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2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 531-537, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Method: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). Results: A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels were higher in the eutrophic group compared to the obese and excess-weight groups (p < 0.01). Flow-mediated vasodilation after hyperemia was higher in the eutrophic group in comparison to obese and excess-weight subjects (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the physical activity levels among groups measured by PAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho = −0.41; p = 0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho = 0.28; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index.


Resumo: Objetivos: A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se há disfunção endotelial nas crianças com peso normal ou excesso de peso e se o perfil metabólico, as adipocinas e a disfunção endotelial seriam mais fortemente associados à aptidão física ou aos níveis de atividade física. Método: Estudo transversal que envolve crianças de 5-12 anos. A avaliação incluiu pletismografia de oclusão venosa, níveis séricos de adiponectina, leptina, insulina e lipidograma, escore de atividade física (questionário PAQ-C) e avaliação da aptidão física (teste Yo-yo). Resultados: Um total de 62 crianças participou deste estudo. Com base no índice de massa corporal, 27 eram eutróficos, 10 estavam acima do peso e 25 estavam obesos. Os níveis de triglicerídeos, colesterol LDL, HOMA-RI e leptina estavam mais elevados nas crianças obesas e com excesso de peso que o grupo de eutróficos (p < 0,01). Os níveis de colesterol HDL e adiponectina estavam mais elevados no grupo de eutróficos em comparação ao grupo de obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,01). A vasodilatação mediada pelo fluxo após hiperemia foi maior no grupo de eutróficos em comparação aos indivíduos obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,05). Não houve nenhuma diferença nos níveis de atividade física entre os grupos medidos pelo PAQ-C. O teste de ida e volta foi significativamente associado ao colesterol HDL (ró = −0,41; p = 0,01) e essa associação continuou após ajustar o escore z do índice de massa corporal (ró = 0,28; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a disfunção endotelial já está presente nas crianças obesas, sugeriu uma predisposição à doença aterosclerótica. Além disso, os níveis de colesterol HDL foram correlacionados à aptidão física, independentemente do índice de massa corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Adipokines/blood , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 558-567, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Obesity leads to a chronic inflammatory state, endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Objective: To establish the time-course of events regarding inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, systolic blood pressure (SBP) in obesity in only one experimental model. Methods: We fed male Wistar rats (eight-week age) with a standard diet (Control - CT, n = 35), or palatable high-fat diet (HFD, n = 35) for 24 weeks. Every six weeks, 7 animals from each group were randomly selected for euthanasia. SBP and serum levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and nitric oxide were determined. Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle functions were determined in dissected aorta and lipid peroxidation was measured. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines began to increase after six weeks of a high-fat diet, while those of the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin decreased. Interestingly, the endothelial function and serum nitric oxide began to decrease after six weeks in HFD group. The SBP and lipid peroxidation began to increase at 12 weeks in HFD group. In addition, we showed that total visceral fat mass was negatively correlated with endothelial function and positively correlated with SBP. Conclusion: Our results show the time-course of deleterious effects and their correlation with obesity.


Resumo Fundamento: A obesidade leva a um estado de inflamação crônica, disfunção endotelial e hipertensão. Objetivo: Estabelecer a sequência de eventos relacionados a marcadores inflamatórios, disfunção endotelial e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) na obesidade em um modelo experimental. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos (8 semanas de idade) receberam dieta padrão (Controle - CT, n = 35) ou uma dieta palatável hiperlipídica (DHL, n = 35) por 24 semanas. A cada seis semanas, 7 animais de cada grupo foram aleatoriamente selecionados para eutanásia. Foram determinados a PAS, e níveis séricos de interleucina-6, fator de necrose tumoral-a, proteína C reativa, adiponectina e óxido nítrico. As funções do músculo liso endotelial e vascular foram determinadas na aorta dissecada, e medida a peroxidação lipídica. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. Resultados: os níveis das citocinas pró-inflamatórias começaram a aumentar após seis semanas de dieta hiperlipídica, enquanto os níveis da citocina anti-inflamatória adiponectina diminuíram. Um resultado interessante foi a redução da função endotelial e do óxido nítrico após seis semanas no grupo DHL. Além disso, mostramos que a massa de tecido adiposo visceral total esteve negativamente correlacionada com função endotelial e positivamente correlacionada com a PAS. Conclusão: Nossos resultados demonstram a progressão temporal dos efeitos deletérios e sua correlação com a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hypertension/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Cytokines/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Hypertension/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/blood , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(3): 228-236, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838702

