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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391


Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.

Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.

Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 266-270, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389636


Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and blood purification therapies have a role to immunomodulate the excessive inflammatory response and improve clinical results. One of the devices designed for these therapies is the oXiris® filter, allowing to perform renal replacement therapy combined with selective adsorption of endotoxins and cytokines. We report a 55-year-old male with COVID who developed a septic shock secondary to a sepsis caused by Pseudomona aeruginosa, refractory to the usual management. A veno-venous continuous hemofiltration was started using the oXiris® filter for 48 hours. Subsequently, there was an improvement in clinical perfusion parameters and a reduction in inflammatory markers. The patient was discharged from the intensive care one month later.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Shock, Septic/complications , Shock, Septic/therapy , Sepsis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Endotoxins
Acta cir. bras ; 37(1): e370105, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364250


Purpose: To evaluate how the induction of liver damage by ischemia and reperfusion affects the adipose tissue of lean and obese mice. Methods: Lean and diet-induced obese mice were subjected to liver ischemia (30 min) followed by 6 h of reperfusion. The vascular stromal fraction of visceral adipose tissue was analyzed by cytometry, and gene expression was evaluated by an Array assay and by RT-qPCR. Intestinal permeability was assessed by oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and endotoxemia by serum endotoxin measurements using a limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Results: It was found that, after liver ischemia and reperfusion, there is an infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, as well as an increase in the gene expression that encode cytokines, chemokines and their receptors in the visceral adipose tissue of lean mice. This inflammatory response was associated with the presence of endotoxemia in lean mice. However, these changes were not observed in the visceral adipose tissue of obese mice. Conclusions: Liver ischemia and reperfusion induce an acute inflammatory response in adipose tissue of lean mice characterized by an intense chemokine induction and leukocyte infiltration; however, inflammatory alterations are already present at baseline in the obese adipose tissue and liver ischemia and reperfusion do not injure further.

Animals , Mice , Reperfusion Injury/veterinary , Interleukin-6 , Endotoxins/analysis , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/analysis
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 422-433, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936029


Objective: To investigate the effects of non-muscle myosin Ⅱ (NMⅡ) gene silenced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on pulmonary extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibrosis in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. Cells from femur and tibial bone marrow cavity of four one-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were identified as BMMSCs by flow cytometry, and the third passage of BMMSCs were used in the following experiments. The cells were divided into NMⅡ silenced group transfected with pHBLV-U6-ZsGreen-Puro plasmid containing small interference RNA sequence of NMⅡ gene, vector group transfected with empty plasmid, and blank control group without any treatment, and the protein expression of NMⅡ at 72 h after intervention was detected by Western blotting (n=3). The morphology of cells was observed by an inverted phase contrast microscope and cells labeled with chloromethylbenzoine (CM-DiⅠ) in vitro were observed by an inverted fluorescence microscope. Twenty 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into blank control group, ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group according to the random number table, with 5 rats in each group. Rats in blank control group were not treated, and rats in the other 3 groups were given LPS to induce ALI. Immediately after modeling, rats in ALI alone group were injected with 1 mL normal saline via tail vein, rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were injected with 1×107/mL BMMSCs and NMⅡ gene silenced BMMSCs of 1 mL labelled with CM-DiⅠ via tail vein, and rats in blank control group were injected with 1 mL normal saline via tail vein at the same time point, respectively. At 24 h after intervention, the lung tissue was collected to observe intrapulmonary homing of the BMMSCs by an inverted fluorescence microscope. Lung tissue was collected at 24 h, in 1 week, and in 2 weeks after intervention to observe pulmonary inflammation by hematoxylin eosin staining and to observe pulmonary fibrosis by Masson staining, and the pulmonary fibrosis in 2 weeks after intervention was scored by modified Ashcroft score (n=5). The content of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 2 weeks after intervention (n=3), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase (MPO) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 24 h after intervention (n=3), and the protein expressions of CD11b and epidermal growth factor like module containing mucin like hormone receptor 1 (EMR1) in 1 week after intervention were detected by immunofluorescence staining (n=3). Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, Bonferroni method, and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results: At 72 h after intervention, the NMⅡprotein expression of cells in NMⅡ silenced group was significantly lower than those in blank control group and vector group (with P values <0.01). BMMSCs were in long spindle shape and grew in cluster shaped like vortexes, which were labelled with CM-DiⅠ successfully in vitro. At 24 h after intervention, cell homing in lung of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was more pronounced than that in ALI+BMMSC group, while no CM-DiⅠ-labelled BMMSCs were observed in lung of rats in blank control group and ALI alone group. There was no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue of rats in blank control group at all time points, while inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly less than that in ALI alone group at 24 h after intervention, and alveolar wall turned to be thinner and a small amount of congestion in local lung tissue appeared in rats of the two groups in 1 week and 2 weeks after intervention. In 1 week and 2 weeks after intervention, collagen fiber deposition in lung tissue of rats in ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly aggravated compared with that in blank control group, while collagen fiber deposition in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly improved compared with that in ALI alone group. In 2 weeks after intervention, modified Ashcroft scores for pulmonary fibrosis of rats in ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were 2.36±0.22, 1.62±0.16, 1.06±0.26, respectively, significantly higher than 0.30±0.21 in blank control group (P<0.01). Modified Ashcroft scores for pulmonary fibrosis of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly lower than that in ALI alone group (P<0.01), and modified Ashcroft score for pulmonary fibrosis of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly lower than that in ALI+BMMSC group (P<0.01). In 2 weeks after intervention, the content of α-SMA in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly decreased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The content of MMP-2 in lung tissue of rats in the 4 groups was similar (P>0.05). The content of MMP-9 in lung tissue of rats in ALI alone group was significantly increased compared with that in blank control group (P<0.01), and the content of MMP-9 in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.01). At 24 h after intervention, the activity of malondialdehyde, SOD, and MPO in lung tissue of rats in ALI alone group, ALI+BMMSC group, and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly increased compared with that in blank control group (P<0.01), the activity of malondialdehyde in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group and the activity of SOD in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group were significantly increased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the activity of SOD in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI+BMMSC group (P<0.01). The activity of MPO in lung tissue of rats in ALI+BMMSC group and ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI alone group (P<0.01), and the activity of MPO in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly decreased compared with that in ALI+BMMSC group (P<0.01). In 1 week after intervention, the protein expression of CD11b in lung tissue of rats in ALI+NMⅡ silenced BMMSC group was significantly increased compared with those in the other three groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the protein expressions of EMR1 in lung tissue of rats in the four groups were similar (P>0.05). Conclusions: Transplantation of NMⅡ gene silenced BMMSCs can significantly improve the activity of ECM components in the lung tissue in LPS-induced ALI rats, remodel its integrity, and enhance its antioxidant capacity, and alleviate lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis.

Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Animals , Bone Marrow , Collagen/metabolism , Endotoxins , Extracellular Matrix , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Myosin Type II/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928866


Bacterial endotoxin is considered as one of the critical risk factors in medical devices, especially implanted devices that directly or indirectly contact with blood circulating system. In that case, endotoxin limits for implanted medical devices is important in determine the safety of medical devices. According to GB/T 14233.2-2005, the requirements of endotoxin index for intrathoracic medical devices is 2.15 EU per device. However, the definition of "intrathoracic medical devices" is vague. Specifically, "for cardiovascular system application" instead of "intrathoracic application" is more reasonable. With the deeper understanding of the risk of endotoxin in medical devices and considering the internationally accepted standards, the limits of endotoxin in medical devices for cardiovascular system application is acceptable at 20 EU per device.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1809-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927819


Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used as an insecticide which is safe and environmentally friendly to humans and animals. One of the important insecticidal mechanisms is the binding of Bt toxins to specific toxin receptors in insect midgut and forming a toxin perforation which eventually leads to insect death. The resistance of target pests to Bt toxins is an important factor hampering the long-term effective cultivation of Bt crops and the continuous use of Bt toxins. This review summarizes the mechanism of insect resistance to Bt toxins from the perspective of important Bt toxin receptors in midgut cells of Lepidopteran insects, which may facilitate the in-depth study of Bt resistance mechanism and pest control.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Endotoxins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 251-257, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153347


Genetically modified plants are one of the tactics used in integrated pest management - IPM. There is great concern about the impact of these plants on non-target organisms. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature on the effects of transgenics (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt on populations of phytophagous mites, and the physiological responses that this attack promotes on plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of the T. ludeni mite in Bt cotton, expressing the Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins. To evaluate the behavior of food and oviposition preference of the T. ludeni with Bt cotton and isohybrid. Verify if the physiological stress caused by T. ludeni's attack is differentiated in Bt cotton. The mites were reared in Bt cotton and isohybrid, in a total of 40 replicates in the completely randomized design and the biological cycle was evaluated. The food preference and oviposition analysis were done with 10 replicates, with choice. The physiological stress was evaluated through chlorophyll fluorescence, under greenhouse conditions. The data of the T. ludeni biology were analyzed by Student's t-test, for food and oviposition preference the chi-square test was performed. Regression models were fitted for the fluorescence parameters. The model identity test was used to evaluate the differences between Bt and isohybrid treatments. Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins have not affected the biology of T. ludeni. The photosynthetic parameters in Bt cotton plants were less influenced by T. ludeni infestation.

O uso de plantas geneticamente modificadas é uma das táticas utilizadas no manejo integrado de pragas - MIP. Observa-se grande preocupação com o impacto dessas plantas sobre organismos não alvos. Por outro lado, existe pouca informação na literatura sobre efeitos dos transgênicos (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt em populações de ácaros fitófagos, e as respostas fisiológicas que esse ataque promove nas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a biologia do ácaro T. ludeni em algodoeiro Bt, expressando as proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac. Avaliar se há comportamento de preferência alimentar e postura de T. ludeni em relação ao algodoeiro Bt e seu iso-híbrido. E verificar se o estresse fisiológico causado pelo ataque de T. ludeni é diferenciado em algodoeiro Bt. Os ácaros foram criados em algodoeiro Bt e iso-híbrido, em um total de 40 repetições no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde foi avaliado o ciclo biológico. A análise de preferência alimentar e de posturas foi feita com 10 repetições, com escolha. O estresse fisiológico foi avaliando através da fluorescência da clorofila, em casa de vegetação. Os dados da biologia de T. ludeni foram analisados pelo teste t Student, para preferência alimentar e postura foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado. Para os parâmetros da fluorescência, foram ajustados modelos de regressão. Para testar as diferenças entre Bt e iso-híbrido foi utilizado o teste de identidade de modelos. As proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac não afetaram a biologia de T. ludeni. Os parâmetros fotossintéticos em plantas de algodoeiro Bt foram menos influenciados pela infestação de T. ludeni.

Animals , Female , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Tetranychidae/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Larva
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1855-1865, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887588


BACKGROUND@#Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a protective phenomenon in which pre-treatment with a tolerance dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to dramatically elevated survival. Accumulating evidence has shown that peripheral T cells contribute to the induction of ET. However, what happens to T cell development in the thymus under ET conditions remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyze the alterations in thymocyte populations (double-positive [DP] and single-positive [SP] cells) under ET conditions.@*METHODS@#Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg to establish an LPS tolerance model and were divided into two groups: a group examined 72 h after LPS injection (72-h group) and a group examined 8 days after LPS injection (8-day group). Injection of phosphate-buffered saline was used as a control (control group). Changes in thymus weight, cell counts, and morphology were detected in the three groups. Moreover, surface molecules such as CD4, CD8, CD44, CD69, and CD62L were analyzed using flow cytometry. Furthermore, proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway signaling were analyzed in thymocyte populations. The polymorphism and length of the T-cell receptor (TCR) β chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis DNA laser scanning analysis (ABI 3730).@*RESULTS@#Thymus weight and cell counts were decreased in the early stage but recovered by the late stage in a murine model of LPS-induced ET. Moreover, the proportions of DP cells (control: 72.130 ± 4.074, 72-h: 10.600 ± 3.517, 8-day: 84.770 ± 2.228), CD4+ SP cells (control: 15.770 ± 4.419, 72-h: 44.670 ± 3.089, 8-day: 6.367 ± 0.513), and CD8+ SP cells (control: 7.000 ± 1.916, 72-h: 34.030 ± 3.850, 8-day: 5.133 ± 0.647) were obviously different at different stages of ET. The polymorphism and length of TCR β chain CDR3 also changed obviously, indicating the occurrence of TCR rearrangement and thymocyte diversification. Further analysis showed that the expression of surface molecules, including CD44, CD69, and CD62L, on thymocyte populations (DP and SP cells) were changed to different degrees. Finally, the proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and ERK pathway signaling of thymocyte populations were changed significantly.@*CONCLUSION@#These data reveal that alterations in thymocyte populations might contribute to the establishment of ET.

Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Differentiation , Endotoxins/toxicity , Flow Cytometry , Mice , Signal Transduction , Thymocytes , Thymus Gland
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2021. 161 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1255141


Os objetivos deste estudo foram: a) avaliar o sucesso clínico e por tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) após 18 meses do retratamento em sessão única (RU) e múltiplas sessões (RM); b) monitorar carga (UFC/mL) e perfil microbiano; níveis de endotoxinas (EU/mL) e de ácido lipoteicóico [LTA (pg/mL)] em dentes com periodontite apical pós-tratamento (PAPT) submetidos a RU e RM; c) comparar a sintomatologia pós-operatória pela escala visual analógica de dor (EVA) em RU e RM; d) comparar os tratamentos quanto à redução de UFC/mL, EU/mL, LTA (pg/mL) e a volumetria da lesão periapical (LP) e) avaliar as correlações e associações entre os dados obtidos no estudo. Seguindo critérios de inclusão e não-inclusão, foram selecionados 40 dentes com PAPT, divididos em dois grupos: RM e RU. Os pacientes foram submetidos à TCFC. Foram realizadas coletas do conteúdo do canal radicular: após remoção do material obturador (S1), após preparo biomecânico (PBM) (S2) e após MIC (S3). Ao final da sessão, foi fornecida a EVA para avaliação da sintomatologia dolorosa apresentada nos períodos de 24hs, 48hs e 7 dias. O conteúdo dos canais radiculares foi avaliado por cultura microbiológica, perfil microbiano por Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, níveis de endotoxinas pelo teste Lisado Amebócito de Limulus e de ácido lipoteicóico pelo ensaio de ELISA. Foi realizada a volumetria da destruição óssea periapical inicial e final por TCFC pelo software ITK snap. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente. Os níveis de UFC/mL, EU/mL e LTA (pg/mL) diminuíram após o PBM, havendo a manutenção dos mesmos após o uso de MIC (p>0,05). As coletas apresentaram valores iniciais (S1) maiores que os residuais (antes da obturação) para os parâmetros avaliados. Quanto aos valores residuais, foram encontrados maiores valores de UFC/mL em RM e menores valores de LTA no mesmo grupo (p<0,05); porém sem diferença entre os grupos RU e RM quanto aos valores residuais de EU/mL. Os micro-organismos Gram-negativos mais encontrados foram o F. nucleatum, C. rectus, C. gingivalis, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia e L. buccalis, sendo os Gram-positivos: E. faecalis, E. faecium, S. constellatus e S. mitis. Não houve diferença entre os grupos RU e RM quanto à sintomatologia pósoperatória (p>0,05) pela EVA. O volume inicial das LP variou de 10 a 470 mm³, sendo que o final variou de 0 a 48 mm³. Houve redução da média dos volumes de 84,71% em RU e de 90.56% em RM, sendo esta redução significante em ambos os grupos (p< 0,0001), mas sem diferença estatística entre eles (p=0,9117). No período de 18 meses após o retratamento endodôntico não houve diferenças na regressão das lesões e análise dos demais sinais e sintomas entre RU e RM(AU)

This study aimed to: a) evaluate the success rates of one-visit (1-visit) and two-visit (2- visit) endodontic retreatment after 18 months by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and analyze clinical signs and symptoms; b) monitor and compare the microbial load and profile; levels of endotoxins and lipoteichoic acid in teeth with posttreatment apical periodontitis (PTAP); c) compare the postoperative pain between the groups by the visual analog pain scale (VAS); d) correlate the variables with themselves. Forty teeth with PTAP were selected and submitted to CBCT. The sampling procedure was performed: after filling material removal (S1), after biomechanical preparation (S2), and after the intracanal medication placement (S3). VAS was provided for assessment of the postoperative pain at different time-points (24 h, 48 h, and 7 days). Root canal contents were submitted to microbiological assessment by culture technique (CFU/mL) and Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and the determination of LPS (UE/mL) and LTA (pg/mL) levels by Limulus amebocyte lysate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Periapical lesions volumes were obtained by the ITK snap program. Data were statistically analyzed. CFU/mL, UE/mL, and LTA (pg/mL) decreased after biomechanical preparation, with their maintenance after the use of intracanal medication (p>0.05). All root canal samples had their baseline values (S1) higher than those found before the root canal obturation (residual values) for all parameters. Regarding the residual values, higher values of CFU/mL and lower values of LTA were found in 2-visit groups (p<0.05). The most frequently Gram-negative microorganisms found during sampling procedures were F. nucleatum, C. rectus, C. gingivalis, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and L. buccalis, the Gram-positive ones were E. faecalis, E. faecium, S constellatus and S. mitis. There was no difference between the 1 or 2-visit treatments regarding postoperative symptoms (p>0.05). The initial volume of the periapical lesions ranged from 10 to 470 mm³, and the final ones ranged from 0 to 48 mm³. A significant reduction of the periapical lesion was observed after 18-months in both groups (p<0.0001), but no statistical difference was found between them (p>0.05). No significant differences were observed in the outcome of the two modalities of endodontic retreatment(AU)

