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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0194, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394852

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction In medicine, Deep Learning is a type of machine learning that aims to train computers to perform human tasks by simulating the human brain. Gait recognition and gait motion simulation is one of the most interesting research areas in the field of biometrics and can benefit from this technological feature. Objective To use Deep Learning to format and validate according to the dynamic characteristics of gait. Methods Gait was used for identity recognition, and gait recognition based on kinematics and dynamic gait parameters was performed through pattern recognition, including the position and the intensity value of maximum pressure points, pressure center point, and pressure ratio. Results The investigation shows that the energy consumption of gait as modeled analyzed, and the model of gait energy consumption can be obtained, which is comprehensively affected by motion parameters and individual feature parameters. Conclusion Real-time energy measurement is obtained when most people walk. The research shows that the gait frequency and body parameters obtained from the tactile parameters of gait biomechanics can more accurately estimate the energy metabolism of exercise and obtain the metabolic formula of exercise. There is a good application prospect for assessing energy metabolism through the tactile parameters of gait. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigating treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução Na medicina, o aprendizado profundo é um tipo de aprendizado de máquina que visa treinar computadores para a realização de tarefas humanas simulando o cérebro humano. O reconhecimento da marcha e a simulação do movimento de marcha são um dos pontos de maior interesse da investigação no campo da biometria e pode ser beneficiado com esse recurso tecnológico. Objetivo Utilizar o aprendizado profundo para formatar e validar, de acordo com as características dinâmicas da marcha. Métodos A marcha foi utilizada para o reconhecimento da identidade, e o reconhecimento da marcha baseado na cinemática e parâmetros dinâmicos de marcha foi realizado através do reconhecimento de padrões, incluindo a posição e o valor de intensidade dos pontos de pressão máxima, ponto central de pressão e relação de pressão. Resultados A investigação mostra que o consumo de energia da marcha como modelado analisado, e o modelo de consumo de energia da marcha pode ser obtido, o qual é afetado de forma abrangente pelos parâmetros de movimento e pelos parâmetros de características individuais. Conclusão A medição de energia em tempo real é obtida quando a maioria das pessoas caminha. A investigação mostra que a frequência da marcha e os parâmetros corporais obtidos a partir dos parâmetros tácteis da biomecânica da marcha podem estimar com maior precisão o metabolismo energético do exercício e obter a fórmula metabólica do exercício. Há uma boa perspectiva de aplicação para avaliar o metabolismo energético através dos parâmetros tácteis da marcha. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción En medicina, el aprendizaje profundo es un tipo de aprendizaje que pretende entrenar a los ordenadores para que realicen tareas humanas simulando el cerebro humano. El reconocimiento de la marcha y la simulación de su movimiento es uno de los puntos más interesantes de la investigación en el campo de la biometría y puede beneficiarse de este recurso tecnológico. Objetivo Utilizar el aprendizaje profundo para formatear y validar según las características dinámicas de la marcha. Métodos Se utilizó la marcha para el reconocimiento de la identidad, y el reconocimiento de la marcha basado en la cinemática y los parámetros dinámicos de la marcha se realizó mediante el reconocimiento de patrones, incluyendo la posición y el valor de la intensidad de los puntos de presión máxima, el punto de presión central y la relación de presión. Resultados La investigación muestra que el consumo de energía de la marcha, tal y como se analizó, y el modelo de consumo de energía de la marcha se puede obtener, que es ampliamente afectado por los parámetros de movimiento y los parámetros de las características individuales. Conclusión La medición de la energía en tiempo real se obtiene cuando la mayoría de la gente camina. La investigación muestra que la frecuencia de la marcha y los parámetros corporales obtenidos a partir de los parámetros táctiles de la biomecánica de la marcha pueden estimar con mayor precisión el metabolismo energético del ejercicio y obtener la fórmula metabólica del mismo. Existe una buena perspectiva de aplicación para evaluar el metabolismo energético a través de los parámetros táctiles de la marcha. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Gait Analysis , Biomechanical Phenomena , Algorithms
2.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 144-153, mayo-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1377463

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La depresión es una problemática de salud pública responsable de alta carga de mortalidad, afecta principalmente a jóvenes universitarios. La evidencia sugiere que la participación en actividad física genera beneficios en salud mental. Resulta importante estudiar esta asociación teniendo en cuenta otra serie de factores como variables sociodemográficas y el tipo de carrera universitaria. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva y evaluar si el nivel de actividad física podría ser un factor protector en estudiantes de una universidad con enfoque deportivo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con muestra representativa de 291 estudiantes. Se aplicó cuestionario Beck II y versión larga del International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado con razones de prevalencia para depresión, según nivel de actividad física ajustadas mediante modelos de regresión generalizados con vínculo logarítmico de distribución binomial. Resultados: Las prevalencias de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física son respectivamente 27% y 22%. La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión es 46% mayor en quienes no son suficientemente activos (RP: 1,46 IC95%:0,95-2,25). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física más bajas comparadas con poblaciones similares, probablemente se relacionan con el enfoque deportivo de la institución.


Introduction: Depression is a public health problem that has a burden of high mortality, mainly affecting the young university student population. The evidence suggests that participation in physical activity generates mental health benefits. It is important to study this association as well as the relationship between depression and sociodemographic variables and university program. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptomatology and assess whether physical activity levels can be a Protective factor in university students enrolled in sports programs. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 291 students. The Beck II questionnaire and long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were applied. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed with prevalence ratios for depression, according to the level of physical activity adjusted by generalized regression models with logarithmic link of binomial distribution. Results: The prevalence rates of depression symptoms and physical inactivity were 27% and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of depression symptoms is 46% higher in those who are not sufficiently active (RP: 1.46 IC95%:0.95-2.25). Conclusions: Prevalence of depressive symptoms and physical inactivity were lower compared to similar populations and are probably related to the sport focus of the institution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Exercise , Public Health , Health , Mental Health , Depression , Energy Metabolism , Movement
3.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386960

