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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 253-264, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364973

ABSTRACT

Abstract The regular practice of physical exercise as a non-pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension (AH) has been encouraged due to causing a series of physiological responses in the cardiovascular system, such as the production of vasoactive substances, including nitric oxide (NO). NO is a relaxation factor released by the endothelium, and the decrease in its bioavailability is related to coronary and arterial diseases, such as AH. This study aimed to perform an integrative literature review to elucidate the effect of physical training on NO levels in patients with AH and to establish a relationship between these levels and blood pressure (BP) control. A literature review was was performed by searching PubMed / MEDLINE, Lilacs, Scielo, Cinahl and Embase databases. The search string used was ("arterial hypertension" OR hypertension) AND (exercise OR "physical exercise" OR "aerobic exercise" OR "exercise training" or "physical activity") AND ("nitric oxide"). We included fully available controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials published in English and Portuguese languages in the last 10 years. The review consisted of 16 articles, of which 13 reported an increase in NO production after the physical training intervention, and three studies found no change. In addition, 15 studies observed a reduction in BP after the intervention. In conclusion, regular practice of physical exercises, advocating moderate intensity, can improve NO bioavailability in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals, which seems to be one of the mechanisms responsible for BP reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Exercise/physiology , Hypertension/therapy , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Human/physiology , Hypertension/metabolism
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4600, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011991

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the calcium influx pathways implicated in the sustained elevation of endothelial intracellular calcium concentration, required for the synthesis and release of relaxing factors. Methods: We evaluated the effect of the newly synthesized pyrazole derivatives, described as selective inhibitors for ORAI (BTP2/Pyr2 and Pyr6) and TRPC3 (Pyr3 and Pyr10) channels, upon endothelium- and extracellular calcium-dependent relaxations stimulated by acetylcholine and thapsigargin, in pre-constricted rat thoracic aortic rings. Results: Acetylcholine and thapsigargin responses were completely reverted by Pyr2 and Pyr6 (1 to 3μM). Pyr3 (0.3 to 3μM) caused a rapid reversal of acetylcholine (6.2±0.08mg.s−1) and thapsigargin (3.9±0.25mg.s−1) relaxations, whereas the more selective TRPC3 blocker Pyr10 (1 to 3μM) had no effect. The recently described TRPC4/5 selective blocker, ML204 (1 to 3μM), reverted completely acetylcholine relaxations, but minimally thapsigargin induced ones. Noteworthy, relaxations elicited by GSK1016790A (TRPV4 agonist) were unaffected by pyrazole compounds or ML204. After Pyr2 and Pyr6 pre-incubation, acetylcholine and thapsigargin evoked transient relaxations similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Sodium nitroprusside relaxations as well as phenylephrine-induced contractions (denuded aorta) were not affected by any of pyrazole compounds (1 to 3μM). Conclusion: These observations revealed a previously unrecognized complexity in rat aorta endothelial calcium influx pathways, which result in production and release of nitric oxide. Pharmacologically distinguishable pathways mediate acetylcholine (ORAI/TRPC other than TRPC3/TRPC4 calcium-permeable channels) and thapsigargin (TRPC4 not required) induced calcium influx.


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar as vias do influxo de cálcio envolvidas no aumento sustentado da concentração intracelular de cálcio na célula endotelial, essencial para a síntese e a liberação de fatores relaxantes. Métodos: Analisamos o efeito de derivados pirazólicos sintetizados recentemente, descritos como inibidores seletivos para canais ORAI (BTP2/Pyr2 e Pyr6) e TRPC3 (Pyr3 e Pyr10), nos relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio e cálcio extracelular, produzidos por acetilcolina e tapsigargina, em anéis pré-contraídos da aorta torácica de rato. Resultados: As respostas de acetilcolina e tapsigargina foram completamente revertidas por Pyr2 e Pyr6 (1 a 3μM). Pyr3 (0,3 a 3μM) produziu reversão rápida dos relaxamentos de acetilcolina (6,2±0,08mg.s−1) e tapsigargina (3,9±0,25mg.s−1), enquanto o bloqueador mais seletivo para TRPC3, Pyr10 (1 a 3μM), não apresentou efeito. ML204 (1 a 3μM), bloqueador seletivo de TRPC4, descrito há pouco tempo, reverteu os relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina de forma completa, mas afetou minimamente aqueles produzidos por tapsigargina. Os derivados pirazólicos ou ML204 não afetaram os relaxamentos estimulados com GSK1016790A (TRPV4-agonista). Ainda, após pré-incubação com Pyr2 e Pyr6, acetilcolina e tapsigargina provocaram relaxamentos transitórios semelhantes em magnitude e cinética àqueles observados na ausência de cálcio extracelular. Os relaxamentos do nitroprussiato de sódio e as contrações induzidas pela fenilefrina (aorta sem endotélio) não foram afetados pelos compostos pirazólicos (1 a 3μM). Conclusão: Essas observações revelaram uma complexidade desconhecida das vias de influxo de cálcio no endotélio da aorta de rato, que resultam na produção e na liberação de óxido nítrico. Vias distinguíveis farmacologicamente medeiam o influxo estimulado por acetilcolina (ORAI TRPC, diferentes de TRPC3 TRPC4) e tapsigargina (TRPC4 não requerido).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Calcium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , TRPV Cation Channels/drug effects , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 436-442, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). Resultados: A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na síntese de NO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Resistance Training , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 395-403, July-Sep. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761966