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Physical exercise is an important tool for the improvement of endothelial function. Objective: To assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Ten minutes after exercise, the aorta was removed to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS1177) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and to generate concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and to phenylephrine (PHE). The PHE protocol was also performed with damaged endothelium and before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin administration. The maximal response (Emax) and the sensitivity (EC50) to these drugs were evaluated. Results: ACh-induced relaxation increased in the aortic rings of exercised (Ex) rats (Emax= -80 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05) when compared to those of controls (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6.8%). The Emax to PHE was decreased following exercise conditions (95 ± 7.9%, p < 0.05) when compared to control conditions (120 ± 4.2%). This response was abolished after L-NAME administration or endothelial damage. In the presence of indomethacin, the aortic rings' reactivity to PHE was decreased in both groups (EC50= Ex -5.9 ± 0.14 vs. Ct -6.6 ± 0.33 log µM, p < 0.05 / Emax = Ex 9.5 ± 2.9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6.2%, p < 0.05). Exercise did not alter the expression of eNOS and iNOS, but increased the level of p-eNOS. Conclusion: A single resistance exercise session improves endothelial function in hypertensive rats. This response seems to be mediated by increased NO production through eNOS activation.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico é uma importante ferramenta para o aprimoramento da função endotelial. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício dinâmico resistido agudo na função endotelial de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Métodos: Após 10 minutos de exercício, a aorta foi removida para avaliação da expressão de óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS), óxido nítrico sintase endotelial fosforilada (p-eNOS1177) e óxido nítrico sintase endotelial induzível (iNOS), e para a construção de curvas concentração-resposta de acetilcolina (ACT) e fenilefrina (FEN). O protocolo FEN foi também realizado com lesão endotelial e antes e depois da administração de N-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) e indometacina. A resposta máxima (Emax) e a sensibilidade (EC50) a esses fármacos foram avaliadas. Resultados: Houve aumento do relaxamento induzido por ACT nos anéis aórticos dos ratos exercitados (Ex) (Emax = -80 ± 4,6%; p < 0,05) quando comparado àquele dos controles (Ct) (Emax = -50 ± 6,8%). A Emax à FEN diminuiu após exercício (95 ± 7,9%; p < 0,05) quando comparada àquela dos controles (120 ± 4,2%). Tal resposta foi abolida após administração de L-NAME ou lesão endotelial. Na presença de indometacina, a reatividade dos anéis aórticos à FEN diminuiu nos dois grupos (EC50= Ex -5,9 ± 0,14 vs. Ct -6,6 ± 0,33 log µM; p < 0,05/ Emax = Ex 9,5 ± 2,9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6,2%; p < 0,05). O exercício não alterou a expressão de eNOS e de iNOS, mas aumentou o nível de p-eNOS. Conclusão: Uma única sessão de exercício resistido melhora a função endotelial em ratos hipertensos. Essa resposta parece ser mediada por elevação da produção de NO através de ativação de eNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/chemistry , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation/physiology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/chemistry , Acetylcholine , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Blotting, Western , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Exercise Test , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
5.
Clinics ; 71(11): 639-643, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis and their association with pathological prognostic features in hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhotic liver. METHODS Vascular endothelial growth factor, CD105, and cyclooxygenase-2 were immunohistochemically detected in 52 hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and 48 cirrhotic liver tissue samples. Semiquantitative measurements of vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 were evaluated considering the degree and intensity of immunostaining based on a 7-point final scoring scale. CD105 microvascular density (MVD-CD105) was measured using automated analysis. Morphological aspects evaluated in the hepatocellular carcinoma samples included size (≤2 and >2 cm), differentiation grade, and microvascular invasion. RESULTS The mean vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity score was slightly higher in the hepatocellular carcinoma samples (4.83±1.35) than the cirrhotic liver (4.38±1.28) samples. There was a significant and direct correlation between these mean scores (rs=0.645, p=0.0001). Cyclooxygenase-2 was expressed in all the cirrhotic liver samples but was only found in 78% of the hepatocellular carcinoma samples. The mean cyclooxygenase-2 score was higher in the cirrhotic liver samples (4.85±1.38) than the hepatocellular carcinoma samples (2.58±1.68), but there was no correlation between the scores (rs=0.177, p=0.23). The mean CD105 percentage in the hepatocellular carcinoma samples (11.2%) was lower than that in the cirrhotic samples (16.9%). There was an inverse relationship in MVD-CD105 expression between the hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhotic samples (rs=-0.78, p=0.67). There were no significant associations between vascular endothelial growth factor expression and morphological characteristics. Cyclooxygenase-2 and CD105 were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation grade (p=0.003 and p=0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION Vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and MVD-CD105 were highly expressed in cirrhotic liver compared to hepatocellular carcinoma and might be involved in liver carcinogenesis. Additionally, cyclooxygenase-2 and CD105 might be involved in hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation grade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Endoglin/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/blood supply , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Neoplasms/blood supply , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasm Grading , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e5007, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766980