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: determinar el gasto energético y el tiempo dedicado a actividad física en condición de vida libre de escolares costarricenses con sobrepeso u obesidad. Metodología: participaron 31 niños y 13 niñas entre 6 y 9 años (7.6 ± 1.03 años) con sobrepeso u obesidad, estado nutricional que se estableció según el IMC. Las variables del estudio fueron la antropometría, el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC), el gasto energético total producto de la actividad física a lo largo del día (GEAF total diario), el gasto energético por actividad física (GEAF) y el tiempo dedicado a la actividad física (TAF), las dos últimas se estimaron según condición sedentaria, ligera, moderada o vigorosa, por medio del acelerómetro Actiheart. Resultados: la talla y el %GC fueron significativamente mayores en las niñas (126.8 ± 5.9 cm, 34.0 ± 6.4 %GC) que en los niños (123.0 ± 5.4 cm, 25.2 ± 6.9 %GC). Los niños registraron un GEAF total diario de 824 ± 228.1 kcal/day, GEAF moderada + vigorosa de 285.6 ± 131.7 kcal/day y un TAF moderada + vigorosa de 147.0 ± 66.6 min, valores superiores (p<0.05) a los de las niñas 395 ± 144.4 kcal/day, 139.6 ± 90.1 kcal/day y 75.6 ± 43.2 min, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los escolares cumplen más de los 60 min/día recomendados de TAF de moderada a vigorosa intensidad, sin embargo, el GEAF de moderada a vigorosa intensidad no alcanza el mínimo de 300 kcal/día para la reducción de peso, lo cual podría ser una de las causas del sobrepeso.


Abstract Objective: To determine the energy expenditure and time spent on physical activities in Costa Rican overweight or obese schoolchildren in free-living conditions. Methodology: Participants were 31 boys and 13 girls aged 6 to 9 years old (7.6 ± 1.03 years) with overweight or obesity; nutritional status was established by BMI. The variables of the study were: anthropometric, body fat percentage (%BF), total energy expenditure product of physical activity performed during the day (EEPA daily total), plus the energy expenditure by physical activity (EEPA), and time spent on physical activity (TPA), both variables in sedentary condition, light, moderate and vigorous intensity estimated by the Actiheart accelerometer. Results: Size and %BF were significantly higher in girls (126.8 ± 5.9 cm, 34.0 ± 6.4% BF) than in boys (123.0 ± 5.4 cm, 25.2 ± 6.9% BF). Boys recorded a daily total EEPA of 824 ± 228.1 kcal / day, moderate + vigorous EEPA 285.6 ± 131.7 kcal / day and a moderate + vigorous TPA 147.0 ± 66.6 min; significantly higher (P <0.05) than girls 395 ± 144.4 kcal / day, 139.6 ± 90.1 kcal / day and 75.6 ± 43.2 min respectively . Conclusions: Schoolchildren perform over 60 min/day moderate to vigorous intensity PA recommended, however; the EEPA moderate to vigorous intensity does not meet the minimum recommendation of 300 kcal / day for weight reduction. This could be one of the causes for overweight schoolchildren.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Exercise , Energy Metabolism , Obesity Management , Costa Rica , Accelerometry
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 100-108, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381416

ABSTRACT

Las investigaciones realizadas durante el último siglo relacionadas con la descripción de la Microbiota Intestinal (MI) sugieren una relación concreta entre su composición y la salud del huésped. Su desregulación denominada disbiosis intestinal ha sido asociada a distintos tipos de enfermedades gastrointestinales, metabólicas, oncológicas e incluso psiquiátricas. Destacan numerosos reportes que han informado la condición de disbiosis en la obesidad, tanto en modelos animales como humanos de distintos grupos etarios y regiones del mundo. A su vez, la composición del microbioma también ha logrado asociarse a las diferentes comorbilidades de la obesidad, postulando que la MI posee influencia en la disfunción del tejido adiposo (TA), entendiendo que corresponde al principal modulador de la patogénesis de la obesidad. Sin embargo, aún no es posible establecer una explicación mecanicista plausible. Actualmente, la utilización de tecnologías multiómicas, junto con la evaluación de variables fisiológicas, nos podrían proporcionar una mejor comprensión a la incógnita planteada. Frente a esto, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los últimos avances en la comprensión de la influencia de la microbiota intestinal en el TA y su contribución a los mecanismos relacionados con la patogénesis de la obesidad. Entre los principales mecanismos identificados, la evidencia reporta nexos fisiológicos entre la composición de la MI y la modulación de inflamación, permeabilidad intestinal y adipogénesis. Las vías implicadas derivan de la influencia de la disbiosis intestinal en el accionar de ácidos grasos de cadena corta, claudinas, macrófagos, oligosacáridos, entre otros. Los mecanismos implicados, principalmente estudiados en modelos animales, deberían ser considerados para su evaluación en próximos estudios longitudinales y experimentales en humanos con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión sobre la implicancia de cada mecanismo en la patogenia global de la obesidad(AU)


The investigations carried out during the last century related to the description of the Gut Microbiota (GM) suggest a concrete relationship between its composition and the health of the host. Its deregulation called intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with different types of gastrointestinal, metabolic, oncological and even psychiatric diseases. Numerous reports that have described the condition of dysbiosis in obesity stand out, both in animal and human models of different age groups and regions of the world. In turn, the composition of the microbiome has also been associated with the different comorbidities of obesity, postulating that MI has an influence on adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, understanding that it corresponds to the main modulator of the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not yet possible to establish a plausible mechanistic explanation. Currently, the use of multi-omics technologies, together with the evaluation of physiological variables, could provide us with a better understanding of the question raised. In view of this, this review aims to review the latest advances in understanding the influence of the intestinal microbiota on AT and its contribution to the mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of obesity. Among the main mechanisms identified, the evidence reports physiological links between the composition of GM and the modulation of inflammation, intestinal permeability and adipogenesis. The pathways involved derive from the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the action of short-chain fatty acids, claudins, macrophages, oligosaccharides, among others. The mechanisms involved, mainly studied in animal models, should be considered for evaluation in future longitudinal and experimental studies in humans in order to obtain a better understanding of the implication of each mechanism in the global pathogenesis of obesity(AU)


