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1.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1630, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360001

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: O estresse oxidativo é um dos principais mecanismos associados à ruptura dos mecanismos de defesa que formam a barreira epitelial cólica e reduz o conteúdo tecidual das proteínas claudina-3 e ocludina principais constituintes das junções de oclusão intercelulares. O sucralfato, possui atividade antioxidante e tem sido usado para tratar diferentes formas de colite. OBJETIVO: Mensurar o conteúdo tecidual de claudina-3 e ocludina da mucosa do cólon sem trânsito fecal, submetido à intervenção com sucralfato. MÉTODO: Trinta e seis ratos foram submetidos à colostomia do cólon esquerdo e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a eutanásia ser realizada duas ou quatro semanas após a intervenção. Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos de acordo com o tipo de intervenção realizada diariamente: solução salina isolada; sucralfato a 1 g/kg/dia ou sucralfato a 2g/kg/dia. A colite foi diagnosticada por análise histológica adotando escala de validação prévia. A expressão tecidual de ambas as proteínas foi identificada por imunoistoquímica. O conteúdo das proteínas foi quantificado por análise de imagem assistida por computador. RESULTADOS: O escore inflamatório foi maior nos segmentos cólicos sem trânsito fecal e os enemas com sucralfato reduziram o escore inflamatório nesses segmentos, principalmente nos animais submetidos à intervenção com sucralfato em maior concentração e por período mais longo de intervenção. Houve aumento no conteúdo tecidual das proteínas claudina-3 e ocludina, relacionado com a concentração de sucralfato. O conteúdo tecidual de ambas as proteínas não se modificou com a duração da intervenção. CONCLUSÃO: Enemas com sucralfato reduzem a inflamação e aumentam o conteúdo tecidual de claudina-3 e ocludina na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms associated with the rupture of the defense mechanisms of the colonic epithelial barrier; it reduces the tissue content of the claudin-3 and occludin proteins, which are the main constituents of intercellular tight junctions. Sucralfate (SCF) has antioxidant activity and has been used to treat different forms of colitis. AIM: This study aimed to measure the tissue claudin-3 and occludin content of the colon mucosa without fecal transit, subjected to intervention with SCF. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were subjected to left colon colostomy and distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to euthanasia that was performed 2 or 4 weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the enema applied daily: saline alone, SCF at 1 g/kg/day, or SCF at 2 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by the histological analysis adopting the previous validate scale. The tissue expression of both proteins was identified by immunohistochemical technique. The content of proteins was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. RESULTS: The inflammatory score was high in colonic segments without fecal transit, and enemas with SCF reduced the inflammatory score in these segments, mainly in those animals submitted to intervention with SCF in greater concentration and for a longer period of intervention. There was an increase in tissue content of claudin-3 and occludin, related to SCF concentration. The tissue content of both proteins was not related to the intervention time. CONCLUSION: Enemas with SCF reduced the inflammation and increased the tissue content of claudin-3 and occludin in colonic mucosa without fecal stream.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sucralfate/therapeutic use , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Enema
2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(2): 210-216, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135022