ABSTRACT

Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Acetylcholine/administration & dosage , Acidosis/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypotension/chemically induced , Acute Disease , Acid-Base Imbalance/metabolism , Acidosis/chemically induced , Acidosis/metabolism , Blood Pressure Determination , Bicarbonates/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Chronic Disease , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hyperventilation/metabolism , Luminescence , Nitrates/blood , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrites/blood
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(5): 407-413, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764122

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThere is a growing body of data supporting the association between diabetes and microcirculatory disfunction. We aimed to study e-selectin levels, and their associations with serum markers of inflammation and arterial stiffness in prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes patients in this study.Subjects and methodsSixty patients (25 females) with a newly established elevated fasting serum glucose [20 impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 20 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 20 newly diagnosed diabetes (T2DM)] and 17 healthy controls (13 females) were included in the study. Serum e-selectin and hs-CRP levels, and arterial stiffness parameters of the patients were studied.ResultsFasting serum glucose was the most important predictor of serum e-selectin levels. Pulse wave velocity and central aortic pressures were significantly higher in IFG, IGT and T2DM groups, compared to controls (p = 0.001, < 0.001, 0.013 and 0.015, 0.002, 0.009, respectively). The mean arterial pressure did not show any significant association with serum e-selectin and hs-CRP levels (β coefficient: 0.092, p = 0.358; and β coefficient: 0.189, p = 0.362, respectively).ConclusionPrediabetes patients have increasing e-selectin levels through the diagnosis of T2DM. E-selectin is associated with serum glucose levels. Prediabetic and newly diagnosed diabetics have higher arterial stiffness measurements. Serum e-selectin may be a good marker of endothelial inflammation and dysfunction increasing in parallel with serum glucose levels, predicting future cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , /metabolism , E-Selectin/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Case-Control Studies , /physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Fasting/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Microcirculation , Pulse Wave Analysis , Prediabetic State/physiopathology , Risk Factors
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(6): 476-485, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750695

ABSTRACT

Background: Circulatory power (CP) and ventilatory power (VP) are indices that have been used for the clinical evaluation of patients with heart failure; however, no study has evaluated these indices in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) without heart failure. Objective: To characterize both indices in patients with CAD compared with healthy controls. Methods: Eighty-seven men [CAD group = 42 subjects and healthy control group (CG) = 45 subjects] aged 40–65 years were included. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed on a treadmill and the following parameters were measured: 1) peak oxygen consumption (VO2), 2) peak heart rate (HR), 3) peak blood pressure (BP), 4) peak rate-pressure product (peak systolic HR x peak BP), 5) peak oxygen pulse (peak VO2/peak HR), 6) oxygen uptake efficiency (OUES), 7) carbon dioxide production efficiency (minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope), 8) CP (peak VO2 x peak systolic BP) and 9) VP (peak systolic BP/carbon dioxide production efficiency). Results: The CAD group had significantly lower values for peak VO2 (p < 0.001), peak HR (p < 0.001), peak systolic BP (p < 0.001), peak rate-pressure product (p < 0.001), peak oxygen pulse (p = 0.008), OUES (p < 0.001), CP (p < 0.001), and VP (p < 0.001) and significantly higher values for peak diastolic BP (p = 0.004) and carbon dioxide production efficiency (p < 0.001) compared with CG. Stepwise regression analysis showed that CP was influenced by group (R2 = 0.44, p < 0.001) and VP was influenced by both group and number of vessels with stenosis after treatment (interaction effects: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The indices CP and VP were lower in men with CAD than healthy controls. .


Fundamento: Os índices da Potência Circulatória (PC) e Potência Ventilatória (PV) têm sido utilizados para avaliação clínica de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, mas nenhum estudo avaliou esses índices em pacientes com Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC). Objetivo: Caracterizar ambos os índices em pacientes com DAC comparados a indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Oitenta e sete homens [grupo DAC = 42 sujeitos e, grupo controle (GC) = 45 sujeitos] com idade entre 45 e 65 anos foram incluídos. Um Teste de Exercício Cardiopulmonar (TECP) foi realizado em esteira e as seguintes variáveis foram obtidas: 1) consumo de oxigênio (VO2) pico; 2) Frequência Cardíaca (FC) pico; 3) Pressão Arterial (PA) pico; 4) duplo produto pico (PA sistólica pico x FC pico); 5) pulso de oxigênio pico (VO2 pico dividido pela FC pico); 6) eficiência ventilatória para o consumo de oxigênio (OUES); 7) eficiência ventilatória para a produção de dióxido de carbono (VE/VCO2 slope); 8) PC (VO2 pico x PA sistólica pico); e 9) PV (PA sistólica pico dividido pelo VE/VCO2 slope). Resultados: O grupo DAC apresentou valores significativamente menores das seguintes variáveis no pico do exercício: VO2 (p < 0,001), FC (p < 0,001), PA sistólica (p < 0,001), duplo produto (p < 0,001), pulso de oxigênio (p = 0,008), OUES (p < 0,001), PC (p < 0,001) e PV (p < 0,001), e valores significativamente maiores de PA diastólica (p = 0,004) e VE/VCO2 slope (p < 0,001) em relação ao GC. Uma análise de regressão pelo método stepwise mostrou que a PC foi influenciada pelo grupo (R2 = 0,44, p < 0,001) e a PV tanto pelo grupo quanto pelo número de vasos com estenose pós tratamento (efeito de interação: R2 = 0,46, p < 0,001). Conclusion: Os índices da PC e PV foram menores em homens com DAC comparados ao GC, podendo dessa forma ser utilizados na caracterização dessa população. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Aluminum Oxide/toxicity , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , Cells, Cultured , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , E-Selectin/genetics , E-Selectin/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure , Gene Expression/drug effects , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Monocytes/drug effects , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/ultrastructure , Particle Size , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
9.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 607-619, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744832