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity/pathology , Energy Metabolism , Adipogenesis , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378572

ABSTRACT

A cana-de-açúcar e a cana energia são plantas intercruzáveis que compõe o complexo Saccharum. Estas plantas são fonte de biomassa para produção de açúcar, biocombustíveis, eletricidade, entre outros, e utilizam a energia assimilada pela fotossíntese de forma contrastante, ainda que ambas resultem em alta produtividade. O relógio biológico é um mecanismo molecular que gera informações sobre a hora do dia em conjunto com estímulos ambientais, adaptando respostas fisiológicas em prol de otimizar o desenvolvimento dos organismos em um ambiente cíclico, processo que regula cerca de 64% dos genes de cana-deaçúcar no campo. Em organismos sésseis como as plantas, o recorrente processo de produção de energia apenas durante o período luminoso, gera ritmos de metabólitos que influenciam na atividade de enzimas quinases que assim funcionam como sensores do estado energético, em vias conservadas nos eucariotos. Porém, pouco se sabe a respeito de como estes sinais são percebidos a nível transcricional, principalmente em plantas cultiváveis. Para elucidar como estas vias atuam em conjunto em plantas do complexo Saccharum, medimos o nível de transcrição de componentes do relógio biológico, de subunidades que compõe o complexo TOR, e da subunidade catalítica de SnRK1, KIN10. Medimos o desempenho do relógio biológico das variedades através da quantificação de amido em quatro pontos temporais, para obter uma dinâmica de produção e consumo, processo que é regulado pelo relógio biológico e tem genes com perfil de expressão rítmicos em cana de-açúcar. Curiosamente, uma das quatro variedades onde identificamos provável perfil rítmico de consumo de amido é a S.officinarum SP80-3280, cana-de-açúcar utilizada anteriormente para estudos de relógio biológico. Os nove acessos foram divididos em dois grupos com base em sua partição de carbono contrastante. HF (high fiber) com mais fibras e perfilho e grupo HS (high sucrose), com maior armazenamento de açúcares e amido que HF, em todos os horários de coleta, e com baixa produção de fibras. Estes grupos não diferem em expressão dos componentes de relógio biológico, no entanto, HS tem maior transcrição de uma subunidade do complexo TOR, em apenas um dos horários analisados (ZT12). Em conjunto, a expressão dos componentes do relógio biológico divide os acessos entre os que possuem altos níveis de transcrição de ScLHY, no ZT03, e os que possuem maior transcrição dos genes PRR59, 73 e 95, no ZT12, grupos com contrastante partição de carbono. A transcrição dos sensores energéticos se correlaciona no começo da noite em acessos de HS e Krakatau e, no começo da manhã, em acessos de HF e IN84-105, sem agrupar as variedades por espécie ou destino de carbono. Este trabalho sugere que há diferentes níveis de correlação entre a transcrição dos genes mensurados e as contrastantes partições de carbono das plantas do complexo Saccharu


Sugarcane and Energycane are intercrossable plants that make up the Saccharum complex. These plants are a source of biomass, sugar, biofuels, electricity among others, and even though they use the energy assimilated by photosynthesis in a contrasting way, both results in high productivity. The biological clock is a molecular mechanism that generates information about the time of day in conjunction with environmental stimuli, adapting physiological responses to optimize the development of organisms in a cyclic environment, a process that regulates about 64% of sugarcane genes in field-grown plants. In organisms such as plants, the recurrent process of energy production that happens only during the luminous period generates rhythmicity that may influence the activity of kinase enzymes, thus giving an energy sensor property for then. However, little is known about how these signs are perceived at the transcriptional level, especially in crops and monocots. To elucidate how these pathways act together in plants of the Saccharum complex, we measured the transcription level of the daytime loop of the biological clock, subunits that make up the TOR complex, and the catalytic subunit of SnRK1, KIN10. We measured starch content in four time points, to obtain a dynamic of production and consumption, a process that is regulated by the biological clock and has genes with a rhythmic expression profile in sugarcane. Interestingly, one of the four varieties where we could identify a probable rhythmic profile of starch consumption is a sugarcane SP80-3280 (S. officinarum), that have been used for biological clock studies. The nine genotypes were divided into two groups based on their contrasting carbon partition. HF (high fiber) with more fiber and tiller and group HS (high sucrose), with higher sugar and starch storage than HF, but with lower fiber production. These groups do not differ in expression of biological clock components; however, HS has a higher transcription of a subunit of the TOR complex, in only one of the analyzed times (ZT12). Together, the expression of components of the biological clock divides the genotypes between those with higher levels of ScLHY in ZT03 and those with more transcripts of PRR59, 73 and 95 genes in ZT12, groups that also have contrasting carbon partition. The transcription of TOR complex correlates in the early evening in HS and KRAKATAU, but in the morning, in HF and IN84-105, with no clear correlation with the C destination preferences. This work suggests that there are different levels of correlation between the transcription of biological clock and energy sensors component genes and the contrasting carbon partitions of plants from the Saccharum complex


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Biological Clocks , Saccharum/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism , Phosphotransferases , Sucrose , Biomass , Growth and Development , Efficiency/classification , Sugars/classification
6.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220009821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356490

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: This study determined the energy expenditure and effort intensity of athletes during women's artistic gymnastics training sessions. Methods: Ten gymnasts (age 10.9 ± 1.7 years) performed a test to estimate the maximum rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max), during which the maximum heart rate (HRmax) was also obtained. The heart rate (HR) of these gymnasts was recorded during five training sessions and then used to estimate the exercise intensity and energy expenditure. Results: Mean duration of training sessions was 4.08 ± 0.42 h, with mean HR corresponding to 137 ± 8 bpm or 69.0 ± 3.5% of HRmax. Gymnasts spent less training time at 90-100% HRmax compared to the other HR ranges (p < 0.05). Time spent at 60-70% and 70-80% was higher compared to 80-90% HRmax (p = 0.012 and p = 0.001, respectively). The training impulse was 239.2 ± 35.4 AU. Estimated energy expenditure was 768.3 ± 168.5 kcal, metabolic rate was 3.1 ± 0.6 kcal/min, and the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) corresponded to 6.1 ± 0.6. Conclusion: Young gymnasts performed prolonged and moderate-intensity training sessions that generated high energetic demands. This information is beneficial to gymnasts since the coaching team can use the data to control the training load and prescribe a proper diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Athletes , Gymnastics/physiology
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 394-421, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939861