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals.Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations.Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances.ConclusionsCombretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors.


Objetivo Descrever e caracterizar os relaxamentos induzidos por um extrato das cascas de Combretum leprosum em anéis de artérias de diferentes espécies de animais.Métodos Anéis (3 a 4mm) de artérias de coelho, rato e porco foram montados em cubas para órgão isolado (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) para registro das contrações isométricas. Após um período de estabilização (2 a 3 horas), as contrações foram induzidas com fenilefrina (0,1 a 0,3µM) ou U46619 (10 a 100nM); no platô dessas contrações, adicionamos o extrato Combretum leprosum. Diferentes protocolos foram realizados para determinar potência, duração, reversibilidade e mecanismo dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato.Resultados Em todas as preparações testadas, o extrato de Combretum leprosum (1,5µg/mL) provocou relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio. Em aorta torácica de coelho ou rato, os relaxamentos foram revertidos pela vitamina B12a ou L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em anéis de aorta abdominal de coelho e de artérias coronárias de porco, o extrato causou relaxamentos sensíveis e resistentes à L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em aorta torácica de coelho, o extrato foi relativamente muito potente (EC50=0,20μg/mL) e quando causou relaxamentos; intrigantemente o endotélio continuou a produzir fatores relaxantes por um longo período após remoção do extrato. A magnitude dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato foi significativamente reduzida em ausência Ca2+ extracelular; ademais, o vermelho de rutênio (10μM), um bloqueador de canais TRPs, foi capaz de reverter os relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato. Análises preliminares indicaram que o extrato continha compostos com reatividade química semelhante à polifenóis.Conclusão O extrato de Combretum leprosum contem compostos bioativos capazes de promover estimulação dependente de Ca2+ das células endoteliais a qual resulta numa produção prolongada de fatores relaxantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Male , Mice , Rabbits , Combretum/chemistry , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Aorta, Abdominal/physiology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Carotid Artery, Common/drug effects , Carotid Artery, Common/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/drug effects , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiology , Muscle Relaxation/physiology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Swine , Time Factors
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 711-714, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728641

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To create in vitro a model to generate acidosis by CO2 bubbling "organ chambers", which would be useful for researchers that aim to study the effects of acid-base disturbs on the endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats (230-280g) were housed, before the experiments, under standard laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle at 21°C), with free access to food and water. The protocol for promoting in vitro respiratory acidosis was carried out by bubbling increased concentrations of CO2. The target was to achieve an ideal way to decrease the pH gradually to a value of approximately 6.6.It was used, initially, a gas blender varying concentrations of the carbogenic mixture (95% O2 + 5% CO2) and pure CO2. RESULTS: 1) 100% CO2, pH variation very fast, pH minimum 6.0; 2) 90%CO2 pH variation bit slower, pH minimum6.31; 3) 70%CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6.32; 4) 50% CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6:42; 5) 40 %CO2, Adequate record, pH minimum 6.61, and; 6) 30 %CO2 could not reach values below pH minimum 7.03. Based on these data the gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was adopted, CONCLUSION: This gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was effective in inducing respiratory acidosis at a speed that made, possible the recording of isometric force. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acidosis, Respiratory/chemically induced , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Acidosis, Respiratory/metabolism , Acidosis, Respiratory/physiopathology , Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide/chemistry , Endothelium, Vascular/chemistry , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(9): 920-932, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599670