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the clinical evolution in patients with refractory functional constipation undergoing different therapeutic regimens: oral laxatives and antegrade enemas via appendicostomy or clinical treatment with oral laxatives and rectal enemas. Methods: Analysis of a series of 28 patients with a mean age of 7.9 years (2.4-11), followed-up in a tertiary outpatient clinic. Refractory functional constipation was defined as continuous retentive fecal incontinence after at least a 12-month period of consensus therapy. After the diagnosis of refractory condition, appendicostomy was proposed and performed in 17 patients. Outcomes: (1) persistence of retentive fecal incontinence despite the use of enemas, (2) control of retentive fecal incontinence with enemas, and (3) control of retentive fecal incontinence, spontaneous evacuations, with no need for enemas. Results: Six and 12 months after the therapeutic option, control of retentive fecal incontinence was observed only in patients who underwent surgery, 11/17 and 14/17, p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively. At 24 months, control of retentive fecal incontinence was also more frequent in operated patients: 13/17 versus 3/11 with clinical treatment, p = 0.005. In the final evaluation, the median follow-up times were 2.6 and 3 years (operated vs. clinical treatment, p = 0.40); one patient in each group was lost to follow-up and 9/16 operated patients had spontaneous bowel movements vs. 3/10 in the clinical treatment group, p = 0.043. Surgical complications, totaling 42 episodes, were observed 14/17 patients. Conclusion: Appendicostomy, although associated with a high frequency of complications, controlled retentive fecal incontinence earlier and more frequently than clinical treatment. The choice of one of the methods should be made by the family, after adequate information about the risks and benefits of each alternative.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a evolução clínica em crianças com constipação intestinal funcional refratária sob diferentes regimes terapêuticos: laxativos orais e enemas anterógrados via apendicostomia ou tratamento clínico com laxativos orais e enemas via retal. Métodos Análise de uma série de 28 pacientes, 7,9 anos (2,4-11), acompanhados em ambulatório terciário. Constipação intestinal funcional refratária foi definida como manutenção da incontinência fecal retentiva, em terapia consensual, por pelo menos 12 meses. Após diagnóstico de refratariedade, era proposta apendicostomia. Dezessete pacientes realizaram o procedimento cirúrgico. Desfechos: 1. Manutenção de incontinência fecal retentiva em uso de enemas; 2. Controle da incontinência fecal retentiva em uso de enemas; e 3. Controle da incontinência fecal retentiva, evacuações espontâneas, sem necessidade de enemas. Resultados Seis e 12 meses após opção terapêutica, controle da incontinência fecal retentiva foi observado apenas nos pacientes operados, 11/17 e 14/17, p = 0,001 e p = 0,001. Aos 24 meses, controle da incontinência fecal retentiva também mais frequente nos operados 13/17 versus 3/11 tratamento clínico, p = 0,005. Na avaliação final, medianas de tempo de seguimento: 2,6 e 3 anos (operados versus tratamento clínico, p = 0,40), um paciente em cada grupo abandonou o seguimento e 9/16 operados apresentavam evacuações espontâneas versus 3/10 no tratamento clínico, p = 0,043. Complicações cirúrgicas, 42 episódios, acometeram 14/17 pacientes. Conclusão A apendicostomia, embora associada a elevada frequência de complicações, controlou a incontinência fecal retentiva de maneira mais precoce e frequente do que o tratamento clínico. A escolha de um dos métodos deverá caber à família, após adequada informação sobre riscos e benefícios de cada alternativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Constipation , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Enema , Laxatives
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 60-66, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056357

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of cases of NIH category I acute prostatitis developed after transrectal prostate biopsy and clarifiy the risk factors and preventive factors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3.479 cases of transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsies performed with different prophylactic antibiotherapy regimens at two different institutions between January 2011 and February 2016. The patients of Group I have received ciprofl oxacin (n=1.523, 500mg twice daily) and the patients of Group II have received ciprofl oxacin plus ornidazole (n=1.956, 500mg twice daily) and cleansing enema combination as prophylactic antibiotherapy. The incidence, clinical features and other related microbiological and clinical data, were evaluated. Results: Mean age was 62.38±7.30 (47-75), and the mean prostate volume was 43.17±15.20 (21-100) mL. Of the 3.479 patients, 39 (1.1%) developed acute prostatitis after the prostate biopsy procedure. Of the 39 cases of acute prostatitis, 28/3.042 occurred after the first biopsy and 11/437 occurred after repeat biopsy (p=0.038). In Group I, 22 of 1.523 (1.4%) patients developed acute prostatitis. In Group II, 17 of 1.959 (0.8%) patients developed acute prostatitis. There was no statistical difference between the two groups according to acute prostatitis rates (X2=2.56, P=0.11). Further, hypertension or DM were not related to the development of acute prostatitis (P=0.76, X2=0.096 and P=0.83, X2=0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Repeat biopsy seems to increase the risk of acute prostatitis, while the use of antibiotics effective for anaerobic pathogens seems not to be essential yet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Ornidazole/administration & dosage , Prostatitis/etiology , Biopsy, Needle/adverse effects , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Enema/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Prostate/pathology , Prostatitis/prevention & control , Time Factors , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Drug Combinations , Middle Aged
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811444

ABSTRACT

The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to surgical site infections (SSI), anastomotic leakage (AL) and postoperative complications theologically. Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective colorectal surgery aims to reduce fecal materials and bacterial count with the objective to decrease SSI rate, including AL. Based on many observational data, meta-analysis and multicenter randomized control trials (RTC), non-MBP did not increase AL rates or SSI and other complications in colon and even rectal surgery. In 2011 Cochrane review, there is no significant benefit MBP compared with non-MBP in colon surgery and also no better benefit MBP compared with rectal enemas in rectal surgery. However, in surgeon's perspectives, MBP is still in widespread surgical practice, despite the discomfort caused in patients, and general targeting of the colon microflora with antibiotics continues to gain popularity despite the lack of understanding of the role of the microbiome in anastomotic healing. Recently, there are many evidence suggesting that MBP+oral antibiotics (OA) should be the growing gold standard for colorectal surgery. However, there are rare RCT studies and still no solid evidences in OA preparation, so further studies need results in both MBP and OA and only OA for colorectal surgery. Also, MBP studies in patients with having minimally invasive surgery (MIS; laparoscopic or robotics) colorectal surgery are still warranted. Further RCT on patients having elective left side colon and rectal surgery with primary anastomosis in whom sphincter saving surgery without MBP in these MIS and microbiome era.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Load , Colon , Colorectal Surgery , Enema , Humans , Microbiota , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Wound Infection
6.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 164-172, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990546