Endotoxins/adverse effects , Periapical Periodontitis/complications , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 471-476, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142349


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease worldwide. Approximately 20% of individuals with NAFLD develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with increased risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Intestinal microflora, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease, as demonstrated in several clinical and experimental studies, by altering intestinal permeability and allowing bacterial endotoxins to enter the circulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SIBO and endotoxin serum levels with clinical, laboratory, and histopathological aspects of NAFLD and the relationship between SIBO and endotoxin serum levels before and after antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Adult patients with a histological diagnosis of NAFLD, without cirrhosis were included. A comprehensive biochemistry panel, lactulose breath test (for diagnosis of SIBO), and serum endotoxin measurement (chromogenic LAL assay) were performed. SIBO was treated with metronidazole 250 mg q8h for 10 days and refractory cases were given ciprofloxacin 500 mg q12h for 10 days. RESULTS: Overall, 42 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of NAFLD were examined. The prevalence of SIBO was 26.2%. Comparison of demographic and biochemical parameters between patients with SIBO and those without SIBO revealed no statistically significant differences, except for use of proton pump inhibitors, which was significantly more frequent in patients with positive breath testing. The presence of SIBO was also associated with greater severity of hepatocellular ballooning on liver biopsy. Although the sample, as a whole, have elevated circulating endotoxin levels, we found no significant differences in this parameter between the groups with and without SIBO. Endotoxin values before and after antibiotic treatment did not differ, even on paired analysis, suggesting absence of any relationship between these factors. Serum endotoxin levels were inversely correlated with HDL levels, and directly correlated with triglyceride levels. CONCLUSION: Serum endotoxin levels did not differ between patients with and without SIBO, nor did these levels change after antibacterial therapy, virtually ruling out the possibility that elevated endotoxinemia in non-cirrhotic patients with NAFLD is associated with SIBO. Presence of SIBO was associated with greater severity of ballooning degeneration on liver biopsy, but not with a significantly higher prevalence of NASH. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility and importance of this finding in patients with NAFLD and SIBO.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é uma das doenças hepáticas crônicas mais comuns em todo o mundo. Aproximadamente 20% dos indivíduos com DHGNA desenvolvem esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) que está associada a maior risco de cirrose, hipertensão portal e/ou carcinoma hepatocelular. Alterações da microflora intestinal, incluindo o supercrescimento bacteriano intestinal (SBI), parecem ter um papel importante na patogênese da doença, como demonstrado em estudos clínicos e experimentais, pela alteração da permeabilidade intestinal e permitindo que endotoxinas bacterianas alcancem a circulação sanguínea. OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre o SBI e níveis de endotoxina sérica em pacientes não cirróticos com DHGNA, com os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos da doença e a relação entre SBI e níveis séricos de endotoxina antes e após tratamento com antibiótico. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos e com diagnóstico histológico de DHGNA, sem cirrose. Foram realizados: avaliação bioquímica geral, teste do H2 expirado com lactulose para diagnóstico de SBI e dosagem de endotoxina sérica - ensaio cromogênico para LAL. Para o tratamento do SBI utilizamos o metronidazol 250 mg de 8/8 horas por 10 dias e para os casos de retratamento foi utilizado ciprofloxacino 500 mg de 12/12 horas por 10 dias. RESULTADOS: Incluímos 42 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de DHGNA. A prevalência de SBI foi de 26,2%. Quando comparamos o grupo dos pacientes com SBI com aquele sem SBI e analisamos suas variáveis demográficas e bioquímicas, não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significante entre elas, exceto pela utilização de inibidores de bomba de próton, que foi significantemente mais frequente nos pacientes com teste respiratório positivo. A presença de SBI também esteve associada à maior intensidade de balonização na biópsia hepática, quando comparados àqueles sem SBI. Embora o grupo como um todo apresentasse elevação dos níveis circulantes de endotoxinas, não pudemos encontrar diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos com e sem SBI. Os valores de endotoxinas pré e pós tratamento antibiótico não diferiram entre si, mesmo em análise pareada, sugerindo ausência de relação entre esses fatores. Os níveis de endotoxina sérica apresentaram correlação inversa com os níveis de HDL e correlação direta com os níveis de triglicerídeos. CONCLUSÃO: Níveis de endotoxinas séricas não diferiram entre os pacientes com e sem SBI, e que esses níveis não se modificaram após tratamento medicamentoso da proliferação bacteriana, praticamente excluindo a possibilidade de que os níveis elevados de endotoxemia estejam relacionados à SBI. A presença dessa proliferação bacteriana esteve associada à maior intensidade de balonização na biópsia hepática, mas não à maior prevalência de EHNA entre os portadores de SBI. Estudos complementares são necessários para avaliar a reprodutibilidade e a importância desse achado em portadores de DHGNA com SBI.

Humans , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Endotoxins , Intestine, Small , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 163-174, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134821


ABSTRACT Introduction: In hemodialysis, patients are exposed to a large volume of water, which may lead to fatal risks if not meeting quality standards. This study aimed to validate an alternative method for monitoring microbiological quality of treated water and assess its applicability in dialysis and dialysate analysis, to allow corrective actions in real-time. Methods: Validation and applicability were analyzed by conventional and alternative methods. For validation, E. coli standard endotoxin was diluted with apyrogenic water in five concentrations. For the applicability analysis, treated water for dialysis was collected from different points in the treatment system (reverse osmosis, drainage canalization at the storage tank bottom, reuse, and loop), and dialysate was collected from four machines located in different rooms in the hemodialysis sector. Results: The validation results were in accordance with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia acceptance criteria, except for the last two concentrations analyzed. In addition, the ruggedness criterion performed under the US Pharmacopoeia was in agreement with the results. Discussion: A limiting factor in the applicability analysis was the absence of the endotoxin maximum permitted level in dialysate by the Brazilian legislation. When comparing the analysis time, the alternative method was more time-consuming than the conventional one. This suggests that the alternative method is effective in the case of few analyses, that is, real-time analyses, favoring corrective actions promptly. On the other hand, it does not support the implementation of the alternative method in a laboratory routine due to the high demand for analyses.