ABSTRACT

The endothelium plays a vital role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis by the release of relaxing and contracting factors. Any change in this balance may result in a process known as endothelial dysfunction that leads to impaired control of vascular tone and contributes to the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic diseases. Reduced endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased production of thromboxane A2, prostaglandin H2 and superoxide anion in conductance and resistance arteries are commonly associated with endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive, diabetic and obese animals, resulting in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and in increased vasoconstrictor responses. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the role of enhanced overactivation ofβ-adrenergic receptors inducing vascular cytokine production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling that seem to be the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in hypertension, heart failure and in endocrine-metabolic disorders. However, some adaptive mechanisms can occur in the initial stages of hypertension, such as increased NO production by eNOS. The present review focuses on the role of NO bioavailability, eNOS uncoupling, cyclooxygenase-derived products and pro-inflammatory factors on the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in hypertension, sympathetic hyperactivity, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These are cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases of high incidence and mortality around the world, especially in developing countries and endothelial dysfunction contributes to triggering, maintenance and worsening of these pathological situations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 96(1): 68-75, jan. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-573607

ABSTRACT

O óxido nítrico (NO), primariamente identificado como um fator relaxante derivado do endotélio, é um radical livre atuante na sinalização de diferentes processos biológicos. A identificação das isoformas das sintases do NO (NOS) e a subsequente caracterização dos mecanismos de ativação celulares das enzimas possibilitaram tanto a compreensão de parte das interações fisiológicas como a compreensão de parte dos mecanismos de doença, na qual o NO está envolvido. A isoforma endotelial da NOS (eNOS), expressa principalmente no endotélio vascular, desempenha importante papel na regulação da reatividade vascular e no desenvolvimento e na progressão da aterosclerose. Esta revisão tem o propósito de contextualizar o leitor sobre a estrutura da eNOS e seus mecanismos de ativação celular. Tendo em vista os avanços da biologia molecular, trataremos ainda dos conhecidos mecanismos de regulação da expressão gênica e do papel de variantes no código genético da eNOS associados a fenótipos cardiovasculares. Embora se reconheça a importância do NO como molécula ateroprotetora, nossa atenção estará voltada à revisão de literatura envolvendo NO e sua participação na modulação do fenótipo de vasodilatação muscular.


Nitric oxide (NO), primarily identified as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is a free radical that signals different biological processes. The identification of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and the subsequent characterization of the mechanisms of cell activation of the enzymes permitted the partial understanding of both the physiological interactions and of the mechanisms of the diseases in which NO is involved. Mainly expressed in the vascular endothelium, the endothelial NOS isoform (eNOS) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular reactivity and in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this review is to contextualize the reader about the eNOS structure and its mechanisms of cell activation. In view of the advances in molecular biology, we will also address the known mechanisms of gene expression regulation and the role of variants on the genetic code of eNOS associated with cardiovascular phenotypes. Although the importance of NO as an atheroprotective molecule is recognized, our focus will be the review of the literature on NO and its participation in the modulation of the muscle vasodilatation phenotype.


El óxido nítrico (NO), primariamente identificado como un factor relajante derivado del endotelio, es un radical libre actuante en la señalización de diferentes procesos biológicos. La identificación de las isoformas de las sintasas del NO (NOS) y la subsecuente caracterización de los mecanismos de activación celulares de las enzimas posibilitaron tanto la comprensión de parte de las interacciones fisiológicas como la comprensión de parte de los mecanismos de enfermedad, en la cual el NO está envuelto. La isoforma endotelial de la NOS (eNOS), expresada principalmente en el endotelio vascular, desempeña importante papel en la regulación de la reactividad vascular y en el desarrollo y en la progresión de la aterosclerosis. Esta revisión tiene el propósito de contextualizar al lector sobre la estructura de la eNOS y sus mecanismos de activación celular. Teniendo en vista los avances de la biología molecular, trataremos aun de los conocidos mecanismos de regulación de la expresión génica y del papel de variantes en el código genético de la eNOS asociados a fenotipos cardiovasculares. Aunque se reconozca la importancia del NO como molécula ateroprotectora, nuestra atención estará volcada a la revisión de literatura envolviendo NO y su participación en la modulación del fenotipo de vasodilatación muscular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/physiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/physiology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Enzyme Activation , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology , Muscles/blood supply , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide/genetics , Phenotype , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology
9.
Colomb. med ; 41(1): 10-16, jan.-mar. 2010. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-572987