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar as repercussões clínicas e legais de um caso em que um profissional de saúde injetou solução glicerinada por via endovenosa em paciente idoso com comorbidades. Na ocasião, a Justiça solicitou parecer técnico a partir do qual foi feita análise em três fases: exame do fato e repercussões; revisão de literatura científica; estudo do desfecho e conclusões. O erro decorreu da formação precária do profissional e gerou as seguintes repercussões clínicas: piora da função renal e queda do hematócrito, mas não foi confirmada ocorrência de embolia gordurosa. Depreende-se, portanto, que a adequada formação de profissionais é fundamental para a qualidade em saúde, visto que erros decorrentes de qualificação deficiente e más condições de trabalho afetam diretamente o estado clínico do paciente, tanto em aspectos legais e econômicos como familiares. Diante disso, a atuação do Ministério da Educação e dos conselhos profissionais torna-se decisiva para inibir situações como essa.


Abstract The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical and legal repercussions of a case in which a health professional injected glycerol solution intravenously in an elderly patient with comorbidities. On that occasion, the Court requested a technical opinion from which an analysis was carried out in three phases: examination of the facts and repercussions; review of scientific literature; study of the outcome and conclusions. The error was caused by inadequate professional training and generated the following clinical repercussions: worsening renal function and a drop in hematocrit, but no occurrence of fat embolism was confirmed. Therefore, it is clear that the adequate training of health professionals is fundamental for health quality, since errors due to poor qualification and poor working conditions directly affect the clinical status of the patient, both from the legal and economic aspects as well as from the family aspect. In light of this, the actions of the Ministry of Education and professional councils become key to inhibit such situations.


Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las repercusiones clínicas y legales de un caso en que un profesional de la salud inyecta solución de glicerina por vía intravenosa a un paciente anciano con comorbilidades. En tal ocasión, la Justicia solicitó una evaluación técnica, a partir de la cual se realizó un análisis en tres fases: examen del hecho y repercusiones; revisión de la literatura científica; estudio del desenlace y conclusiones. El error fue la resultante de una deficiente formación profesional y generó las siguientes repercusiones clínicas: empeoramiento de la función renal y caída del hematocrito; no obstante, no se confirmó la ocurrencia de embolia grasa. Se concluye, por lo tanto, que la adecuada formación de profesionales es fundamental para la calidad en salud, dado que los errores derivados de una cualificación deficiente y de malas condiciones de trabajo afectan directamente el estado clínico del paciente, tanto en los aspectos legales y económicos como familiares. Frente a esto, la actuación del Ministerio de Educación y de los consejos profesionales se torna decisiva para inhibir situaciones como la descripta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Health Care , Infusions, Intravenous , Aged , Health Personnel , Enema , Professional Training , Glycerol , Iatrogenic Disease
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762292

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to identify the clinical characteristics of an anastomotic sinus and to assess the validity of delaying stoma closure in patients until the complete resolution of an anastomotic sinus. METHODS: The subject patients are those who had undergone a resection of rectal cancer from 2011 to 2017, who had a diversion ileostomy protectively or therapeutically and who developed a sinus as a sequelae of anastomotic leakage. The primary outcomes that were measured were the incidence, management and outcomes of an anastomotic sinus. RESULTS: Of the 876 patients who had undergone a low anterior resection, 14 (1.6%) were found to have had an anastomotic sinus on sigmoidoscopy or a gastrografin enema before their ileostomy closure. In the 14 patients with a sinus, 7 underwent ileostomy closure as scheduled, with a mean closure time of 4.1 months. The remaining 7 patients underwent ileostomy repair, but it was delayed until after the follow-up for the widening of the sinus opening by using digital dilation, with a mean closure time of 6.9 months. Four of those remaining seven patients underwent stoma closure even though their sinus condition had not yet been completely resolved. No pelvic septic complications occurred after closure in any of the 14 patients with an anastomotic sinus, but 2 of the 14 needed a rediversion due to a severe anastomotic stricture. CONCLUSION: Patients with an anastomotic sinus who had been carefully selected underwent successful ileostomy closure without delay.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Constriction, Pathologic , Diatrizoate Meglumine , Enema , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ileostomy , Incidence , Rectal Neoplasms , Sigmoidoscopy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761691

