads to glomerular damage. The use of ET receptor antagonists has been reported as renoprotective, correcting the early hemodynamic abnormalities in experimental DM, reinforcing the importance of this system in DN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Endothelins/physiology , Biomarkers , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Endothelin-1/physiology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(3): 391-399, Mar. 2007. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441761

ABSTRACT

Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of cardiovascular disability in countries where it is endemic. Damage to the heart microvasculature has been proposed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of heart dysfunction. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor and exerts its effects via specific ET A and ET B receptors. A few studies have suggested a role for ET-1 and its receptors in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease. We investigated the effects of treatment with bosentan, an ET A/ET B receptor antagonist, on the course of T. cruzi infection (Y strain) in C57Bl/6 mice. Treatment with bosentan (100 mg kg-1 day-1) was given per os starting day 0 after infection until sacrifice. Bosentan significantly increased myocardial inflammation, with no effects on parasitemia. Although the total number of nests was similar, a lower number of intact amastigote nests was found in the heart of bosentan-treated animals. Bosentan failed to affect the infection-associated increase in the cardiac levels of the cytokines IFN-g and TNF-a and the chemokines CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a and CCL5/RANTES. In vitro, pre-incubation with ET-1 (0.1 æM) 4 h before infection enhanced the uptake of the parasites by peritoneal macrophages, and this effect was abrogated when macrophages were pre-treated with bosentan (1 æM) 15 min before incubation with ET-1. However, ET-1 did not alter killing of intracellular parasites after 48 h of in vitro infection. Our data suggest that bosentan-treated mice have a delay in controlling parasitism which is compensated for exacerbated inflammation. Infection is eventually controlled in these animals and lethality is unchanged, demonstrating that ET-1 plays a minor role in the protection against acute murine T. cruzi infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Endothelin-1/physiology , Parasitemia/metabolism , Receptors, Endothelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Acute Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Parasitemia/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
5.
Rev. invest. clín ; 59(1): 48-56, ene.-feb. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-632391

ABSTRACT

Introduction. It is generally thought that development of hypertension in preeclampsia (PE) is due to generalized endothelial dysfunction and/or results from an imbalance in the production and/or action of vasoactive factors, resulting in higher citosolic Ca2+ concentration which in turn leads to vasoconstriction and decreased blood pressure perfusion in organs, including the fetoplacental unit. Among vasoactive factors involved in blood pressure regulation, endothelin 1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II) regulate citosolic Ca2+ concentrations and therefore are considered in this review. PE is associated with higher circulating and placental ET-1 levels, observation that explains, at least in part, vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Higher and lower Ang II sensitivity seen in PE and normal pregnancy, respectively, could not be explained by changes in renin-angiotensin system components, including Ang II receptors (ATI). During normal pregnancy, ATI receptors are found as monomers and are inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to lower Ang II sensitivity. In contrast, PE is associated with increased ATl/bradicinin receptors (B2) heterodimers which are resistant to inactivation by ROS, maintaining increased ATI-receptor stimulated signaling in PE. In adittion, AT-1 agonistic antibodies (AT1-AA) obtained from PE women increases intracellular Ca2+, NADPH oxidase components and ROS, effects not observed with normal pregnancy AT1-AA. Conclusion. High ET-1 levels, the presence of AT1/B2 receptor heterodimers and increased AT1-AA are involved, at least in part, in the hypertensive and oxidative stress states in PE.


Introducción. Se reconoce que el desarrollo de la hipertensión en la preeclampsia (PE) resulta del daño endotelial generalizado y/o de la falta de equilibrio en la producción y/o acción de agentes vasoactivos, lo que conlleva al incremento en la concentración citosólica de Ca2+ que resulta en vasoconstricción y disminución de la perfusión sanguínea en los órganos, incluyendo la unidad fetoplacentaria. Dentro de los factores vaso-activos que regulan la presión arterial, en la presente revisión se consideró a la endotelina 1 (ET-1) y a la angiotensina II (Ang II), factores que regulan la concentración citosólica de Ca2+. En comparación con el embarazo normal, la PE se asocia con mayor concentración en suero y placenta de ET-1, lo que explica en parte la vasoconstricción y el estado de estrés oxidativo. La respuesta exagerada en la PE y el estado de refractariedad en el embarazo normal a la Ang II no pueden explicarse por componentes del sistema renina-angiotensina, incluyendo a los receptores de Ang II (ATI). Durante el embarazo normal los receptores AT-1 se encuentran en forma de monómeros y son inactivados por las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), lo que se asocia con menor respuesta a Ang II. En cambio, la respuesta exagerada a la Ang II durante la PE puede deberse a la heterodimerizacion de los receptores ATI con los de bradicinina (B2), estado que les confiere resistencia a la inactivación por las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), lo que explica el incremento en la concentración del Ca2+ intracelular. Además, los anticuerpos agonistas del receptor ATI (AT1-AA) de mujeres PE aumenta la concentración de Ca2+ intracelular, de la NADPH oxidasa y de ROS, efectos que no se presentan al utilizar AT1-AA de embarazadas normotensas. Conclusión. Las altas concentraciones de ET-1, la presencia de receptores ATI en forma de heterodimeros ATI/ B2 y el aumento en los AT1-AA explican en parte, el estado de hipertensión y de estrés oxidativo de la PE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Rats , Angiotensin II/physiology , Endothelin-1/physiology , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/physiology , /physiology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Calcium Signaling , Dimerization , Endothelin-1/biosynthesis , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Models, Biological , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Protein Interaction Mapping , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/chemistry , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , /chemistry , Receptors, Endothelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Endothelin/physiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 425-429, 1999.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164925

ABSTRACT

To determine the relationship between the urinary endothelin (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO) levels and the clinical, pathologic types of primary glomerulonephritis (GN) patients, urinary levels of ET-1 and NO were detected in 27 patients with biopsy-proven primary GN and 12 normal controls by radioimmunoassay and by copper-plated and cadmium column reduction assay, respectively. The results showed that urinary ET-1 levels in the patients with primary GN were significantly higher than in normal controls (p < 0.01), while the urinary ET-1 levels in patients with moderate mesangial proliferation GN were significantly higher than those in patients with mild mesangial proliferation GN (p < 0.05). Urinary ET-1 levels in patients whose clinical feature was nephrotic syndrome were found to be higher than in patients whose clinical feature was nephritic syndrome. However, urinary NO levels were to the contrary (p < 0.05). The ratio of ET-1/NO in primary GN patients was significantly higher than that in normal controls, and it positively correlated with the 24-hour urinary excretion of protein. These results suggest that urinary ET-1 levels are related to the proliferation of mesangial cells. The imbalance between ET-1 and NO may be related to the pathogenesis of primary GN and the occurrence of proteinuria.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Endothelin-1/urine , Endothelin-1/physiology , Female , Glomerulonephritis/urine , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/urine , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism
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