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study shows the relaxant effect induced by ayanin in aorta rings from Wistar rats linked to nitric oxide/cyclic-GMP pathway. This flavonoid is the prevalent compound obtained from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), specie used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of arterial hypertension. Objectives: To identify possible action mechanisms of vascular relaxation induced by ayanin (quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether).Methodology: Isolated aorta rings from Wistar rats obtained at the Animal House of the University of Salamanca were contracted with KCl (80 mM) or phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M) and exposed to ayanin (10-6-10-4 M). Then, the effect of ayanin was assessed in deendothelized rings contracted with PE and in intact rings contracted with PE previously incubated with: ODQ (10-6 M), L-NAME (10-4 M), L-NAME plus D- and L-arginine (10-4 M), indomethacin (5x10-6 M), dipyridamole (3x10-7 M), glibenclamide (10-6 M), propranolol (10-6 M), verapamil (10-7 M) or atropine (3x10-5 M). In addition, the relaxant effect of acetylcholine (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M) was assessed in the presence and absence of ayanin (10-6 M).Results: Ayanin induced a greater concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels contracted with phenylephrine (pEC50: 5.84±0.05), an effect significantly reduced by deendothelization and by both ODQ and L-NAME. L-arginine was able to reverse the effect of L-NAME. Indomethacin weakly inhibited ayanin response. Dipyridamole, glibenclamide, propranolol, verapamil, and atropine did not affect ayanin relaxation. Ayanin did not have any effect on the relaxation elicited by acetylcholine (ACh), while weakly decreasing the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP).Conclusion: Ayanin induces endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta mainly related to nitric oxide/cGMP pathway, according to the response observed in the presence of L-NAME, L-arginine and ODQ.


Introdución: Este estudio muestra el efecto vasodilatador inducido por ayanina en anillos de aorta de ratas Wistar vinculado con la vía óxido nítrico/GMP-cíclico. Este flavonoide es el compuesto mayoritario aislado de Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), especie utilizada en la medicina popular colombiana para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial. Objetivos: Identificar los posibles mecanismos vasodilatadores inducidos por la ayanina (quercetin 3,4',7-trimetileter). Metodología: Se adicionó ayanina (10-6 - 10-4 M) a anillos aislados de aorta procedentes de ratas Wistar contraídos con KCl (80 mM) o fenilefrina (10-6 M). Luego se evaluó el efecto de la ayanina en anillos sin endotelio contraídos con fenilefrina y en anillos íntegros, contraídos con fenilefrina, previamente incubados con: ODQ (10-6 M), L-NAME (10-4 M), L-NAME más L- o D-arginina (10-4 M), indometacina (5x10-6 M), dipiridamol (3x10-7 M), glibenclamida (10-6 M), propranolol (10-6 M), verapamilo (10-7 M) o atropina (3x10-5 M). Además se examinó la relajación inducida por acetilcolina (Ach, 10-8-3x10-4 M) y nitroprusiato de sodio (SNP, 10-9-3x10-5 M) en presencia y ausencia de ayanina (10-6 M). Resultados: La ayanina produjo una mayor relajación en los anillos contraídos con fenilefrina (pEC50: 5.84±0.05), efecto que se redujo en anillos sin endotelio o en anillos íntegros preincubados con ODQ y L-NAME. L-arginina fue capaz de revertir la respuesta inducida por L-NAME. La indometacina inhibió discretamente la relajación generada por la ayanina. El dipyridamol, la glibenclamida, el propranolol, el verapamilo y la atropina no modificaron el efecto de la ayanina. La ayanina no afectó la relajación inducida por la acetilcolina y débilmente disminuyó la inducida por el nitroprusiato de sodio...


Subject(s)
Rats , Aorta , Croton , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Flavonoids , Rats, Wistar , Vasodilator Agents
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325072