ABSTRACT

Pain therapy often entails gastrointestinal adverse events. While opioids are effective drugs for pain relief, the incidence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) varies greatly from 15% to as high as 81%. This can lead to a significant impairment in quality of life, often resulting in discontinuation of opioid therapy. In this regard, a good doctor-patient relationship is especially pivotal when initiating opioid therapy. In addition to a detailed history of bowel habits, patient education regarding the possible gastrointestinal side effects of the drugs is crucial. In addition, the bowel function must be regularly evaluated for the entire duration of treatment with opioids. Furthermore, if the patient has preexisting constipation that is well under control, continuation of that treatment is important. In the absence of such history, general recommendations should include sufficient fluid intake, physical activity, and regular intake of dietary fiber. In patients of OIC with ongoing opioid therapy, the necessity of opioid use should be critically reevaluated in terms of an with acceptable quality of life, particularly in cases of non-cancer pain. If opioids must be continued, lowering the dose may help, as well as changing the type of opioid. If these measures do not suffice, the next step for persistent OIC is the administration of laxatives. If these are ineffective as well, treatment with peripherally active μ-opioid receptor antagonists should be considered. Enemas and irrigation are emergency measures, often used as a last resort.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Constipation , Dietary Fiber , Emergencies , Enema , Health Resorts , Humans , Incidence , Laxatives , Motor Activity , Narcotic Antagonists , Pain Management , Patient Education as Topic , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Quality of Life
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900406, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001085

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the inflammatory reaction and measure the content of mucins, in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with mesalazine. Methods: Twenty-four rats were submitted to a left colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to euthanasia to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline or mesalazine at 1.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and the inflammatory reaction by validated score. Acidic mucins and neutral mucins were determined with the alcian-blue and periodic acid of Schiff techniques, respectively. Sulfomucin and sialomucin were identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue technique. The tissue contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5%. Results: Enemas with mesalazine in colonic segments without fecal stream decreased the inflammation score and increased the tissue content of all subtypes of mucins. The increase of tissue content of neutral, acid and sulfomucin was related to the time of intervention. Conclusion: Mesalazine enemas reduce the inflammatory process and preserve the content of mucins in colonic mucosa devoid of fecal stream.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Enema/methods , Mucins/analysis , Time Factors , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Gastrointestinal Transit , Colostomy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Colitis/pathology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colon/metabolism , Colon/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Feces , Histocytochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Mucins/drug effects
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765626

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following posterior decompression surgery in a spinal stenosis patient who presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Ogilvie's syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal disease that can easily be mistaken for postoperative ileus, and is also known as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction. Early recognition and diagnosis enable treatment prior to bowel perforation and requisite abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 82-year-old woman presented with 6 months of worsening back pain with walking intolerance due to weakness in both legs. She had hypertension, asthma, and Cushing syndrome without bowel or bladder symptoms. Further workup demonstrated the presence of central spinal stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent an L2-3 laminectomy and posterior decompression. Surgery was uneventful. RESULTS: The patient presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting on postoperative day 1. The patient was initially diagnosed with adynamic ileus and treated conservatively with bowel rest, reduction in narcotic dosage, and a regimen of stool softeners, laxatives, and enemas. Despite this treatment, her clinical course failed to improve, and she demonstrated significant colonic distension radiographically. Intravenous neostigmine was administered as a bolus with a rapid and dramatic response. CONCLUSION: Ogilvie's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of postoperative ileus in patients developing prolonged unexplained abdominal distension and pain after lumbar spinal surgery. Early diagnosis and initiation of conservative management can prevent major morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia and perforation.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Asthma , Back Pain , Colon , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Cushing Syndrome , Decompression , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Enema , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Ileus , Ischemia , Laminectomy , Laxatives , Leg , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Nausea , Neostigmine , Spinal Stenosis , Urinary Bladder , Vomiting , Walking
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the awareness and application of ROME IV criteria for functional constipation (FC) in real-world practices and assessed differences between pediatric gastroenterologists (PGs) and general pediatricians. METHODS: A total of 239 (47.8%) out of 500 nationwide pediatricians answered a questionnaire for diagnosis and management of pediatric FC; 60 were PGs (75% of total PGs in Korea). RESULTS: A total of 16.6% of pediatricians were aware of the exact ROME IV criteria. Perianal examination and digital rectal examination were practiced less, with a higher tendency among PGs (P 6 months (63.8%) than 1-year were lactulose (59.1%), followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 (17.7%), and probiotics (11.8%). Prescription priority significantly differed between PGs and general pediatricians; lactulose or PEG 4000 were most commonly prescribed by PGs (89.7%), and lactulose or probiotics (75.7%) were prescribed by general pediatricians (P < 0.001). For patients aged < 1-year, lactulose (41.6%) and changing formula (31.7%) were commonly prescribed. Most participants recommended diet modification, and PGs more frequently used defecation diary (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Discrepancies between actual practice and Rome IV criteria and between PGs and general pediatricians were observed. This survey may help construct practice guidelines and educational programs for pediatric FC.