ABSTRACT

Este estudo analisa as conexões entre saúde, direitos, legislação e políticas públicas a partir da pesquisa documental realizada no âmbito federal e nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná e São Paulo, acerca das garantias legais das mulheres e seus filhos que vivem no cárcere. Busca instrumentalizar uma atuação garantista dos agentes públicos e dar visibilidade à problemática, diante das extremas vulnerabilidades e invisibilidade jurídica e administrativa da questão. Foram identificadas 33 normas legais, com pontos de tensão, como a possibilidade de prisão domiciliar e as disparidades quanto a prazos e condições de permanência das crianças no sistema penitenciário. A garantia legal constitucional do direito à amamentação é refletida nas regulamentações identificadas. Mas constatam-se ausências de outros aspectos relativos à maternidade na prisão, que se traduzem em dupla penalidade às mulheres, arbitrariamente estendida aos seus filhos. É necessária a ampliação e efetivação da regulamentação existente para prevenir e coibir as violações de direitos apontadas.


This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights.


Este estudio analiza las conexiones entre la salud, derechos humanos, legislación y políticas públicas, partiendo de una investigación documental, realizada a nivel federal y en los estados de Río Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná y São Paulo, sobre las garantías jurídicas de las mujeres presas y sus hijos. El estudio pretende instrumentalizar una actuación garantista de los agentes públicos y dar visibilidad a esta problemática, frente a la extrema vulnerabilidad e invisibilidad jurídica y administrativa existente. Se identificaron 33 normas legales, con puntos de tensión, como la posibilidad de arresto domiciliario y disparidades en cuanto a los términos y condiciones de la estancia de los niños en el sistema penitenciario. La garantía constitucional del derecho a la lactancia materna se refleja en las regulaciones identificadas. No obstante, hay ausencias de otros aspectos de la maternidad en la cárcel, que se traduce en una doble pena para las mujeres, extendida arbitrariamente a sus hijos. Es necesaria la ampliación y ejecución efectiva de las regulación existente para prevenir y frenar las violaciones de los derechos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Biomechanical Phenomena , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/chemistry , /metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Stress, Mechanical
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 711-714, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728641

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To create in vitro a model to generate acidosis by CO2 bubbling "organ chambers", which would be useful for researchers that aim to study the effects of acid-base disturbs on the endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats (230-280g) were housed, before the experiments, under standard laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle at 21°C), with free access to food and water. The protocol for promoting in vitro respiratory acidosis was carried out by bubbling increased concentrations of CO2. The target was to achieve an ideal way to decrease the pH gradually to a value of approximately 6.6.It was used, initially, a gas blender varying concentrations of the carbogenic mixture (95% O2 + 5% CO2) and pure CO2. RESULTS: 1) 100% CO2, pH variation very fast, pH minimum 6.0; 2) 90%CO2 pH variation bit slower, pH minimum6.31; 3) 70%CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6.32; 4) 50% CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6:42; 5) 40 %CO2, Adequate record, pH minimum 6.61, and; 6) 30 %CO2 could not reach values below pH minimum 7.03. Based on these data the gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was adopted, CONCLUSION: This gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was effective in inducing respiratory acidosis at a speed that made, possible the recording of isometric force. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acidosis, Respiratory/chemically induced , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Acidosis, Respiratory/metabolism , Acidosis, Respiratory/physiopathology , Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide/chemistry , Endothelium, Vascular/chemistry , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 48(spe): 116-121, 08/2014.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731301

ABSTRACT

Objective Identify nurses’ emancipatory practices in primary care, to contribute to the improvement of health care. Method A case study type social research of qualitative nature, in which nurses of a primary health care service unit in São Paulo were interviewed. Results The home visit was identified as a nursing practice possible to be expanded in order to identify social determinants of health, triggering emancipatory practices in the service. This expansion occurred because the design of health care labour intended by the service team changed its focus from the traditional object of health services, the disease. Conclusion First, it is advocated that social policies lead projects with the purpose of improving health needs. On the other hand, the daily labour needs to provide opportunities for reflection and discussion of healthcare projects, leading workers to propose labour-processes targeted to both the social determinants of health and people’s illness. .