ABSTRACT

Obesity and aging are two important epidemic factors for metabolic syndrome and many other health issues, which contribute to devastating diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and cancers. The brain plays a central role in controlling metabolic physiology in that it integrates information from other metabolic organs, sends regulatory projections and orchestrates the whole-body function. Emerging studies suggest that brain dysfunction in sensing various internal cues or processing external cues may have profound effects on metabolic and other physiological functions. This review highlights brain dysfunction linked to genetic mutations, sex, brain inflammation, microbiota, stress as causes for whole-body pathophysiology, arguing brain dysfunction as a root cause for the epidemic of aging and obesity-related disorders. We also speculate key issues that need to be addressed on how to reveal relevant brain dysfunction that underlines the development of these disorders and diseases in order to develop new treatment strategies against these health problems.


Subject(s)
Aging , Brain/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Animals , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939752

ABSTRACT

Indirect energy metabolism measurement is the gold standard for providing nutritional support for critical illness. The accuracy of the measurement data directly affects the outcome of the disease. In order to study the influence of sampling delay on the accuracy of energy metabolism measurement under mechanical ventilation, the Matlab/Simulink platform and respiratory electrical model were used for simulation and quantitative analysis. The results show that the error of indirect energy metabolism measurement increases with the increase of sampling delay, the error of sampling delay in mechanical ventilation mode is larger than that of spontaneous breathing, and the error of sampling delay in PCV mode of mechanical ventilation is larger than that in VCV mode. Therefore, there should be different sampling delay compensation strategies under severe mechanical ventilation and its different control modes.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Critical Illness , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Respiration, Artificial
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 443-460, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939579

ABSTRACT

The mammalian internal circadian clock system has been evolved to adapt to the diurnal changes in the internal and external environment of the organism to regulate diverse physiological functions, such as the sleep-wake cycle and feeding rhythm, thereby coordinating the rhythmic changes of energy demand and nutrition supply in each diurnal cycle. The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and hormones secretion in diverse tissues and organs, including the liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, heart, and vessels. As a special "organ" of the host, the gut microbiota, together with the intestinal microenvironment (tissues, cells, and metabolites) in a co-evolutionary process, constitutes a micro-ecosystem and plays an important role in the process of nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestine of the host. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicates that the compositions, quantities, colonization, and functional activities of the gut microbiota exhibit significant circadian variations, which are closely related to the changes of various physiological functions under the regulation of host circadian clock system. In addition, several studies have shown that the gut microbiota can produce many important metabolites such as the short-chain fatty acids through the degradation of indigestive dietary fibers. A portion of gut microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the circadian clock system and metabolism of the host. This article mainly discusses the interaction between the host circadian clock system and the gut microbiota, and highlights its influence on energy metabolism of the host, providing a novel clues and thought for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Ecosystem , Energy Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Mammals
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928903

ABSTRACT

A high-precision human metabolic measurement system is designed. The system uses STM32F103 as the main control chip to acquire oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow signals to calculate four quantitative indicators: oxygen consumption(VO2), carbon dioxide production(VCO2), respiratory entropy(RQ) and resting energy metabolism(REE), and finally uses an upper computer to display the calculation results.In this paper, the signal acquisition circuit design was carried out for the oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor and flow sensor, and the validity of the device was verified with the American machine MGCDiagnositcs using Bland-Altman analysis method, and the results showed that the four parameters of VO2,VCO2, RQ and REE of both devices fell in the agreement interval of more than 95%. The device thus provides accurate metabolic measurements and offers an effective tool for the field of general health and clinical nutrition support in China.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry, Indirect , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928187

ABSTRACT

This study selected three typical Chinese herbs with cold property(Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Coptidis Rhizoma) and another three with heat property(Cinnamomi Cortex, Zingiberris Rhizoma, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata) to observe their regulatory effects on metabolism in animal organism, especially on lipid and energy metabolism in mice after a short-(7 d) and long-term(35 d) intervention. The mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism genes in epididymal adipose tissue and liver were determined by real-time PCR. The oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy consumption were detected by metabolic system. After the short-term intervention, the Chinese herbs with heat property significantly reduced epididymal adipose tissue index and elevated the expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACC), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), and carnitine-palmityl transferase 1(CPT-1) in liver and epididymal adipose tissues. However, those with cold property promoted the expression of above-mentioned genes in epididymal adipose tissue. After the long-term intervention, cold and heat Chinese herbs had no significant effect on epididymal adipose tissue index of animals, while cold Chinese herbs could increase carbon dioxide production and energy consumption and reduce activity. These findings demonstrated that the short-term intervention effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on animal metabolism were significantly stronger than the long-term intervention effects. Specifically, the short-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs enhanced the lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue, while the heat Chinese herbs promoted lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue and liver. The long-term intervention with cold and heat Chinese herbs resulted in no obvious change in lipid level, but long-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs accelerated energy consumption of the body. This study preliminarily observed the effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on normal animal physiology from lipid and energy metabolism, which would provide reference for explaining the biological basis of Chinese herbs with cold or heat property based on biological response.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Animals , Carbon Dioxide , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Lipids , Mice
13.
Más Vita ; 3(4): 18-25, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1354614