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) on endothelial-dependent (EDV) and non- dependent (EIV) vascular relaxation in ex vivo thoracic aortic rings of obese rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifteen SD rats were randomized into 3 equal groups, namely the control group fed with normal chow, obese group with high-fat chow, and AM intervention group fed with high-fat chow and daily AM gavage. The rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of feeding, and the aortic rings were dissected and cut into 3-mm rings. The response to acethylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were examined in organ bath. In ex vivo study, the aortic rings obtained from the control group and obese group were incubated with AM or vehicle for 3 h in organ bath before testing the EDV and EIV. The body weight and weight of the visceral fat in each group were recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The weight of visceral fat was greater in the obese group than in the control group, and a 6-week AM treatment significantly reduced the fat tissue due to high-fat diet. The maximum EDV value was (87.0 - or + 3.5)% in the control group, (54.8 - or + 7.8)% in the obese group, and (69.8 - or + 5.7)% in AM intervention group; the EIV values were comparable between the 3 groups. After incubation with AM, the maximum EDV values of aortic rings obtained from the obese group were significantly increased from (55.6 - or + 8.3)% to (85.1 - or + 4.5)%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>AM can improve endothelial dysfunction in obese rats, and the mechanism involves improved insulin resistance and increased endothelium-derived NO productor function.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Pathology , Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Pathology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Therapeutic Uses , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin Resistance , Male , Obesity , Phytotherapy , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasodilator Agents , Pharmacology
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 24(2): 225-232, abr.-jun. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-525555

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estudar a liberação de fatores relaxantes derivados do endotélio (EDRF) pelo endocárdio de aurículas de corações caninos. MÉTODOS: Aurículas atriais caninas foram suturadas em forma de tubos e o efluente desses tubos foram submetidos a ensaios biológicos (sistema de perfusão isolada em câmaras de órgãos) utilizando artéria coronária canina, para a detecção de EDRFs. RESULTADOS: O efluente da aurícula direita promoveu relaxamento de 58,4 + 10,1 por cento e da aurícula esquerda 74,9 + 8,5 por cento da contração inicial obtida pela ação da prostagladina F2α em artéria coronária. Não houve diferença estatística no relaxamento da artéria coronária induzido pelos efluentes das aurículas direita e esquerda. O relaxamento induzido pelos efluentes das aurículas direita e esquerda foi abolido pelo tratamento das mesmas com Triton X-100. O tratamento das aurículas com L-NMMA, um inibidor competitivo da síntese de óxido nítrico, e com indometacina, um inibidor da via da ciclooxigenase, promoveu redução no relaxamento da artéria coronária induzido pelo efluente auricular, indicando que o endotélio endocárdico libera óxido nítrico e prostanóides. CONCLUSÕES: Esse estudo demonstra, pela primeira vez, a liberação luminal in vitro de EDRF e prostaciclina pelo átrio de coração canino. A habilidade do endotélio endocárdico em produzir esses fatores pode ter um papel importante na prevenção da formação de trombos nas câmaras cardíacas.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors from the endocardium of canine atrial appendage. METHODS: To study the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from intact atrial endocardial endothelium, tube-shaped sutures of canine atrial appendages were performed and effluents from these tubes were bioassayed (isolated perfused organ chamber system) for detection of EDRF in canine coronary artery. RESULTS: Effluent from the right atrial appendage caused a relaxation of 58.4 + 10.1 percent and the left atrial appendage 74.9 + 8.5 percent from the initial prostagladin F2α contraction in coronary artery. No significant statistical difference was detected in effluent from the right and left atrial appendages. This relaxation was abolished by treating the heart tubes with Triton X-100 and reduced by treatment with LNMMA, a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide and with indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway, also indicating the release of vasodilatory prostanoids from the endocardial endothelium. CONCLUSION: This study showed for the first time, in vitro luminal release of EDRF and prostacyclin from the canine heart atrium. The ability of the endocardial endothelium to produce these factors could play an important role in preventing thrombus formation in the cardiac chambers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , /metabolism , Biological Assay , Endocardium/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biological Assay/methods , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart Atria/metabolism , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , omega-N-Methylarginine/pharmacology
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To clarify the effect of hypoxia on vascular contractility, we tried to show whether hypoxia induced the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and the nature of the underlying mechanism for this release. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Isometric contractions were observed in rabbit aorta, and the released EDRF from the rabbit aorta was bioassayed by using rabbit denuded carotid artery. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the cultured rabbit aortic endothelial cells was recorded by a microfluorimeter with using Fura-2/AM. Hypoxia was evoked to the blood vessels or endothelial cells by eliminating the O2 in the aerating gases in the external solution. Chemical hypoxia was evoked by applying deoxyglucose or CN-. RESULT: Hypoxia relaxed the precontracted rabbit thoracic aorta that had its endothelium, and the magnitude of the relaxation was gradually increased by repetitive bouts of hypoxia. In contrast, hypoxia-induced relaxation was not evoked in the aorta that was denuded of endothelium. In a bioassay experiment, hypoxia released endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and the release was inhibited by L-NAME or the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA). In the cultured endothelial cells, hypoxia augmented the ATP-induced increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and this increase was inhibited by TEA. Furthermore, chemical hypoxia also increased the Ca2+ influx. CONCLUSION: From these results, it can be concluded that hypoxia might induce the release of NO from rabbit aortic endothelial cells by increasing [Ca2+]i.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Aorta , Aorta, Thoracic , Biological Assay , Blood Vessels , Carotid Arteries , Deoxyglucose , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Gases , Isometric Contraction , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitrous Oxide , Relaxation , Tea , Tetraethylammonium
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242386