Objetivo Identificar las prácticas emancipadoras de enfermeras en Unidad de Salud Familiar fueron el objeto de este estudio. Método La investigación social cualitativa tipo estúdio de caso. Fueron entrevistados enfermeros de una Unidad de Salud Familiar en Sao Paulo. Resultados Se identificó que la Visita Domiciliaria ha ampliado su alcance y identificado determinantes del proceso salud-enfermedad, lo que provocó en la Unidad de Salud Familiar prácticas emancipadoras. Esta expansión se produjo debido a que el diseño de la atención en propósito por la USF amplió el tradicional objeto de los servicios de salud. Conclusión Se aboga que las directrices de las políticas sociales basen proyectos que tengan como fin el mejoramiento de las necesidades de salud y que el trabajo diario proporcione la reflexión y discusión de los proyectos de atención, para proponer prácticas que enfoquen en los determinantes del proceso salud-enfermedad, tanto cuanto en sus resultados - la enfermedad en el cuerpo individual. .


Objetivo Identificar as práticas emancipatórias de enfermeiros da Atenção Primária, com a finalidade de contribuir para o aprimoramento do cuidado em saúde. Método Pesquisa social de natureza qualitativa, do tipo estudo de caso. Foram entrevistados os enfermeiros de uma Unidade de Saúde da Família em São Paulo. Resultados Identificou-se que a visita domiciliária, prática protocolar, ampliou seu escopo e identificou determinantes do processo saúde-doença, desencadeando na Unidade de Saúde da Família práticas emancipatórias. Essa ampliação ocorreu porque o projeto de cuidado intencionalizado ampliou o objeto tradicional dos serviços de saúde. Conclusão Advoga-se que as diretrizes das políticas sociais ancorem projetos que tomem como finalidade o aprimoramento das necessidades de saúde e que o cotidiano do trabalho proporcione reflexão e discussão dos projetos de cuidado, para intencionalizar práticas que incidam nos determinantes do processo saúde-doença, tanto quanto nos resultados - a doença expressa no corpo individual. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Receptors, Growth Factor/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Communication , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Line , Culture Media, Conditioned , Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Gene Expression , Lymphokines/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense/genetics , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Stomach Neoplasms/blood supply , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(2): 123-131, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-714673

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A disfunção endotelial é importante na patogênese da doença cardiovascular (DCV) relacionada à doença renal crônica (DRC). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) é uma quimiocina que mobiliza células endoteliais progenitoras (EPC) e em conjunto com a interleucina-8 (IL-8) podem ser usadas como marcadores de reparo e lesão tecidual. Objetivo: Neste trabalho, foi investigado o efeito do meio urêmico na expressão de SDF-1 e IL-8 in vivo e in vitro. Métodos: A inflamação sistêmica foi avaliada por meio da proteína C-reativa (PCR) e interleucina-6 (IL-6). IL-8 e SDF-1 foram avaliados por ELISA como marcadores de disfunção endotelial e reparo tecidual, respectivamente. Os estudos in vitro foram realizados em células endoteliais umbilicais humanas (HUVEC) expostas ao meio urêmico ou saudável. Resultados: Foram incluídos nesse estudo 26 pacientes em hemodiálise (HD) (17 ± 3 meses em diálise, 52 ± 2 anos, 38% homens e 11% diabéticos). As concentrações séricas de PCR, IL-6, SDF-1 e IL-8 foram 4,9 ± 4,8 mg/ml, 6,7 ± 8,1 pg/ml, 2625,9 ± 1288,6 pg/ml e 128,2 ± 206,2 pg/ml, respectivamente. Houve correlação positiva entre PCR e IL-6 (ρ = 0,57; p < 0,005) e entre SDF-1 e IL-8 (ρ = 0,45; p < 0,05). Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que a expressão de SDF-1 pelas HUVEC após 6 horas de tratamento com meio urêmico é menor comparada ao tratamento com meio saudável (p < 0,05). Após 12 horas de tratamento, ocorreu aumento de IL-8 quando as HUVECs foram expostas ao meio urêmico (p < 0,005). Conclusão: Sugerimos que SDF-1 e IL-8 nos pacientes em HD podem ser usados para mensurar a extensão do dano e consequente ativação vascular na uremia. .