Subject(s)
Child , Colonic Diseases, Functional , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Digital Rectal Examination , Enema , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Lactulose , Polyethylene Glycols , Prescriptions , Probiotics
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1122-1128, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Previous studies have compared infectious outcomes on the basis of whether rectal preparation was performed; however, they failed to evaluate the quality of each rectal preparation, which may have led to confounding results. This study aimed to compare hospitalizations for urosepsis within 1 month after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy between patients with adequate and traditional rectal preparations. Materials and Methods: Between January 2011 and December 2016, a total of 510 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound - guided prostate biopsy at our institutions and were orally administered prophylactic antibiotics (levofloxacin) were included. Two rectal preparations were performed: (1) adequate rectal preparation confirmed by digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound (Group A, n = 310) and (2) traditional rectal preparation (Group B, n = 200). All patient characteristics were recorded. A logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of the two different rectal preparations on urosepsis, adjusted by patient characteristics. Results: There were a total of three and nine hospitalizations for urosepsis in Groups A and B, respectively. Differences in the demographic data between the two groups were insignificant. Logistic regression showed that adequate rectal preparation before biopsy significantly decreased the risk for urosepsis after biopsy (adjusted odds ratio: 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 - 0.78; P = 0.021). Conclusions: Adequate rectal preparation could significantly reduce hospitalizations for urosepsis within 1 month after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The quality of rectal preparation should be evaluated before biopsy. If adequate rectal preparation is not achieved, postponing the biopsy and adjusting the rectal preparation regimen are suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Sepsis/prevention & control , Enema/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/adverse effects , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Middle Aged
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(2): 328-334, fev. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895582

ABSTRACT

Por serem frequentes na clínica de animais silvestres, faz-se necessária a manipulação de jiboias e para isso, indispensável o conhecimento sobre as manobras precisas para o tratamento das possíveis afecções. Quando se opta pela contenção química, ou pela realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos, um dos fármacos utilizados na anestesia de serpentes é a cetamina. Viu-se a necessidade de buscar uma via alternativa, semelhante em eficácia às tradicionais para a contenção química, porém que minimizasse os riscos e efeitos adversos encontrados na sua execução. O presente trabalho sugere que a via retal seja esta alternativa, por isso, treze jiboias foram submetidas à administração de 70mg/kg de cloridrato de cetamina, com sonda uretral, através da cloaca até o cólon-reto. Foram avaliados, nos tempos 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 120 minutos, a partir da administração do fármaco, os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca, relaxamento muscular e mobilidade, resistência à contenção ou manipulação e reação postural de endireitamento. Foi realizada coleta de 0,5mL de sangue por punção do seio venoso paravertebral cervical, antes da administração do fármaco, no dia seguinte e após nove dias. Foram dosadas as concentrações plasmáticas de cálcio, fósforo e ácido úrico de todos os exemplares a fim de verificar o perfil bioquímico renal e avaliar a influência do fármaco neste sistema. Não foram observadas alterações bioquímicas plasmáticas durante o período de avaliação. Foi possível promover a contenção química das jiboias Boa constrictor, utilizando cloridrato de cetamina pela via cólon-retal.(AU)