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relationship of Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation function (EDVF) in patients with hypertensive disease (HD) for providing an objective basis of syndrome differentiation in HD patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Color Doppler's ultrasound was used to measure the endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in 60 HD patients (the HD group) and 30 normal controls (the control group). And the relationship of the outcomes with Chinese medicine syndrome types in patients was analyzed statistically.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>FMD was lower and CIMT was higher in HD patients of all syndrome types than those in the control group respectively (P<0.01). Comparison between patients of different syndrome types showed that FMD was higher in patients of Gan-fire exuberance type and yin-deficiency and yang-hyperaction type than in those of both yin-yang deficiency type and phlegm-dampness stagnancy type (P<0.01, P<0.05), while CIMT in patients of Gan-fire exuberance type was the lowest in all types, and that in yin-deficiency and yang-hyperaction type was lower than in yin-yang deficiency type (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CIMT and FMD may be used as a reference index for CM syndrome differentiation in HD patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Case-Control Studies , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Middle Aged , Tunica Intima , Diagnostic Imaging , Tunica Media , Diagnostic Imaging
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268818

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the protective effect of metformin on the endothelial function and the mechanisms in rats with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) injection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A single dose (4 mg/kg) of natural LDL was injected through the sublingual vein of rats to induce vascular endothelial dysfunction. Blood samples were then collected from the rats to detect the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and serum lipid levels. The thoracic aorta of rats was obtained to assay acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation. The effects of metformin pretreatment on the endothelial functions in the rats were investigated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A single-dose LDL significantly inhibited ACh-induced EDR without affecting SNP-induced endothelial-independent relaxation. The injection decreased serum NO and elevated serum MDA level, but had no effect on serum lipid level. Metformin markedly attenuated LDL-induced inhibition of EDR, serum MDA elevation, and serum NO reduction without affecting the serum lipid levels.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Metformin provides protection against vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by LDL in rats, the mechanism of which is probably associated with protection of endothelium-dependent relaxation factor and inhibition of the oxidative stress.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Endothelium, Vascular , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL , Male , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Metformin , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Blood , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Vasodilation , Physiology
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 34(10): 838-844, out. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-496620

ABSTRACT

A hipertensão arterial pulmonar é classificada como idiopática ou secundária (associada a colagenoses, cardiopatias, hipertensão portal, tromboembolismo pulmonar e doenças da vasculatura pulmonar). O teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar é indicado para definir a melhor opção terapêutica. Muitas drogas têm sido utilizadas para a realização desse teste, sendo o óxido nítrico inalado a melhor opção, por apresentar ação específica pulmonar e meia vida muita curta (5-10 s). O resultado desse teste identifica candidatos à cirurgia cardíaca nas cardiopatias congênitas e candidatos ao uso de antagonista de cálcio nas outras formas de hipertensão pulmonar. A realização e interpretação do teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar exigem grande responsabilidade, e erros podem levar a decisões erradas e à ocorrência de óbitos.


Pulmonary arterial hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary (associated with collagenoses, heart disease, portal hypertension, pulmonary thromboembolism, and pulmonary vascular diseases). Pulmonary vasoreactivity should be tested in order to define the best treatment option. Of the many drugs that have been used to test pulmonary vasoreactivity, inhaled nitric oxide is the best choice, due its specific pulmonary effect and very short half-life (5-10 s). The results of this test identify candidates for heart surgery among patients with congenital heart disease and candidates for the use of calcium antagonists among patients with other forms of pulmonary hypertension. Performing and interpreting the results of such tests are a great responsibility, since mistakes can lead to incorrect treatment decisions, resulting in the death of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Reference Values
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252767