Introduction: Endothelial dysfunction is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a chemokine which mobilizes endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and together with interleukin-8 (IL-8) may be used as markers of tissue injury and repair. Objective: This study investigated in vivo and in vitro the effect of uremic media on SDF-1 and IL-8 expression. Methods: Systemic inflammation was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-8 and SDF-1 were measured as markers of endothelial dysfunction and tissue repair, respectively, by ELISA. In vitro studies were performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to healthy or uremic media. Results: The study included 26 hemodialysis (HD) patients (17 ± 3 months on dialysis, 52 ± 2 years, 38% men and 11% diabetic). Serum concentrations of CRP, IL-6, SDF-1 and IL-8 were 4.9 ± 4.8 mg/ml, 6.7 ± 8.1 pg/ml, 2625.9 ± 1288.6 pg/ml and 128.2 ± 206.2 pg/ml, respectively. There was a positive correlation between CRP and IL-6 (ρ = 0.57, p < 0.005) and between SDF-1 and IL-8 (ρ = 0.45, p < 0.05). In vitro results showed that after 6 hours treatment, SDF-1 expression by HUVEC treated with uremic media is lower compared to cells treated with healthy media (p < 0.05). After 12 hours of treatment there was an increase in IL-8 when HUVECs were exposed to uremic media (p < 0.005). Conclusion: We suggest that SDF-1 and IL-8 in HD patients can be used to measure the extent of damage and subsequent vascular activation in uremia. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Uremia/blood , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Uremia/therapy
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(3): 211-218, 03/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705718

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Estresse e etanol são ambos, independentemente, importantes fatores de risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: avaliar o risco cardiovascular do consumo de etanol e exposição ao estresse, isolados e em associação, em ratos machos adultos. Métodos: Os ratos foram separados em quatro grupos: controle, etanol (20% na água de beber durante seis semanas), estresse (imobilização 1h dia/5 dias por semana/ 6 semanas) e estresse/etanol. As curvas de concentração-resposta à noradrenalina - na ausência e na presença de ioimbina, L-NAME ou indometacina - ou fenilefrina foram determinadas em aortas torácicas com e sem endotélio. EC50 e resposta máxima (n = 8-12) foram comparadas através de ANOVA de dois fatores (two-way) / método de Bonferroni. Resultados: Estresse ou estresse em associação com o consumo de etanol aumentaram as respostas máximas de noradrenalina em aortas intactas. Essa hiper-reatividade foi eliminada pela remoção do endotélio, ou pela presença da indometacina ou ioimbina, mas não foi alterada pela presença de L-NAME. Enquanto isso, o consumo de etanol não alterou a reatividade à noradrenalina. As respostas da fenilefrina em aortas com e sem endotélio também permaneceram inalteradas independentemente do protocolo. Conclusão: O estresse crônico aumentou as respostas aórticas dos ratos à noradrenalina. Esse efeito é dependente do endotélio vascular e envolve a liberação de prostanóides vasoconstritores através da estimulação de α-2 adrenoceptores endoteliais. Além disso, o consumo crônico de etanol pareceu não influenciar as respostas de noradrenalina em aorta de rato, nem modificar o aumento de tais respostas observadas em consequência da exposição ao estresse. .


Background: Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Methods: Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Results: Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Conclusion: Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Ethanol/adverse effects , Norepinephrine/metabolism , Prostaglandins/metabolism , /drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Ethanol/blood , Nitrates/blood , Nitrites/blood , Norepinephrine/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Time Factors
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(6): 728-734, set. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649486

ABSTRACT

An increased plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is detected in individuals with many infectious diseases and is accepted as a marker of endothelium activation and prothrombotic condition. To determine whether ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with proinflammatory activity, enhances the release of vWF, microvascular endothelial cells were infected with the ExoU-producing PA103 P. aeruginosa strain or an exoU-deficient mutant. Significantly increased vWF concentrations were detected in conditioned medium and subendothelial extracellular matrix from cultures infected with the wild-type bacteria, as determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. PA103-infected cells also released higher concentrations of procoagulant microparticles containing increased amounts of membrane-associated vWF, as determined by flow cytometric analyses of cell culture supernatants. Both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that increased amounts of vWF were associated with cytoplasmic membranes from cells infected with the ExoU-producing bacteria. PA103-infected cultures exposed to platelet suspensions exhibited increased percentages of cells with platelet adhesion. Because no modulation of the vWF mRNA levels was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays in PA103-infected cells, ExoU is likely to have induced the release of vWF from cytoplasmic stores rather than vWF gene transcription. Such release is likely to modify the thromboresistance of microvascular endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/microbiology , Endothelium, Vascular/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Platelet Adhesiveness
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. 103 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658807