ABSTRACT

La actividad física en docentes universitarios se constituye en motivo de estudio puesto que es una población con una franja de gran responsabilidad y propensa a la inactividad física. Objetivo: Valorar el nivel de actividad física e índice de masa corporal de 50 docentes de la facultad de salud en una universidad pública, a partir de la edad, género, estado civil, peso y talla. Materiales y Métodos: El enfoque de investigación es cuantitativo, de tipo descriptivo, no experimental y corte transversal. Los sujetos de estudio son 50 docentes de la facultad de salud en una universidad pública. Para clasificar el nivel de actividad física, se aplicó el formato corto del Cuestionario de Actividad Física (IPAQ). Resultados: Se evidenció que el 74% de docentes es de género femenino, la mayoría tienen más de 40 años y el 50% son casados. La percepción de los docentes sobre su nivel de actividad física es la siguiente: bajo (- de 600 Mets, el 48%), nivel moderado (- de 1500 Mets, el 38%) y nivel alto (+ de 1500 Mets, el 14%), el tiempo sentado en un día hábil es de 5 a 10 horas diarias. El IMC del 54% de docentes tiene valores correspondientes a sobrepeso, la mayoría pertenece a la carrera de enfermería, el 46%, presenta valores normales. Conclusión: Se concluye que la percepción sobre el nivel de actividad física de los docentes universitarios es bajo y moderado, no cumplen con requerimientos mínimos señalados por la OMS, presentan sedentarismo y sobrepeso(AU)


Physical activity in university teachers is the subject of study since it is a population with a range of great responsibility and prone to physical inactivity. Objective: To assess the level of physical activity and body mass index of 50 teachers from the health faculty at a public university, based on age, gender, marital status, weight and height. Materials and Methods: The research approach is quantitative, descriptive, non-experimental and cross-sectional. The study subjects are 50 teachers from the faculty of health at a public university. To classify the level of physical activity, the short format of the Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied. Results: It was evidenced that 74% of teachers are female, most are over 40 years old and 50% are married. Teachers' perception of their level of physical activity is as follows: low (- of 600 Mets, 48%), moderate level (- of 1500 Mets, 38%) and high level (+ of 1500 Mets, 14 %), the time spent sitting on a business day is 5 to 10 hours a day. The BMI of 54% of teachers has values corresponding to overweight, the majority belong to the nursing career, 46% have normal values. Conclusion: It is concluded that the perception about the level of physical activity of university teachers is low and moderate, they do not meet the minimum requirements indicated by the WHO, they are sedentary and overweight(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Energy Metabolism , Sedentary Behavior , Universities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Overweight , Faculty
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 157-163, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered a global public health problem, with changes in lifestyle being the effective way to treat the disease. To date, there is no recommended standard of assessment to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with NAFLD, so that dietary therapy can be properly guided. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the REE of patients with NAFLD through indirect calorimetry and compare with different predictive formulas of REE and with REE by electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Assess body composition through BIA, with NAFLD staging and the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: They were evaluated in patients with NAFLD over 18 years of age treated at the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a tertiary level hospital in southern Brazil. NAFLD staging was performed using liver biopsy or a non-invasive method. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in all patients. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Comorbidities as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were evaluated. To estimate energy expenditure at rest, Harris-Benedict, Jeor Mifflin-St, World Health Organization and Schofield formulas were used. BIA was used to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body mass, and to measure RMR, indirect calorimetry was also used. Associations between categorical variables were tested with Pearson's χ2 test and between groups with McNemar's test. The level of significance assumed was 5%. The degree of agreement between the REE measurement methods was assessed using the Blan-Altman test. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients were evaluated, 70.5% male, with a mean age of 59 years and a mean BMI of 33.08 kg/m2 ±5.13. The average RMR per CI was 1,753 kcal ±614.58. When comparing the RMR estimate by different formulas with indirect calorimetry, only the Jeor Mifflin-St formula showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001), with a difference of +318.49 kcal. BIA and Harris Benedict's formula presented values closer to CI, 1,658 and 1,845 kcal respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the Jeor Mifflin-St formula should not be used to estimate the RMR in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of indirect calorimetry, some alternatives can be used safely in this population, such as BIA and the predictive formulas of Harris Benedict, Schofield and the World Health Organization.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é considerada, atualmente, um problema de saúde pública global, sendo a mudança no estilo de vida a forma efetiva de tratar a doença. Até o momento não há um padrão de avaliação recomendado para determinar o gasto energético de repouso (GER) de pacientes com DHGNA, para que se possa nortear adequadamente a conduta dietoterápica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o GER de pacientes com DHGNA através da calorimetria indireta (CI) e comparar com diferentes fórmulas preditivas do GER e com GER através da bioimpedância elétrica (BIA). Avaliar a composição corporal através da BIA, com o estadiamento da DHGNA e com a presença de comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em pacientes com DHGNA maiores de 18 anos de idade atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia de um Hospital de nível terciário do Sul do Brasil. O estadiamento da DHGNA foi realizado através de biópsia hepática ou método não invasivo. Peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC) foram determinados em todos os pacientes. Para avaliação da atividade física foi utilizada a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Foram avaliadas as comorbidades hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e dislipidemia. Para a estimativa do gasto energético de repouso utilizou-se as fórmulas de Harris-Benedict, de Jeor Mifflin-St, da Organização Mundial de Saúde e de Schofield. A BIA foi utilizada para avaliação do GER e da massa corporal, e para aferição do GER também se utilizou a CI. Associações entre variáveis categóricas foram testadas com teste χ2 de Pearson e entre grupos com teste de McNemar. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. O grau de concordância entre os métodos de mensuração do GER foi aferido pelo teste de Blan-Altman. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes, sendo 70,5% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 anos e média de IMC 33,08 kg/m2 ±5,13. O GER médio por CI foi de 1.753 kcal ±614,58. Ao comparar a estimativa do GER por diferentes fórmulas com a calorimetria indireta, apenas a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (P=0,0001), com uma diferença de +318,49 kcal. A BIA e a fórmula de Harris Benedict apresentaram valores mais próximos à CI, 1.658 e 1.845 kcal respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos que a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St não deva ser utilizada para estimativa do GER em pacientes com DHGNA. Na ausência da CI algumas alternativas podem ser utilizadas com segurança nesta população, como a BIA e as fórmulas preditivas de Harris Benedict, de Schofield e da Organização Mundial de Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Basal Metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Energy Metabolism , Middle Aged
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 127-137, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290900