RESUMO Introdução: Na hemodiálise, os pacientes são expostos a um grande volume de água, o que pode levar a riscos fatais se não cumprir com padrões de qualidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo validar um método alternativo para monitorar a qualidade microbiológica da água tratada e avaliar sua aplicabilidade em análises de diálise e dialisato, para permitir ações corretivas em tempo real. Métodos: A validação e aplicabilidade foram analisadas por métodos convencionais e alternativos. Para validação, a endotoxina padrão de E. coli foi diluída com água apirogênica em cinco concentrações. Para a análise de aplicabilidade, a água tratada para diálise foi coletada em diferentes pontos do sistema de tratamento (osmose reversa, canalização de drenagem no fundo do tanque de armazenamento, reutilização e circuito) e o dialisato foi coletado em quatro máquinas localizadas em diferentes salas do setor de hemodiálise. Resultados: Os resultados da validação obedeceram aos critérios de aceitação da Farmacopeia Brasileira, com exceção das duas últimas concentrações analisadas. Além disso, o critério de robustez realizado sob a Farmacopeia dos EUA estava de acordo com os resultados. Discussão: Um fator limitante na análise de aplicabilidade foi a ausência do nível máximo permitido de endotoxina no dialisato pela legislação brasileira. Ao comparar o tempo de análise, o método alternativo consumiu mais tempo que o convencional. Isso sugere que o método alternativo é eficaz no caso de poucas análises, ou seja, análises em tempo real, favorecendo ações corretivas imediatamente. Por outro lado, não suporta a implementação do método alternativo em uma rotina de laboratório devido à alta demanda por análises.

Humans , Water Quality/standards , Water/adverse effects , Dialysis Solutions/analysis , Renal Dialysis/standards , Pharmacopoeias as Topic , Water Microbiology/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , Water/chemistry , Dialysis Solutions/chemistry , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Water Purification/methods , Endotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/growth & development
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18449, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249145


Donkey's milk represents a good alternative to human milk because of its chemical characteristics similar to those of human's. In present study, the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of donkey's milk were evaluated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were isolated from 12 young and 12 aged normal subjects. PBMCs were cultured with or without the optimal and non-cytotoxic dose of pasteurized donkey's milk, and polymyxin B was used to inhibit the possible endotoxin contamination. Following 18 hours incubation, culture supernatants were harvested to measure the secreted Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. Donkey's milk significantly increased TNF-α (p= 0.01), IL-8 (p< 0.0001), IL-6 (p< 0.0001) and IL-10 (p= 0.01) levels in PBMCs. In addition, the levels of IL-6 (p= 0.002), IL-8 (p= 0.002) and TNF-α (p= 0.002) from aged subjects were significantly higher compared with young subjects. In contrast with these data, the level of IL-10 was markedly reduced from aged subjects (p= 0.02). Considering the immune-potentiation effects of donkey's milk, it is suggested investigating milk as a beneficial dietary component for up-regulating the immune response in aged people

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Equidae/classification , Milk/adverse effects , Immune System , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Endotoxins/agonists , Immunity
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198


Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 384-392, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040258


Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a high prevalence and is a worldwide public health problem. Reuse of dialyzers is a cost reduction strategy used in many countries. There is controversy over its effects on clinical parameters and microbiological safety. Methods: In this clinical crossover study, 10 patients performed consecutive hemodialysis (HD) sessions divided in two phases: "single use" sessions (N = 10 HD sessions) followed by "dialyzer reuse" sessions (N = 30 HD sessions). Clinical, laboratory, and microbiological parameters were collected in the following time points: "single use", 1st, 6th, and 12th sessions with reuse of dialyzers, including bacterial cultures, endotoxins quantification in serum and dialyzer blood chamber, and detection of hemoglobin and protein residues in dialyzers. Results: Mean age of the sample was 37 ± 16 years, 6 (60%) were men, and 5 (50%) were white. CKD and HD vintage were 169 ± 108 and 47 (23-111) months, respectively. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) [4.9 (2.1) mg/mL], ferritin (454 ± 223 ng/mL), and endotoxin levels [0.76 (0.61-0.91) EU/mL] were high at baseline. Comparison of pre- and post-HD variations of serum levels of CRP and endotoxins in the "single use" versus "reuse" phases did not result in differences (p = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively). Samples of liquid in the dialyzer inner chamber were negative for the growth of bacteria or endotoxins. There was no significant clinical manifestation within and between the phases. Conclusion: Dialyzers reuse was safe from a clinical, microbiological, and inflammatory point of view. The dialyzer performance remained adequate until the 12th reuse.

Resumo Introdução: A doença renal crônica (DRC) é um problema de saúde pública mundial de alta prevalência. O reúso de dialisadores é uma estratégia de redução de custos empregada em muitos países. Seus efeitos sobre parâmetros clínicos e de segurança microbiológica são alvo de controvérsia. Métodos: No presente estudo clínico cruzado, 10 pacientes realizaram sessões consecutivas de hemodiálise (HD) divididas em duas fases: a primeira com sessões de "uso único" (N = 10 sessões de HD) e a segunda com sessões com "reúso de dialisadores" (N = 30 sessões de HD). Parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e microbiológicos foram registrados nos seguintes momentos: "uso único", 1a, 6a e 12a sessões com reúso de dialisadores, incluindo culturas bacterianas, quantificação de endotoxinas no soro e na câmara interna do dialisador e detecção de hemoglobina e resíduos de proteína nos dialisadores. Resultados: A idade média da amostra foi de 37 ± 16 anos seis (60%) eram homens e cinco (50%) eram brancos. Os tempos com DRC e em HD foram de 169 ± 108 e 47 (23-111) meses, respectivamente. Os níveis séricos de proteína C-reativa (PCR) [4,9 (2,1) mg/mL], ferritina (454 ± 223 ng/mL) e endotoxinas [0,76 (0,61-0,91) UE/mL] estavam elevados no início do estudo. A diferença dos níveis séricos de PCR e endotoxinas pré e pós-HD nas fases de "uso único" e "reúso" não foi significativa (p = 0,8 e 0,4, respectivamente). As amostras de líquido retiradas da câmara interna do dialisador foram negativas para crescimento de bactérias e endotoxinas. Não houve registro de manifestações clínicas significativas nas fases do estudo. Conclusão: O reúso de dialisadores foi seguro dos pontos de vista clínico, microbiológico e inflamatório. O desempenho do dialisador permaneceu adequado até o 12º reuso.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Equipment Reuse , Kidneys, Artificial/adverse effects , Kidneys, Artificial/microbiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Pilot Projects , Follow-Up Studies , Cross-Over Studies , Endotoxins/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/blood
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 356-362, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011557


Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the microbial profile and endotoxin levels of endodontic-periodontal lesions of periodontal origin. Periodontal and endodontic samples were taken from periodontal pockets and necrotic root canals of 10 teeth with endodontic-periodontal lesions. Evidencing of 40 different bacterial species were determined in each endodontic and periodontal sample using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method and Kinetic chromogenic LAL assay was used for quantification of endotoxins. Fisher's exact test correlated the bacterial species with the endodontic or periodontal microbiota. The endotoxin levels (EU/mL) found in samples of the root canal and periodontal pocket were compared by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Bacteria and LPS units were found in 100% of the endodontic and periodontal samples. The species E. faecium, P. acnes, G. morbillorum, C. sputigena and L. buccalis were strongly correlated with the endodontic microbiota and P. nigrescens with the periodontal microbiota. P. intermedia, P. endodontalis and V. parvula were more prevalent in both endodontic and periodontal microbiots. The endotoxin levels in the periodontal pocket (89600 EU/mL) were significantly higher than in the root canal (2310 EU/mL). It was concluded that the microbiota present in the periodontal and endodontic tissues is similar, with a higher prevalence of species of the orange complex and a higher level of endotoxin in the periodontal pockets.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para investigar o perfil microbiano e os níveis de endotoxina de lesões endoperiodontais de origem periodontal. Amostras periodontais e endodônticas foram obtidas de bolsas periodontais e canais radiculares necróticos de 10 dentes com lesões endoperiodontais. A investigação de 40 espécies bacterianas diferentes foram determinadas em cada amostra endodôntica e periodontal usando o método de hibridização de DNA-DNA (checkerboard) e o ensaio cinético cromogênico LAL foi usado para quantificação de endotoxinas. O teste exato de Fisher correlacionou as espécies bacterianas com a microbiota endodôntica ou periodontal. Os níveis de endotoxina (EU/mL) encontrados nas amostras do canal radicular e na bolsa periodontal foram comparados pelo teste de Wilcoxon (p<0,05). Bactérias e unidades de LPS foram encontradas em 100% das amostras endodônticas e periodontais. As espécies E. faecium, P. acnes, G. morbillorum, C. sputigena e L. buccalis foram fortemente correlacionadas com a microbiota endodôntica e P. nigrescens com a microbiota periodontal. P. intermedia, P. endodontalis e V. parvula foram mais prevalentes em ambas microbiotas endodôntica e periodontal. Os níveis de endotoxina na bolsa periodontal (89600 EU/mL) foram significativamente maiores do que no canal radicular (2310 EU/mL). Concluiu-se que a microbiota presente nos tecidos periodontal e endodôntico é semelhante, com maior prevalência de espécies do complexo laranja e maior nível de endotoxina nas bolsas periodontais.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Periodontal Pocket , Root Canal Therapy , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endotoxins
Infectio ; 23(2): 133-142, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989944


Resumen Introducción: La procalcitonina (PCT) es una prohormona de la calcitonina, producida por las células C de la glándula tiroides y convertida intracelularmente por enzimas proteolíticas en la hormona activa. La producción de PCT durante procesos inflamatorios, está ligada a endotoxinas bacterianas y a citoquinas inflamatorias. La mortalidad por sepsis, depende en gran medida de la detección precoz y del inicio de una terapia adecuada, incluyendo la administración de antibióticos apropiados, sin embargo, no está claro si el rendimiento diagnóstico de la PCT en el contexto de la nueva definición de sepsis en el tercer consenso es igual que con la definición previa. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que describieran el uso de PCT dentro de las primeras 24 horas de admisión, como prueba diagnóstica de sepsis. Se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos de Medline (Pubmed) y Embase. La calidad metodológica se evaluó según la Colaboración Cochrane en el desarrollo de Revisiones Sistemáticas sobre Test de Análisis para la herramienta QUADAS-II. El sesgo de publicación fue estudiado con el Test de Asimetría de Deeks. Se usó el módulo de MIDAS de STATA 14 para el análisis univariado y la construcción de la Curva de ROC. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 2076 registros (783 de Medline y 1293 de Embase). De los 12 estudios seleccionados, se incluyeron un total de 1353 pacientes, con una prevalencia en los estudios revisados entre el 9% y 88%, con un promedio del 47%. La Sensibilidad agrupada fue 0,83% (IC95% (0,74-0,89)) y la Especificidad fue 0,84% (IC95%(0,76-0,89)). El área bajo la Curva fue 0,90 (IC95%(0,87-0,92)). La heterogeneidad entre los estudios es importante I2 88% (IC95%(77-100)). Existe un sesgo de publicación según el test de Deek, con resultado P=0,04. En el análisis sobre la Probabilidad Post test según el nomograma de Fagan, es del 56%, teniendo en cuenta una probabilidad pretest del 20% según el LR positivo 5. Conclusión: La PCT es una prueba diagnóstica con buen rendimiento para sepsis o shock séptico, en pacientes adultos, no gestantes. Aunque hay sesgo de publicación y una gran heterogeneidad en los resultados, la prueba se considera adecuada para el escenario de sepsis según las nuevas definiciones.