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O exercício resistido (ER) agudo parece resultar em importantes efeitos sobre a liberação de substâncias vasoativas e sobre o controle endotélio-dependente do tônus vascular. Objetivos - O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos agudos de um ER isolado sobre a pressão arterial (PA), frequência cardíaca (FC), fluxo sanguíneo do antebraço (FSA), condutância vascular (CV), respostas endotelial e inflamatória de mulheres jovens com sobrepeso/obesidade (Sp/Ob). Materiais e Métodos - As voluntárias foram separadas em grupos: controle (n=16) e Sp/Ob (n=16). Ambos os grupos realizaram cinco séries de 10 repetições com 70% de uma repetição máxima (1-RM) no exercício de flexão unilateral do cotovelo. A PA, FC e o FSA (medido por pletismografia por oclusão venosa), foram avaliados em repouso e durante uma hora após o ER em ambos os grupos. Adipocitocinas e endotelina-1 (ET-1) foram avaliadas em repouso nos dois grupos e após o ER apenas no grupo Sp/Ob. Resultados - O grupo Sp/Ob apresentou massa corporal e IMC significativamente maiores que o controle (p<0,05). Surpeendentemente, o grupo Sp/Ob apresentou relação cintura-quadril significativamente menor (p<0,05). As diferenças entre grupos nas PAs diastólica e média observadas antes do ER (repouso) foram também observadas imediatamente e 20 minutos após a sessão de ER (p<0,05). Ambos os grupos apresentaram reduções significativas na PA diastólica imediatamente após a sessão de ER (p<0,01). A PA média apresentou redução significativa imediatamente após a sessão de ER apenas no grupo controle (p<0,05). O grupo Sp/Ob apresentou valores de FSA significatimentente maiores que o controle em repouso (p<0,05), em 20 (p<0,01) e em 40 (p<0,01) minutos após o ER. A CV apresentou diferença em repouso, porém em 20 e 40 minutos após o ER, o grupo Sp/Ob apresentou valores significativamente maiores (p<0,01). Em repouso e imediatamente após a sessão de ER, não foram observadas diferenças entre o grupo controle ...


Introduction - Acute resistance exercise (RE) seems to have important effects on release of vasoactive substances and on endothelium-dependet control of vascular tone. Objectives - The aims of our study were to the acute effects of an isolated RE on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), forearm blood flow (FBF), vascular conductance (VC), endothelial and inflammatory responses of overweight/obese (Ow/Ob) young women. Materials and Methods - The volunteers were assigned in two groups: controls (n=16) and Ow/Ob (n=16). Both groups performed five sets of 10 repetitions with 70% of 1-RM in the unilateral elbow flexion exercise. BP, HR and FBF (determined by venous occlusion plethysmography) were evaluated at rest and along one hour after resistance exercise. Adipocytokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were evaluated at rest in both groups and after RE only in the Ow/Ob. Results - The Ow/Ob group presented significant higher body weight and BMI than controls. Of interest, the former group had significant lower waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). The significant differences between groups on diastolic and mean BP before resistance exercise (at resting) were observed immediately after and at 20 minutes post-exercise (P<0.05). Differences as a resultant of exercise in each group separately were noted and expressed as significant reduction in diastolic BP immediately post-exercise in both groups (p<0.01). Mean BP reduced immediately post-exercise only in controls (p<0.05). Significant higher basal FBF not only at resting (p<0.05) but also at 20 (p<0.01) and 40 minutes post-exercise (p<0.01) were evident in Ow/Ob group. Although basal FBF was different between groups at resting, basal VC was not. Of note, VC at 20 (p<0.01) and 40 minutes (p<0.01) post-exercise was higher in the Ow/Ob group compared to controls. At resting and immediately post-exercise, no differences between controls and Ow/Ob were observed in endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. We should emphasize ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adipokines/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Exercise/physiology , Arterial Pressure , Forearm/blood supply , Heart Rate , Obesity , Overweight , Regional Blood Flow , Resistance Training
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(4): 1351-1356, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627014