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To explore the resistant arterial effect of superoxide anion and its possible mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The third branch of the superior mesenteric artery in male Sprague-Dawley (200-300 g) rats was rapidly excised. Periadventitial fats and connective tissues were removed and the artery was dissected into about 2 mm rings. Each ring was dispensed between two stainless steel wires (diameter 0.0394 mm) in a 5 ml organ bath (DMT 610 M, Danish Myo Technology, Denmark). Isometric force recording studies in vitro of rat mesenteric arterial rings were recorded by Powerlab Syetem. Exposure of arteries to superoxide was accomplished through the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol added to the artery baths. Then endothelium-dependent or independent relaxation was investigated, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Exposure to pyrogallol (10, 100, 300, and 1 000 micromol/L) which could produce superoxide anion for 15 min resulted in a dose-dependent manner in a decrease of acetylcholine(ACh)-induced relaxation in rat mesenteric artery. Especially, the two predominant components of acetylcholine(ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, EDHF component and NO component were both inhibited by superoxide anion from pyrogallol. However, exposure to superoxide anion from pyrogallol had no effect on the endothelium-independent relaxations to pinacidil or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat mesenteric artery.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These results indicate that superoxide anion can inhibit the endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric artery, but has no effect on the endothelium-independent relaxation, in which the inhibited effect of EDHF and NO from endothelium is involved.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Pharmacology , Animals , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Physiology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mesenteric Arteries , Physiology , Nitric Oxide , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxides , Pharmacology , Vasodilation , Physiology
17.
Clinics ; 63(5): 677-682, 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495044

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique). We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31 percent were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13), as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96). The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Hand/blood supply , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Veins/drug effects , Young Adult
18.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(6): 901-912, ago. 2007. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-464281

ABSTRACT

O principal determinante da nefropatia diabética é a hiperglicemia, mas hipertensão e fatores genéticos também estão envolvidos. O glomérulo é o foco de lesão, onde proliferação celular mesangial e produção excessiva de matriz extracelular decorrem do aumento da glicose intracelular, por excesso de glicose extracelular e hiperexpressão de GLUT1. Seguem-se aumento do fluxo pela via dos polióis, estresse oxidativo intracelular, produção intracelular aumentada de produtos avançados da glicação não enzimática (AGEs), ativação da via da PKC, aumento da atividade da via das hexosaminas e ativação de TGF-beta1. Altas concentrações de glicose também aumentam angiotensina II (AII) nas células mesangiais por aumento intracelular da atividade da renina (ações intrácrinas, mediando efeitos proliferativos e inflamatórios diretamente). Portanto, glicose e AII exercem efeitos proliferativos celulares e de matriz extracelular nas células mesangiais, utilizando vias de transdução de sinais semelhantes, que levam a aumento de TGF-beta1. Nesse estudo são revisadas as vias que sinalizam os efeitos da glicose e AII nas células mesangiais em causar os eventos-chaves relacionados à gênese da glomerulopatia diabética. As alterações das vias de sinalização implicadas na glomerulopatia, aqui revisadas, suportam dados de estudos observacionais/ensaios clínicos, onde controle metabólico e anti-hipertensivo, especificamente com inibidores do sistema renina-angiotensina, têm-se mostrado importantes - e aditivos - na prevenção do início e progressão da nefropatia. Novas estratégias terapêuticas dirigidas aos eventos intracelulares descritos deverão futuramente promover benefício adicional.


The determinant of the diabetic nephropathy is hyperglycemia, but hypertension and other genetic factors are also involved. Glomerulus is the focus of the injury, where mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix occur because of the increase of the intra- and extracellular glucose concentration and overexpression of GLUT1. Sequentially, there are increases in the flow by the poliol pathway, oxidative stress, increased intracellular production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), activation of the PKC pathway, increase of the activity of the hexosamine pathway, and activation of TGF-beta1. High glucose concentrations also increase angiotensin II (AII) levels. Therefore, glucose and AII exert similar effects in inducing extracellular matrix formation in the mesangial cells, using similar transductional signal, which increases TGF-beta1 levels. In this review we focus in the effect of glucose and AII in the mesangial cells in causing the events related to the genesis of diabetic nephropathy. The alterations in the signal pathways discussed in this review give support to the observational studies and clinical assays, where metabolic and antihypertensive controls obtained with angiotensin-converting inhibitors have shown important and additive effect in the prevention of the beginning and progression of diabetic nephropathy. New therapeutic strategies directed to the described intracellular events may give future additional benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Glomerular Mesangium , Hyperglycemia/complications , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Glomerular Mesangium/metabolism , Glomerular Mesangium/pathology , Glomerular Mesangium/physiopathology , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Sclerosis/metabolism , Sclerosis/physiopathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/metabolism
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jun; 45(6): 505-14
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61063