It is necessary to deal with Boa constrictor snakes because they are frequently treated in wild and exotic animal clinics and the knowledge about the required procedures in the treatment of the possible affections becomes imperative. When the choice for chemical restraint or sedation for surgical procedures is made, one of the drugs used in snakes is ketamine. We believed it was necessary to look for an alternative route of drug administration as effective as the regular ones, but with minimum risks and less adverse effects in its execution. Therefore thirteen snakes were submitted to the administration of 70mg/kg of ketamine hydrochloride, with an urethral tube, through the cloaca into the colon-rectum. After this, they were evaluated during the 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 120 next minutes from the administration time using the following parameters: heart rate, muscle relaxation and mobility, handling or restraint resistance and righting reflex. Blood samples were collected from each snake by cervical paravertebral venous sinus punction, before the drug administration, on the next day and nine days after. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and uric acid were measured in order to check the renal biochemical profile and the possibility of influence of the drug on this system. It was possible to provoke chemical restraint in Boa constrictor snakes, with ketamine hydrochloride administered by the colon-rectal route.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Boidae , Ketamine/analysis , Kidney/drug effects , Rectum , Anesthesia/veterinary , Enema/veterinary
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Ronghuang granule on serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFRs) and Klotho protein levels in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and kidney deficiency and damp heat syndrome.@*METHODS@#Seventy non-dialysis CKD-MBD patients with kidney deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome were randomized into control group (=35) and treatment group (=35). All the patients were given routine treatment combined with traditional Chinese medicine retention enema, and the patients in the treatment group received additional Ronghuang granule treatment (3 times a day). After the 12-week treatments, the patients were examined for changes of TCM syndromes. Serum levels of Ca, P, parathyroid hormone (iPTH), FGF23, FGFRs and Klotho proteins were detected before and after treatment. These parameters were also examined in 20 healthy volunteers.@*RESULTS@#Sixty-five patients completed the study, including 33 in the control group and 32 in the treatment group. The patients in the treatment group showed significantly better treatment responses than those in the control group ( < 0.05 or 0.01). At 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment, the patients in the treatment group had significantly lowered scores of TCM syndromes compared with the score before treatment ( < 0.05 or 0.01), while in the control group, significant reduction of the scores occurred only at 12 weeks ( < 0.05); at each of the time points, the treatment group had significantly greater reductions in the score than the control group ( < 0.01). Significant improvements in serum Ca, P and iPTH levels were observed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in the treatment group ( < 0.05) but only at 12 weeks in the control group ( < 0.05). The patients in the control and treatment groups all showed elevated serum levels of FGF23, FGFRs and Klotho protein compared with the normal subjects ( < 0.01); FGF23, FGFRs and Klotho levels were significantly reduced in the treatment group ( < 0.05) but remained unchanged in the control group (>0.05), showing significant differences between the two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ronghuang granule improves the clinical symptoms of non-dialysis CKD-MBD patients with kidney deficiency and dampness heat syndrome by reducing serum levels of FGF23, FGFRs and Klotho, improving calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder, and inhibiting secondary hyperparathyroidism.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Blood , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder , Blood , Therapeutics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Enema , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Blood , Glucuronidase , Blood , Humans , Parathyroid Hormone , Blood , Phosphorus , Blood , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Blood , Therapeutics , Sweating Sickness , Blood , Therapeutics , Syndrome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718660

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intussusception is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in children. While most patients can be treated by enema reduction, about 20% require surgery. We investigated the usefulness and feasibility of laparoscopic surgery and the intraoperative risk of bowel resection. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed pediatric patients who underwent surgery for intussusception from 2010 to 2017. We collected data for age, gender, body weight, associated symptoms, duration of symptoms, white blood cell count, operating time, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: Of 155 patients, 37 (23.8%) underwent surgery due to enema reduction failure in 29 (78.3%), recurrence in 6 (16.3%), a suspicious lead point in 1, and suspicious ischemic change observed on ultrasonography in 1. The mean age was 26.8±18.9 months (range, 3.5~76.7 months), and the mean body weight was 12.9±3.9 kg (range, 5.4~22.2 kg). Laparoscopic surgery was successful in 29 patients (78.4%), and 7 (18.9%) needed bowel resection and anastomosis. The mean operating time was 56.7±32.8 min. A lead point was found in 3 patients in the bowel resection group (p=0.005); in addition, the operating time and hospital stay were longer in this group. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery was successful in 78.4% of the patients with a short hospital stay and early oral intake. The only predictive factor for bowel resection was the presence of a lead point. Laparoscopic surgery may be an optimal treatment intervention for children with intussusception, except for those who show initial peritonitis.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Child , Enema , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction , Intestine, Small , Intussusception , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Peritonitis , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716389

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a case report of tension pneumoperitoneum that occurred in a 4-month-old girl with intussusception during pneumatic reduction. Tension pneumoperitoneum is a rare but life threatening complication in air pressure enema that is commonly used to turn the intussuscepted bowel to its original position. The incidence of a simple pneumoperitoneum due to a bowel perforation associated with attempted pneumatic reduction for intussusception is as high as 4%. The simple pneumoperitoneum changed rapidly to tension pneumoperitoneum and immediate needle decompression was life-saving in this case. Similar to a tension pneumothorax, the diagnosis is clinical and management should not be delayed awaiting other confirmatory tests. The emergency physician must recognize this rare complication of pneumatic reduction and promptly treat the ensuing tension pneumoperitoneum after bowel perforation with immediate needle decompression as a part of the initial resuscitation.