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte a nivel mundial. Entre ellas tienen gran relevancia las de tipo isquémicas, en donde el desarrollo de placas ateroscleróticas es el proceso fisiopatológico central. El estudio de la aterosclerosis es fundamental para comprender como se inicia este proceso patológico y los factores que influyen en su desarrollo. Distintas metodologías de laboratorio, entre otras la inmunohistoquímica, permiten reconocer las células y moléculas que participan en el proceso ateromatoso y que van interactuando según la progresión de la lesión. Un marcador de disfunción endotelial es la mayor expresión de la molécula de adhesión intercelular ICAM-1. En este trabajo se realizó la estandarización de inmunohistoquímica para la molécula de adhesión ICAM-1, y se estudió su expresión en arterias humanas sanas y con placa ateromatosa. En las muestras de arterias humanas con patología aterosclerótica, la expresión de ICAM-1 se observó aumentada, pero fue de difícil reconocimiento. Esto principalmente porque el tejido empleado como control en la estandarización fue una amígdala con hiperplasia y proceso inflamatorio que aumenta notablemente la expresión de ICAM-1. La implementación del método de inmunohistoquímica para ICAM-1 en arterias humanas permitirá conocer estados de disfunción endotelial y el desarrollo futuro del diseño e implementación de métodos de diagnóstico en aquellos procesos ateroclerótico en estado incipiente.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world. Among them the ischemic type are of great importance, where the development of atherosclerotic plaques is the central pathophysiological process. The study of atherosclerosis is critical to understand how this disease process begins and factors influencing its development. Various laboratory methods, including immunohistochemistry, allow the recognition of cells and molecules involved in the atheromatous process that are interacting according to the progression of the lesion. A marker of endothelial dysfunction is the increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1. In this paper, an immunohistochemistry method was standardized for the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and its expression was studied in healthy human arteries with atheromatous plaque. In samples of human arteries with atherosclerotic disease, the expression of ICAM-1 was observed to be increased, but was hardly recognizable. This mainly because the tissue used as a control for standardization was a tonsil with an inflammatory process and hyperplasia, which significantly increases the expression of ICAM-1. The implementation of the immunohistochemistry method for ICAM-1 in human arteries will reveal endothelial dysfunction states that will enable a future design and implementation of methods of diagnosis in atherosclerotic processes in the early stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Time Factors
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136354

ABSTRACT

The first coherent pathophysiological scheme for sickle cell disease (SCD) emerged in the sixties-seventies based on an extremely detailed description of the molecular mechanism by which HbS in its deoxy-form polymerises and forms long fibres within the red blood cell that deform it and make it fragile. This scheme explains the haemolytic anaemia, and the mechanistic aspects of the vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs), but, even though it constitutes the basic mechanism of the disease, it does not account for the processes that actually trigger VOCs. This paper reviews recent data which imply: red blood cell dehydration, its abnormal adhesion properties to the endothelium, the participation of inflammatory phenomenon and of a global activation of all the cells present in the vessel, and finally, abnormalities of the vascular tone and of nitric oxide metabolism. These data altogether have shed a new light on the pathophysiology of the first molecular disease i.e. sickle cell disease.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/pathology , Hemoglobin, Sickle/genetics , Hemoglobin, Sickle/metabolism , Hemolysis , Humans , Ion Channels/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 37(5): 617-622, Sept.-Oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608130

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emerging insights underline a link among chronic inflammation and endothelial activation with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). We aim to investigate whether specific plasma markers of inflammation and endothelial activation allow to discriminate BPH and PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients affected by BPH, 15 by PCa and 15 controls, were enrolled. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), CD40 ligand (CD40L), endothelial-selectin (E-selectin), platelet-selectin (P-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured. RESULTS: In systemic blood samples, IL-6 has been found increased in patients affected by BPH (4.25 ± 0. pg/mL) and PCa (5.08 ± 0.24) respect to controls (2.62 ± 0.34; p < 0.05). CD40L was higher in BPH (4.25 ± 0.65 ng/mL; p < 0.05) than in control (2.31 ± 0.20) and PCa group (2.60 ± 0.56). E-selectin, P-selectin and VCAM-1 did not show any significant difference. Higher levels of ICAM-1 were detected in patients with PCa (573.04 ± 52.23) and BPH (564.40 ± 74.67) than in the controls (215.30 ± 11.53 ng/mL; p < 0.05). In local blood samples, IL-6 has been found significantly increased in PCa in comparison with patients with BPH; there was no difference in CD40L, E-selectin, P-selectin, VCAM-1 ed ICAM-1. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in inflammation and endothelial activation markers may be not considered to be of value in discriminating BPH and PCa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Biomarkers/blood , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , /blood , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , /blood , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/blood
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(9): 920-932, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599670

ABSTRACT

The endothelium plays a vital role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis by the release of relaxing and contracting factors. Any change in this balance may result in a process known as endothelial dysfunction that leads to impaired control of vascular tone and contributes to the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Reduced endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased production of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin H2 and superoxide anion in conductance and resistance arteries are commonly associated with endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive, diabetic and obese animals, resulting in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and in increased vasoconstrictor responses. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the role of enhanced overactivation ofβ-adrenergic receptors inducing vascular cytokine production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling that seem to be the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in hypertension, heart failure and in endocrine-metabolic disorders. However, some adaptive mechanisms can occur in the initial stages of hypertension, such as increased NO production by eNOS. The present review focuses on the role of NO bioavailability, eNOS uncoupling, cyclooxygenase-derived products and pro-inflammatory factors on the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in hypertension, sympathetic hyperactivity, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These are cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases of high incidence and mortality around the world, especially in developing countries and endothelial dysfunction contributes to triggering, maintenance and worsening of these pathological situations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology
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