ABSTRACT

La pérdida de patrones de alimentación tradicionales a favor de otros más occidentales redunda en un descenso de calidad de la dieta alrededor del mundo. Muchos aspectos determinan la calidad dietética, aunque en general pueden resumirse en una dieta moderada, variada, equilibrada y adecuada para cada individuo. Estos aspectos son evaluados por el Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Objetivo: Comparar la calidad de la dieta de población mexicana y española mediante un índice de calidad internacional de la dieta, determinando que factores son en mayor medida responsables de la pérdida de calidad. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal sobre una muestra representativa de sujetos adultos residentes en Querétaro (México) y de sujetos de la misma franja de edad procedentes de la Región de Murcia, en la cuenca mediterránea española. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y de ingesta con 3 recuerdos de 24 horas y se valoró el DQI-I en la población. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias para el gasto energético y el DQI-I en todos sus aspectos con valores de calidad superiores para la población mexicana. La variedad fue la dimensión más castigada para todos los sujetos, presentando los mexicanos mejores cifras de consumo de vegetales pero peores para las fuentes proteicas. Conclusiones: La muestra mexicana mejoró las cifras de calidad de la española, tal vez por una mayor influencia de conocimientos en nutrición. El 86% de la población podría mejorar sus puntajes de calidad en el DQI-I ajustando sus frecuencias de consumo de alimentos(AU)


The loss of traditional eating patterns in favour of more Western ones results in a decline in dietary quality around the world. Many aspects determine dietary quality, but in general they can be summarised as a moderate, varied, balanced diet suitable for each individual. These aspects are assessed by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Objective: To compare the quality of the diet of the Mexican and Spanish populations using an international diet quality index, determining which factors are most responsible for the loss of quality. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study on a representative sample of adult subjects living in Querétaro (Mexico) and subjects of the same age group from the Region of Murcia, in the Spanish Mediterranean basin. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, food frequency consumption and intake data were collected with 3 24-hour recall and the DQI-I was assessed in the population. Results: Differences were found for energy expenditure and DQI-I in all aspects with higher quality values for the Mexican population. Variety was the most punished dimension for all subjects, with Mexicans presenting better figures for vegetable intake but worse for protein sources. Conclusions: The Mexican sample improved the quality figures of the Spanish sample, perhaps due to a greater influence of nutritional knowledge. Eighty-six percent of the population could improve their DQI-I quality scores by adjusting their food consumption frequencies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Food Quality , Diet , Energy Metabolism , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Eating , Nutritional Transition
16.
Pensar mov ; 19(1)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386754

ABSTRACT

Resumen Montoya Arroyo, J.A., Ramírez Cambronero, J y Aragón Vargas, L.F. (2021). Medición del gasto energético real por usar un producto comercial para ejercitarse en el hogar. PENSAR EN MOVIMIENTO: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 19(1), 1-11. La evidencia sobre la importancia de ejercitarse regularmente es abrumadora. Muchas personas, conscientes de ello, recurren a las soluciones simples y atractivas que se les venden por televisión. Lamentablemente, muchos países no tienen reglamentación estricta para valorar las afirmaciones que hacen los productos comerciales; más aún, los requisitos para la evaluación científica de los productos relacionados con el ejercicio parecieran no existir. Cada vez que una persona compra un equipo para ejercitarse y poco después decide renunciar al ejercicio por la falta de resultados positivos, se da un paso hacia atrás en la salud pública. El propósito de este estudio fue medir el gasto energético inducido por utilizar un artículo comercialmente disponible para ejercitarse en casa y contrastarla con su publicidad. Se utilizaron distintos métodos de campo y laboratorio para medir el gasto energético de 27 estudiantes jóvenes, aparentemente saludables (15F, 12M; 19.1 ± 1.0 años; 1.647 ± .073 m; 63.09 ± 10.13 kg; M ± DT) mientras descansaban en posición decúbito supino durante diez minutos y mientras utilizaban la máquina para ejercitarse 10 minutos a intensidad intermedia. Ninguno de los métodos utilizados registró un gasto energético bruto superior a 272 kJ (65 kcal) en 10 min de actividad; el consumo de oxígeno durante el esfuerzo fue equivalente a 1.54 ± .23 MET, que corresponden a 23.4 ± 9.2 kJ (5.6 ± 2.2 kcal) de gasto neto o 70.3 ± 11.7 kJ (16.8 ± 2.8 kcal) de gasto bruto. En contraste, el gasto energético bruto reportado en el comercial del producto es de 277 kcal (1159 kJ) para 10 min. En conclusión, el gasto energético neto real es 1/50 (dos centésimas) del gasto energético presentado en la publicidad.


Abstract Montoya Arroyo, J.A., Ramírez Cambronero, J & Aragón Vargas, L.F. (2021). Measurement of actual energy expenditure when using a commercial device for exercising at home. PENSAR EN MOVIMIENTO: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 19(1), 1-11. The evidence on the importance of regular exercise is overwhelming. Awareness of this fact leads many people to resort to simple, attractive solutions marketed through TV. Many countries, unfortunately, lack strict regulations to assess the claims made by commercial items. Moreover, it would seem that requirements for scientific evaluation of exercise-related products do not exist at all. Every time someone purchases exercising equipment and shortly afterwards decides to give up working out because no positive results can be seen, one step backwards is taken in public health. The purpose of this study was to measure the actual energy expenditure induced by using a commercially available device for exercising at home and compare it to the claims made about it in advertising. Various field and laboratory methods were used to measure the energy expenditure of 27 young, apparently healthy students (15F, 12 M; 19.1 ± 1.0 years old; 1.647 ± .073 m; 63.09 ± 10.13 kg; mean ± SD) while they were resting for 10 minutes in supine position, and then while working out on the equipment at medium speed for 10 minutes. None of the methods used showed a gross energy expenditure above 272 kJ (65 kcal) in 10 min activity. Oxygen consumption during stress was equivalent to 1.54 ± .23 MET, corresponding to 23.4 ± 9.2 kJ (5.6 ± 2.2 kcal) net expenditure, or 70.3 ± 11.7 kJ (16.8 ± 2.8 kcal) gross expenditure. In contrast, the gross energy expenditure reported in the equipment's commercial is 277 kcal (1159 kJ) for 10 min. In conclusion, the actual net energy expenditure is 1/50 (two hundredths) the energy expenditure being claimed in the advertisements.