Subject(s)
Air Pressure , Decompression , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Enema , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intussusception , Needles , Pneumoperitoneum , Pneumothorax , Resuscitation
17.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 37-43, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Meconium-related ileus is common in preterm infants. Without proper management, it can cause necrotizing enterocolitis and perforation requiring emergent operation. This study was conducted to describe the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided Gastrografin enema at bedside for preterm infants with meconium-related ileus. METHODS: Between March 2013 and December 2014, this study enrolled preterm infants with birth weight < 1,500 g, who were diagnosed with meconium-related ileus requiring ultrasound-guided Gastrografin enema refractory to glycerin or warm saline enemas. Gastrografin was infused until it passed the ileocecal valve with ultrasound guidance at bedside. RESULTS: A total of 13 preterm infants were enrolled. Gestational age and birth weight were 28.6 weeks (range, 23.9–34.3 weeks) and 893 g (range, 610–1,440 g), respectively. Gastrografin enema was performed around postnatal day 8 (range, day 3–11). The success rate was 84.6% (11 of 13 cases). Three of these 11 infants received a second procedure, which was successful. Among 2 unsuccessful cases, one failed to pass meconium while the other required surgery due to perforation. The time required to pass meconium was 2.8±1.5 hours (range, 1–6 hours). The time until radiographic improvement was 2.8±3.4 days (range, 1–14 days) after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided Gastrografin enema at bedside as a first-line treatment to relieve meconium-related ileus was effective and safe for very low birth weight infants. We could avoid unnecessary emergent operation in preterm infants who have high postoperative morbidity and mortality. This could also avoid transporting small preterm infants to fluoroscopy suite.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Diatrizoate Meglumine , Enema , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Fluoroscopy , Gestational Age , Glycerol , Humans , Ileocecal Valve , Ileus , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Meconium , Mortality , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740664

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Barium enema is one of the diagnostic modalities for Hirschsprung'sdisease. The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of barium enema for Hirschsprung's disease, especially total colonic aganglionosis (TCA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all the patients who were diagnosed as having TCA and underwent a barium enema in Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital between January 1998 and December 2016. All the tests were performed and reviewed by pediatric radiologists. RESULTS: Among the total 19 patients with TCA who underwent barium enema, 9 patients (47.4%) had accurate radiographic results. Eight of the 13 neonate patients (61.5%) showed typical TCA radiological findings. However, only one of the 6 patients aged >4 weeks (16.7%) had accurate radiological diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Barium enema showed low accuracy for TCA, and its diagnostic performance was better in neonatal period than in those aged >4 weeks.


Subject(s)
Barium , Diagnosis , Enema , Hirschsprung Disease , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
19.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(2): 132-138, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885712

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The effects of topical application of sucralfate (SCF) on the tissue content of MUC-2 protein have not yet been evaluated in experimental models of diversion colitis. Aim: To measure the tissue content of MUC-2 protein in the colonic mucosa diverted from fecal stream submitted to the SCF intervention. Methods: Thirty-six rats underwent derivation of intestinal transit through proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three groups which were submitted application of enemas with saline, SCF 1 g/kg/day and SCF 2 g/kg/day. Each group was divided into two subgroups, according to euthanasia was done after two or four weeks. The colitis diagnosis was established by histopathological study and the inflammatory intensity was evaluated by previously validated scale. The MUC-2 protein was identified by immunohistochemistry and the tissue content was measured computerized morphometry). Results: The application of enemas with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day reduced inflammatory score of the segments that were diverted from fecal stream. The content of MUC-2 in diverted colon of the animals submitted to the intervention with SCF, independently of intervention period and the used concentration, was significantly greater than animals submitted to the application of enemas containing saline (p< 0.01). The content of MUC-2 after the intervention with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day was significantly higher when compared to the animals submitted to the application containing SCF at concentration of 1.0 g/kg/day (p<0.01). The tissue content of MUC-2 reached the highest values after intervention with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day for four weeks (p<0.01). Conclusion: The preventive application of enemas containing SCF reduces the inflammatory score and avoids the reduction of tissue content of MUC-2, suggesting that the substance is a valid therapeutic strategy to preserve the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium.