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms underlying the impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation induced by dietary hypercholesterolemia and the mechanisms of restoration of endothelial function following reintroduction of low cholesterol diet were evaluated. Feeding rats with high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolemia and high blood pressure. This was associated with reduced vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine, isoproterenol, and adenosine. At the same time, exaggerated contractile responses to serotonin and phenylephrine were observed. Reintroduction of a normal diet to cholesterol fed rats resulted in significant normalization of blood pressure, serum lipid profile, relaxation and contractile responses. The contributions of endothelial derived relaxing factors (EDRF), endothelial derived contractile factors (EDCFs)/prostanoids, and endothelial derived hyperpoalrising factor (EDHF) to the vasorelaxation in each group of animals were assessed. EDCFs constricting activity was increased in both cholesterol fed groups as compared to the control group. EDRF and EDHF were found to be the primary factors involved in the regulation of endothelium-mediated responsiveness. In control animals, EDRF was responsible for 70-90% of relaxation, depending on the agonist used. In cholesterol fed animals, EDRF was significantly reduced while EDHF was maintained or enhanced showing that EDHF had a significant role in maintaining the endothelial responses. Importantly, the restoration of vasorelaxation following reintroduction of normal diet was mediated not only by improvement of EDRF-dependent relaxation, but also to a significant extent by a further increase in EDHF-mediated relaxation. Taken together, the data showed that EDRF was attenuated during hypercholesterolemia and dietary interventions with low fat content restored these responses. However, EDHF-mediated responses were not reduced by hypercholesterolemia and subsequently improved their function after application of low cholesterol diet. The results implicate EDHF-mediated relaxation is also an important mechanism for restoration of endothelial function upon application of dietary restrictions for reduction of serum cholesterol level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Factors/physiology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Caloric Restriction , Diet , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypercholesterolemia/blood , Lipids/blood , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 674-680, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258607

ABSTRACT

Since a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor can reduce infarct size and improve contractility in ischemic myocardium, the aim of the present study was to explore whether COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide could protect myocardial function against oxidative stress injury in rat hearts, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The isolated rat hearts perfused by Langendorff method were exposed to 140 mumol/L of H2O2, and the cardiac contractility was measured. Then, the responses of coronary arteries, precontracted with U-46619, to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator serotonin (5-HT) and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were evaluated. The results were as follows: (1) In hearts exposed to H2O2 for 20 min, the left ventricular developed pressure [LVDP, (54.8 +/- 4.0)%] and maximal rate of rise/fall of ventricular pressure [+/-dp/dt(max), (50.8 +/- 3.1)% and (46.2 +/- 2.9) %] were reduced compared with that in the control group (100%). After pretreatment with nimesulide (5 mumol/L) for 10 min before H2O2 perfusion, LVDP and +/-dp/dt(max) were enhanced to (79.9 +/- 2.8)%, (80.3 +/- 2.6)% and (81.4 +/- 2.6)%, respectively (P<0.01), and this was partially abolished by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME [(60.2 +/- 2.1)%, (63.9 +/- 2.4)% and (63.1 +/- 2.9)%, respectively, P<0.01]. (2) The vasodilatation induced by 5-HT and SNP in H2O2-treated group was significantly less than that in the control group. Pretreatment with nimesulide for 10 min antagonized the decrease of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in H2O2-treated group [(-22.2 +/- 4.2) % vs (-6.0 +/- 2.5) %, P<0.01], but had no effect on the decline of endothelium-independent vasodilatation [(-2.0 +/- 1.8)% vs (-7.0 +/- 3.5) %, P>0.05]. (3) Pretreatment with nimesulide for 10 min increased the NO production in H2O2-treated hearts [(2.63 +/- 0.40) vs (1.36 +/- 0.23) nmol/g protein, P<0.05], and this was inhibited by L-NAME. (4) Pretreatment with the selective COX-1 inhibitor piroxicam had no effect on LVDP and +/-dp/dt(max) in isolated hearts exposed to H2O2, but the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was much higher than that in the group treated with H2O2 alone. Piroxicam did not influence the coronary resistance in H2O2-treated rat hearts. These data suggest that the COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide improves myocardial function in rat hearts suffering from oxidative stress, and this may be through an improvement in endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation and an enhancement of NO production in rat heart.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Endothelium, Vascular , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Heart , Hydrogen Peroxide , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Myocardium , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Sulfonamides , Pharmacology , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents
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