Abstract Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a prohormone of calcitonin, produced by cells C of the thyroid gland and intracellurarly cleaved by proteolytic enzymes into the active hormone. The production of PCT during inflammatory process, is linked with a bacterial endotoxin and with inflammatory cytokines. Mortality due to sepsis, depends to a large extent on a early detection and early start of adecuade therapy, that includes giving appropriate antibiotics. It´s no clear if the PTC diagnostic performance is the same in the context of the definition of the third consensus as in the previous definition. Methods: Studies describing the use of PCT within the frst 24 hours of admission as a diagnostic test for sepsis were included. We searched the Medline (Pubmed) and Embase databases. The methodological quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration in the development of Systematic Reviews on Analysis Test for the QUADAS-II tool. The publication bias was studied with the Deeks Asymmetry Test. The MIDAS module of STATA 14 was used for the univariate analysis and the construction of the ROC Curve. Results: 2076 records were obtained (783 from Medline and 1293 from Embase). Of the 12 selected studies, a total of 1353 patients were included, with a prevalence in the studies reviewed between 9% and 88%, with an average of 47%. The pooled sensitivity was 0.83% (CI 95% (0.74-0.89)) and the Specificity was 0.84% (CI 95% (0.76-0.89)). The area under the Curve was 0.90 (CI 95% (0.87-0.92)). Heterogeneity between the studies is important I2 88% (CI 95%(77-100)). There is a publication bias according to the Deek test, with a result of P = 0.04. In the analysis on the post test Probability according to the Fagan nomogram, it is 56%, taking into account a pretest probability of 20% according to the positive LR 5. Conclusions: PCT is a diagnostic test with good performance for sepsis or septic shock, in adult patients, not pregnant. Although there is publication bias and great heterogeneity in the results, the test is considered adequate for the sepsis setting according to the new definitions.

Male , Female , Adult , Shock, Septic , Sepsis , Procalcitonin , Peptide Hydrolases , Thyroid Gland , Calcitonin , Cytokines , Nomograms , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Endotoxins , Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Braz. dent. j ; 30(3): 220-226, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011555


Abstract The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of QMiX and 17% EDTA associated to passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) or manual agitation (MA) on the reduction of E. faecalis, E. coli and LPS from root canals. Forty single rooted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=10), according to the final irrigation protocol: EDTA+MA, QMiX+MA, EDTA+PUI, QMiX+PUI. Sample collections were obtained from the root canal content immediately before preparation (baseline-S1), after instrumentation (S2), after final irrigation protocol (S3) and 7 days after instrumentation and final irrigation (S4). The antimicrobial effectivity and on endotoxin content were analyzed by culture procedure (CFU/mL) and LAL assay (EU/mL), respectively. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman test (α=5%). QMiX+MA and QMiX+PUI reduced 100% of E. coli and E. faecalis bacteria and also prevented E. faecalisregrowth at S4. EDTA significantly reduced E. coli, but it was not effective in reducing E. faecalis. All protocols reduced EU/mL when compared to S1, however at S4 there was a significant reduction of EU/mL only in the QMiX+MA and QMiX+PUI groups in relation to S3 and S2, respectively. Final irrigation with QMiX associated with MA or PUI had superior antibacterial efficacy compared to EDTA, eliminating 100% of E. coli and E. faecalis strains. In addition, QMiX+PUI reduced 97.61% of the initial content of LPS.

Resumo O presente estudo objetivou comparar a eficácia do QMiX e do EDTA 17% associado à irrigação ultrassônica passiva (PUI) ou agitação manual (MA) na redução de E. faecalis, E. coli e LPS de canais radiculares. Quarenta dentes humanos unirradiculares foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n = 10), de acordo com o protocolo final de irrigação: EDTA+MA, QMiX+MA, EDTA+PUI, QMiX+PUI. Coletas das amostras foram obtidas a partir do conteúdo do canal radicular imediatamente antes do preparo (inicial-S1), após a instrumentação (S2), após o protocolo final de irrigação (S3) e 7 dias após a instrumentação e irrigação final (S4). A eficácia antimicrobiana e o conteúdo de endotoxina foram analisados ​​por procedimento de cultura (UFC/mL) e ensaio LAL (EU/mL), respectivamente. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e Friedman (α = 5%). QMiX+MA e QMiX+PUI reduziram 100% das bactérias E. coli e E. faecalis e também preveniram a recolonização de E. faecalis em S4. O EDTA reduziu significativamente E. coli, mas não foi eficaz na redução de E. faecalis. Todos os protocolos reduziram EU/mL quando comparados com S1, no entanto, no S4 houve uma redução significativa de EU/mL apenas nos grupos QMiX+MA e QMiX+PUI em relação a S3 e S2, respectivamente. A irrigação final com QMiX associada a MA ou PUI apresentou eficácia antibacteriana superior em relação ao EDTA, eliminando 100% das cepas de E. coli e E. faecalis. Além disso, QMiX+PUI reduziu 97,61% do conteúdo inicial de LPS.

Humans , Root Canal Irrigants , Dental Pulp Cavity , Sodium Hypochlorite , Ultrasonics , Edetic Acid , Root Canal Preparation , Endotoxins , Escherichia coli , Therapeutic Irrigation
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 248-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989445


Abstract The use of GMO expressing Bt toxin in soybean production has increased significantly in the last years in Brazil in order to manage the damage caused by lepidopteran pests. In this study, we compared the richness and abundance of owlet moths (Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non-Bt soybean. We determined the temporal variations as a function of phenology, and correlated the population variations of the most common species with meteorological variables. The research was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados. The collection method used was differentiated being suppressive and absolute. A total of 13 species were collected, of which eight occurred on Bt soybeans. The most representative taxa were Chrysodeixis includens (72.87%), Anticarsia gemmatalis (18.17%) and Spodoptera spp (5.22%). The number of larvae belonging to species targeted by the Bt technology was 10 times lower on Bt than on non-Bt soybeans. Utetheisa ornatrix and Elaphria deltoides were recorded on soybean for the first time, observing larvae of both species in non-Bt soybean and those of U. ornatrix also in Bt soybean. Only A. gemmatalis larvae correlated (p <0.05) negatively with precipitation. This study provided field information on the abundance and species richness of owlet moths on non-Bt soybeans, associated with the effects of Bt soybean. When considering the different levels of infestation between cultivars as a criterion, larvae monitoring is of substantial importance in order to develop the lost control program.