Resumo Montoya Arroyo, J.A., Ramírez Cambronero, J e Aragón Vargas, L.F. (2021). Medição do gasto energético real ao usar um produto comercial para exercitar-se em casa. PENSAR EN MOVIMIENTO: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 19(1), 1-11. A evidência sobre a importância da prática contínua do exercício físico é indiscutível. Muitas pessoas, conscientes disso, recorrem a soluções simples e atraentes vendidas pela televisão. Infelizmente, muitos países não têm regulamentações estritas para validar as afirmações que os produtos comerciais fazem; mais ainda, as exigências para a avaliação científica dos produtos relacionados com o exercício parecem não existir. Toda vez que uma pessoa compra um equipamento para se exercitar e pouco depois decide renunciar ao exercício pela falta de resultados positivos é um retrocesso para a saúde pública. Este estudo teve como propósito medir o gasto energético provocado pelo uso de um item comercialmente disponível para fazer exercício em casa e contrastá-lo com sua publicidade. Foram utilizados distintos métodos de campo e laboratório para medir o gasto energético de 27 estudantes jovens, aparentemente saudáveis (15F, 12M; 19,1 ± 1,0 anos; 1,647 ± 0,073 m; 63,09 ± 10,13 kg; M ± DT) enquanto descansavam na posição decúbito dorsal durante dez minutos e enquanto utilizavam a máquina para se exercitar por 10 minutos na intensidade média. Nenhum dos métodos utilizados registrou um gasto energético bruto superior a 272 kJ (65 kcal) em 10 min de atividade; o consumo de oxigênio durante o esforço foi equivalente a 1,54 ± 0,23 MET, correspondente a 23,4 ± 9,2 kJ (5,6 ± 2,2 kcal) de gasto líquido ou 70,3 ± 11,7 kJ (16,8 ± 2,8 kcal) de gasto bruto. Em contraste, o gasto energético bruto informado no comercial do produto é de 277 kcal (1159 kJ) para 10 min. Para concluir, o gasto energético líquido real é 1/50 (dois centésimos) do gasto energético apresentado na publicidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Obesity Agents , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Exercise
17.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 73-78, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280080

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Myoblasts fuse into multinucleated muscle fibers to form and promote the growth of skeletal muscle. In order to analyze the role of myostatin (MSTN) in body fat, skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and energy metabolism, this study will use the antisense RNA technology of gene chip technology to study it. The results showed that the MSTN gene regulated the growth and proliferation of myoblasts and affected the development of skeletal muscle by affecting the expression of Cdc42, bnip2, p38 and other genes; knockout or overexpression of the MSTN gene would lead to a trend of fat-related genes from fat synthesis to fat decomposition; after the MSTN gene was knocked down, the expression levels of cpti-b, PPARG and other genes in the cells were corresponding after MSTN overexpression, the relative expression of the PPARG gene decreased. It is suggested that the knockout or overexpression of MSTN may affect lipid accumulation, and cpti-b and PPARG may directly regulate lipid level. It is hoped that this experiment can provide a reference for the study of MSTN effect on fat deposition.


RESUMO Os mioblastos se fundem eM fibras musculares multinucleadas para formar e promover o crescimento do músculo esquelético. A fim de analisar o papel da miostatina (MSTN) na gordura corporal, proliferação de células musculares esqueléticas e diferenciação e metabolismo energético, este estudo utilizará a tecnologia anti-RNA de chips genéticos para estudá-la. Os resultados mostraram que o gene MSTN regulava o crescimento e a proliferação de mioblastos e afetava o desenvolvimento do músculo esquelético, afetando a expressão de Cdc42, bnip2, p38 e outros genes; a eliminação ou sobrexpressão do gene MSTN conduziria a uma tendência de os genes adiposos sintetizarem a gordura até sua decomposição; após a eliminação do gene MSTN, os níveis de expressão de cpti-b, PPARG e outros genes nas células mostraram-se correspondentes após a sobrexpressão do gene MSTN, e a expressão relativa do gene PPARG diminuiu. Sugere-se que a eliminação ou sobrexpressão da MSTN possa afetar a acumulação de lipídeos, e o cpti-b e o PPARG podem regular diretamente o nível lipídico. Espera-se que esta experiência possa fornecer uma referência para o estudo do efeito da MSTN sobre a deposição de gordura.


RESUMEN Los mioblastos se funden en fibras musculares multinucleadas para formar y promover el crecimiento del músculo esquelético. A fin de analizar el papel de la miostatina (MSTN) en la grasa corporal, proliferación de células musculares esqueléticas y diferenciación y metabolismo energético, este estudio utilizará la tecnología anti-RNA de chips genéticos para estudiarla. Los resultados mostraron que el gen MSTN regulaba el crecimiento y la proliferación de mioblastos y afectaba el desarrollo del músculo esquelético, afectando la expresión de Cdc42, bnip2, p38 y otros genes; la eliminación o sobreexpresión del gen MSTN conduciría a una tendencia de que los genes adiposos sinteticen la grasa hasta su descomposición; después de la eliminación del gen MSTN, los niveles de expresión de cpti-b, PPARG y otros genes en las células se mostraron correspondientes después de la sobreexpresión del gen MSTN, y la expresión relativa del gen PPARG disminuyó. Se sugiere que la eliminación o sobreexpresión de la MSTN pueda afectar la acumulación de lipídos, y el cpti-b y el PPARG pueden regular directamente el nivel lipídico. Se espera que esta experiencia pueda proveer una referencia para el estudio del efecto de la MSTN sobre el depósito de grasa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Myoblasts, Skeletal/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Energy Metabolism , Myostatin/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 285-292, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252243