RESUMO Racional: Os efeitos da aplicação tópica de sucralfato (SCF) no conteúdo tecidual da proteína mucina-2 (MUC-2) ainda não foram avaliados em modelos experimentais de colite de exclusão. Objetivo: Mensurar o conteúdo tecidual da proteína MUC-2 na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal submetida à intervenção com SCF. Método : Trinta e seis ratos foram submetidos à derivação intestinal por colostomia proximal terminal e fístula mucosa distal. Foram divididos em três grupos segundo recebessem clisteres contendo solução fisiológica (SF), SCF 1 g/kg/dia e SCF 2 g/kg/dia. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos, segundo a eutanásia ser realizada após duas ou quatro semanas. O diagnóstico de colite foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e a intensidade inflamatória foi avaliada por escala validada. A expressão tecidual da MUC-2 foi identificada por imunoistoquímica e seu conteúdo mensurado por morfometria computadorizada. Resultados: A aplicação de clisteres com SCF na concentração de 2 g/kg/dia reduziu a intensidade inflamatória no cólon sem trânsito fecal. O conteúdo tecidual de MUC-2 no cólon sem trânsito dos animais submetidos à intervenção com SCF, independente do tempo de intervenção e da concentração utilizada, foi maior quando comparado aos animais tratados com SF (p<0,01). O conteúdo de MUC-2 após a intervenção com SCF na concentração de 2 g/kg/dia foi maior quando comparado aos animais submetidos à intervenção com concentração menor (p<0,01). O conteúdo de MUC-2 foi maior após intervenção com SCF na concentração de 2 g/kg/dia por quatro semanas (p<0,01). Conclusão: A aplicação preventiva de clisteres com SCF reduz o grau de inflamação e preserva o conteúdo tecidual de MUC-2, em segmentos desprovidos de trânsito intestinal, mostrando-se uma estratégia terapêutica válida para preservar a camada de muco que recobre o epitélio intestinal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sucralfate , Colitis/metabolism , Colon/chemistry , Enema , Mucin-2/analysis , Intestinal Mucosa/chemistry , Rats, Wistar
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(3): 383-387, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899991

ABSTRACT

Los enemas fosfatados son utilizados frecuentemente en el tratamiento de la constipación. Errores en la posología pueden producir complicaciones graves. Objetivo: Reportar un caso de toxicidad grave por enema fosfatado en un pre escolar sin factores de riesgo. Caso clínico: Paciente de 2 años con constipación funcional, evaluada en servicio de urgencia por dolor abdominal a quién se le diagnosticó un fecaloma impactado. Recibió 2 dosis de enema de fosfato, “medio frasco” de Fleet® adulto (Synthon, Chile) por vez, sin resolución de su fecaloma, decidiéndose hospitalización para proctoclisis. Posterior al ingreso presentó un cuadro clínico de tetania. Ingresó a la Unidad de Paciente Crítico donde se confirmó una hiperfosfemia e hipocalcemia secundaria. Se realizó corrección electrolítica progresiva, retiro de enema fosfatado residual del recto e hiperhidratación forzando diuresis. La tetania cedió 2 horas después del ingreso sin otras complicaciones. Se realizó proctoclisis y fue dada de alta a los 3 días. Conclusión: Los enemas fosfatados pueden presentar complicaciones graves en niños sin factores de riesgo. Errores en la posología son la causa más frecuente de toxicidad en este grupo, pero esta puede estar favorecida también por una administración y eliminación inadecuadas. Pediatras y personal de salud que atiende a niños deben conocer factores de riesgo, signos y síntomas de intoxicación por enemas fosfatados.


Phosphate enemas are frequently used in the treatment of constipation. Errors in dosage and administration can lead to severe complications. Objective: To report a case of severe toxicity of phosphate enemas in a child with no risk factors. Case: 2 years old female, with functional constipation, was brought to emergency department because abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with fecal impaction and received half a bottle of Fleet Adult® (Laboratorio Synthon, Chile) two times, with no clinical resolution, deciding to start proctoclisis in pediatric ward. Soon after admission, she presented painful tetany, but alert and oriented. Patient was transferred to PICU where severe hyperphosphatemia and secondary hypocalcemia were confirmed. Her treatment included electrolyte correction; removal of residual phosphate enema and hyperhydration. Tetany resolved over 2 hours after admission and no other complications. Proctoclisis was performed and patient was discharged three days after admission with pharmacological management of constipation. Conclusion: Phosphate enemas may cause serious complications in children with no risk factors. Errors in dosage, administration and removal of the enema are causes of toxicity in this group. Pediatricians and health personnel must be aware of risks and signs of toxicity of phosphate enema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Phosphates/adverse effects , Tetany/chemically induced , Constipation/therapy , Enema/adverse effects , Hyperphosphatemia/chemically induced , Phosphates/therapeutic use , Tetany/diagnosis , Hyperphosphatemia/diagnosis
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