Resumo O uso de OGM que expressam toxina Bt na produção de soja tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e são utilizados para conter os danos causados ​​pelos lepidópteros pragas. Neste estudo comparamos a riqueza e a abundância de Noctuoides (Noctuoidea) associados à soja Bt e não-Bt. Determinamos as variações temporais em função da fenologia e correlacionamos às variações populacionais das espécies mais comuns com variáveis ​​meteorológicas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados. O método de coleta utilizado foi diferenciado sendo supressivo e absoluto. Um total de 13 espécies foram coletadas, das quais oito ocorreram em soja Bt. Os taxa mais representativos foram Chrysodeixis includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis e Spodoptera spp. O número de larvas pertencentes às espécies alvo da tecnologia Bt foram 10 vezes menores na soja Bt do que em soja não-Bt . Utetheisa ornatrix e Elaphria deltoides foram registradas na soja pela primeira vez, observando-se larvas de ambas espécies na soja não-Bt e as de U. ornatrix também na soja Bt. Somente as larvas de A. gemmatalis se correlacionaram (p <0,05) negativamente com a precipitação. Este estudo forneceu informações em campo sobre a abundância e riqueza de espécies na soja não- Bt, associada aos efeitos da soja Bt. A importância do monitoramento das lagartas é substancial, a fim de tomar a melhor decisão de controle, considerando-se os diferentes níveis de infestação entre cultivares como critério.

Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Larva/drug effects , Moths/drug effects
Odovtos (En línea) ; 21(1): 53-66, Jan.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091471


Abstract 19. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In animals, intraperitoneal administration of LPS, stimulates innate immunity and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. LPS provides an inflammatory stimulus that activates the neuroimmune and neuroendocrine systems resulting in a set of responses termed sickness behavior. The purpose of this protocol is to describe step-by-step the preparation and procedure of application of intraperitoneal injection of LPS in rats, as a guide for those researchers that want to use this assay to mount an inflammatory response. LPS intraperitoneal challenge in rats has been widely used to evaluate antiinflammatory reagents and to address basic scientific questions.

Resumen 23. El lipopolisacárido (LPS) es un componente de la membrana externa de las bacterias Gram negativas. En animales, la administración intraperitoneal de LPS estimula la inmunidad innata y la producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias. El LPS proporciona un estímulo inflamatorio que activa el sistema neuroinmunológico y el sistema neuroendocrino, lo que da como resultado un conjunto de respuestas denominadas conductas de enfermedad. El propósito de este protocolo es describir paso a paso la preparación y el procedimiento de aplicación de la inyección intraperitoneal de LPS en ratas, como una guía para aquellos investigadores que desean utilizar este método para estimular una respuesta inflamatoria en el animal. La estimulación con LPS en ratas, aplicada intraperitonealmente, se ha utilizado ampliamente para evaluar reactivos antiinflamatorios y para abordar preguntas básicas de investigación científica.

Animals , Rats , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Injections, Intraperitoneal/methods , Endotoxins/analysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria
Braz. dent. j ; 30(2): 117-122, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001437


Abstract This clinical study was conducted to correlate the levels of endotoxins and culturable bacteria found in primary endodontic infection (PEI) with the volume of root canal determined by using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT); and to evaluate the bacterial diversity correlating with clinical features. Twenty patients with PEI were selected and clinical features were recorded. The volume (mm3) of root canal was determined by CBCT analysis. Root canal samples were analyzed by using kinetic LAL-assay test to determine the levels of endotoxins and anaerobic technique to determine the bacterial count (CFU/mL). DNA was extracted from all samples to determine bacterial diversity and quantified by using Checkerboard-DNA-DNA- Hybridization. Culturable bacteria and endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canal samples. Linear regression analysis revealed a correlation between root canal volume and presence of anaerobic bacteria (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between bacteria species and presence of different clinical features (p<0.05). After grouping the bacteria species into bacterial complexes, positive associations were found between green, orange and red complexes with presence of sinus tract (p<0.05). This clinical study revealed that larger root canals hold higher levels of culturable bacteria in PEI. Thus, the interaction of different virulent bacteria species in complexes seems to play an important role in the development of clinical features.

Resumo Este estudo clínico foi conduzido para correlacionar os níveis de endotoxinas e bactérias cultiváveis encontradas na infecção endodôntica primária (IEP) com o volume do canal radicular determinado pelo uso da Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico (TCFC); e avaliar a diversidade bacteriana correlacionada com características clínicas. Vinte pacientes com IEP foram selecionados e as características clínicas foram registradas. O volume (mm3) do canal radicular foi determinado pela análise TCFC. As amostras do canal radicular foram analisadas usando o teste cinético de análise LAL para determinar os níveis de endotoxinas e técnicas anaeróbicas para determinar a contagem bacteriana (UFC/mL). O DNA foi extraído de todas as amostras para determinar a diversidade bacteriana e quantificado utilizando o teste Checkerboard-DNA-DNA-Hybridization. Bactérias cultiváveis e endotoxinas foram detectadas em 100% das amostras do canal radicular. A análise de regressão linear revelou uma correlação entre o volume do canal radicular e a presença de bactérias anaeróbicas (p<0,05). Foram encontradas correlações positivas entre espécies de bactérias e presença de diferentes características clínicas (p<0,05). Após agrupamento das espécies dos micro-organismos em complexos bacterianos, foram encontradas associações positivas entre os complexos verde, laranja e vermelho com presença de fístula (p<0,05). Este estudo clínico revelou que os canais radiculares mais amplos possuem níveis mais elevados de bactérias cultiváveis na IEP. Assim, a interação de diferentes espécies de bactérias virulentas em complexos parece desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de características clínicas.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Dental Pulp Cavity , Root Canal Therapy , Bacteria , Endotoxins , Bacterial Load