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is an effective strategy for managing sarcopenia in the elderly, but few studies have addressed PA levels regarding age-related changes. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the effects of elderly women's PA levels on sarcopenia, physical performance, handgrip strength and perception of the risk of falling, and their relationship with energy expenditure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in the southern region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-seven elderly women were evaluated and divided into three groups: low PA (n = 13); moderate PA (n = 16); and high PA (n = 18). Their PA levels were investigated through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); sarcopenia index, through dual-energy radiological absorptiometry; physical performance through the Timed Up & Go test; handgrip strength, using a digital dynamometer; and perception of the risk of falling, through the Fall Risk Awareness Questionnaire. RESULTS: High PA level indicated higher skeletal muscle mass index, physical performance and IPAQ score, compared with low and moderate PA levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher IPAQ energy expenditure at high and moderate PA levels was a good predictor of higher physical performance and increased perception of the risk of falling. CONCLUSION: Elderly women classified as having high PA level showed improvements in sarcopenia, handgrip strength, physical performance and perception of the risk of falling. The IPAQ energy expenditure of the elderly women with high and moderate PA levels was a good predictor of physical performance and improved perception of the risk of falling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Sarcopenia , Perception , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle, Skeletal , Hand Strength , Energy Metabolism , Muscle Strength
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 395-402, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288555

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a healthy athlete, the caloric intake is sufficient for sports energy needs and body physiological functions, allowing a balance between energy availability, bone metabolism, andmenstrual cycle.Onthe other hand, an imbalance causedby low energy availability dueto a restrictive diet, eating disorders or long periods of energy expenditure leads to multisystemic deregulation favoring the essential functions of the body. This phenomenon, described as the female athlete triad, occurs in a considerable percentage of high-performance athletes, with harmful consequences for their future. The present review was carried out based on a critical analysis of themost recent publications available and aims to provide a global perception of the topic relative energy deficit in sport (RED-S). The objective is to promote theacquisition ofmore consolidated knowledgeon an undervaluedtheme, enabling the acquisition of preventive strategies, early diagnosis and/or appropriate treatment.


Resumo Emumaatleta saudável, oaporte calórico é suficientepara anecessidade energética esportiva e para as funções fisiológicas corporais, permitindo um equilíbrio entre disponibilidade energética (DE), metabolismo ósseo e função menstrual. Por outro lado, um desequilíbrio devido à baixa disponibilidade energética (BDE) por dieta restritiva, perturbações alimentares ou grandes períodos de gasto energético conduz a uma desregulação multissistêmica priorizando as funções essenciais do corpo. Este fenômeno, descrito inicialmente como tríade da mulher atleta e, atualmente, comodéfice energético relativo no esporte (RED-S, nasigla eminglês) tem como pilares a BDE, disfunção menstrual e alterações na densidade mineral óssea (DMO), estando presente em uma percentagem considerável de atletas de alta competição, com consequências nefastas para o seu futuro a curto, médio e longo prazo. A presente revisão foi realizada a partir da análise crítica das publicações mais recentes disponíveis e pretende proporcionar uma percepção global do tema RED-S. O objetivo é promover a aquisição de um conhecimento mais consolidado sobre uma temática subvalorizada, possibilitando a aquisição de estratégias preventivas, diagnóstico precoce e/ou tratamento adequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Energy Intake/physiology , Female Athlete Triad Syndrome/diagnosis , Female Athlete Triad Syndrome/prevention & control , Athletic Performance , Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Athletes , Amenorrhea , Menstruation Disturbances/complications
20.
Diaeta (B. Aires) ; 39(174): 39-44, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1339813

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se ha reportado una alta prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso en pacientes con Síndrome de Down (SD), tanto en niños, como en adolescentes y adultos. Evaluar correctamente el gasto energético basal (GEB) en estos pacientes, es un aspecto crítico del control de peso, que ha sido escasamente explorado. Objetivo: evaluar el estado nutricional y el GEB mediante calorimetría indirecta y dos ecuaciones predictivas, en pacientes con SD de Concepción, Chile. Materiales y método: estudio descriptivo y transversal en 6 pacientes con SD: 2 niños y 4 mujeres adultas. Se midieron el peso y la talla y se calcularon el índice peso/edad (niños) y el índice de masa corporal (adultos). La determinación del GEB, se realizó mediante calorimetría indirecta y utilizando dos ecuaciones predictivas: Harris & Benedict y FAO/OMS (1985). Los resultados se expresaron como medianas y rangos, y la comparación de los valores del GEB, se realizó a través de la prueba de Wilcoxon (α= 0,05). Resultados: se encontró que el 50% de los pacientes presentó sobrepeso. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el GEB calculado por las ecuaciones predictivas, y el obtenido por calorimetría indirecta. Conclusión: en el grupo de pacientes con SD evaluados, se podría estimar la GEB a través de las ecuaciones predictivas (Harris & Benedict y FAO/OMS, 1985), dada su concordancia con los valores obtenidos por calorimetría indirecta, lo que puede ser muy útil en la práctica clínica, permitiendo la elaboración de planes de alimentación adecuados para estos pacientes(AU)


Introduction: a high prevalence of malnutrition due to overweight and obesity has been reported in patients with Down Syndrome (DS), in children, adolescents and adults. A correct evaluation of the basal energy expenditure (BEE) in these patients is a critical aspect of weight control; however, this aspect has not been thoroughly studied. Objective: to evaluate the nutritional status and BEE using indirect calorimetry and two predictive equations in patients with DS from Concepción, Chile. Materials and methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 6 patients with DS: 2 boys and 4 adult women. Weight and height were measured, and the weight/age index (children) and the body mass index (adults) were calculated. The determination of the BEE was carried out by indirect calorimetry and using two predictive equations: Harris & Benedict and FAO/WHO (1985). The results were expressed as means, standard deviations, medians and ranges, and the comparison of the BEE values was performed using the Wilcoxon test (α = 0.05). Results: 50% of the patients were overweight. No statistically significant differences were found between the BEE calculated by the predictive equations, and that obtained by indirect calorimetry. Conclusion: In the group of patients with DS evaluated, BEE could be estimated through the predictive equations (Harris & Benedict and FAO/ WHO, 1985), given its agreement with the values obtained by indirect calorimetry, which can be very useful in clinical practice, allowing the elaboration of adequate feeding plans for these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome , Malnutrition , Basal Metabolism , Nutritional Status , Energy Metabolism
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