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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0194, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394852

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction In medicine, Deep Learning is a type of machine learning that aims to train computers to perform human tasks by simulating the human brain. Gait recognition and gait motion simulation is one of the most interesting research areas in the field of biometrics and can benefit from this technological feature. Objective To use Deep Learning to format and validate according to the dynamic characteristics of gait. Methods Gait was used for identity recognition, and gait recognition based on kinematics and dynamic gait parameters was performed through pattern recognition, including the position and the intensity value of maximum pressure points, pressure center point, and pressure ratio. Results The investigation shows that the energy consumption of gait as modeled analyzed, and the model of gait energy consumption can be obtained, which is comprehensively affected by motion parameters and individual feature parameters. Conclusion Real-time energy measurement is obtained when most people walk. The research shows that the gait frequency and body parameters obtained from the tactile parameters of gait biomechanics can more accurately estimate the energy metabolism of exercise and obtain the metabolic formula of exercise. There is a good application prospect for assessing energy metabolism through the tactile parameters of gait. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigating treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução Na medicina, o aprendizado profundo é um tipo de aprendizado de máquina que visa treinar computadores para a realização de tarefas humanas simulando o cérebro humano. O reconhecimento da marcha e a simulação do movimento de marcha são um dos pontos de maior interesse da investigação no campo da biometria e pode ser beneficiado com esse recurso tecnológico. Objetivo Utilizar o aprendizado profundo para formatar e validar, de acordo com as características dinâmicas da marcha. Métodos A marcha foi utilizada para o reconhecimento da identidade, e o reconhecimento da marcha baseado na cinemática e parâmetros dinâmicos de marcha foi realizado através do reconhecimento de padrões, incluindo a posição e o valor de intensidade dos pontos de pressão máxima, ponto central de pressão e relação de pressão. Resultados A investigação mostra que o consumo de energia da marcha como modelado analisado, e o modelo de consumo de energia da marcha pode ser obtido, o qual é afetado de forma abrangente pelos parâmetros de movimento e pelos parâmetros de características individuais. Conclusão A medição de energia em tempo real é obtida quando a maioria das pessoas caminha. A investigação mostra que a frequência da marcha e os parâmetros corporais obtidos a partir dos parâmetros tácteis da biomecânica da marcha podem estimar com maior precisão o metabolismo energético do exercício e obter a fórmula metabólica do exercício. Há uma boa perspectiva de aplicação para avaliar o metabolismo energético através dos parâmetros tácteis da marcha. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción En medicina, el aprendizaje profundo es un tipo de aprendizaje que pretende entrenar a los ordenadores para que realicen tareas humanas simulando el cerebro humano. El reconocimiento de la marcha y la simulación de su movimiento es uno de los puntos más interesantes de la investigación en el campo de la biometría y puede beneficiarse de este recurso tecnológico. Objetivo Utilizar el aprendizaje profundo para formatear y validar según las características dinámicas de la marcha. Métodos Se utilizó la marcha para el reconocimiento de la identidad, y el reconocimiento de la marcha basado en la cinemática y los parámetros dinámicos de la marcha se realizó mediante el reconocimiento de patrones, incluyendo la posición y el valor de la intensidad de los puntos de presión máxima, el punto de presión central y la relación de presión. Resultados La investigación muestra que el consumo de energía de la marcha, tal y como se analizó, y el modelo de consumo de energía de la marcha se puede obtener, que es ampliamente afectado por los parámetros de movimiento y los parámetros de las características individuales. Conclusión La medición de la energía en tiempo real se obtiene cuando la mayoría de la gente camina. La investigación muestra que la frecuencia de la marcha y los parámetros corporales obtenidos a partir de los parámetros táctiles de la biomecánica de la marcha pueden estimar con mayor precisión el metabolismo energético del ejercicio y obtener la fórmula metabólica del mismo. Existe una buena perspectiva de aplicación para evaluar el metabolismo energético a través de los parámetros táctiles de la marcha. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Gait Analysis , Biomechanical Phenomena , Algorithms
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 411-422, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982712

ABSTRACT

Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in various food sources and Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of alkaloid extract from Codonopsis Radix (ACR) in ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). The results revealed that ACR treatment effectively mitigated the abnormal weight gain and hepatic injury associated with HFD. Furthermore, ACR ameliorated the dysregulated lipid metabolism in NAFLD mice, as evidenced by reductions in serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, accompanied by a concomitant increase in the high-density lipoprotein level. ACR treatment also demonstrated a profound anti-oxidative effect, effectively alleviating HFD-induced oxidative stress and promoting ATP production. These effects were achieved through the up-regulation of the activities of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complexes I, II, IV, and V, in addition to the activation of the AMPK/PGC-1α pathway, suggesting that ACR exhibits therapeutic potential in alleviating the HFD-induced dysregulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Moreover, ACR administration mitigated HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and suppressed the overexpression of ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) in NAFLD mice. In summary, the present study provides compelling evidence supporting the hepatoprotective role of ACR in alleviating lipid deposition in NAFLD by improving energy metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and ER stress. These findings warrant further investigation and merit the development of ACR as a potential therapeutic agent for NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Codonopsis , Liver , Lipid Metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Energy Metabolism , Lipids , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 769-772, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982672

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) has become a major challenge in the treatment of global cardiovascular diseases. Great progress has been made in the drug treatment of HF, however, rehospitalization rate and mortality of patients with HF are still high. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore new treatment strategy and new underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In recent years, some researchers have suggested that regulation of ketone body metabolism may become a potentially promising therapeutic approach for HF. Some studies showed that the oxidative utilization of fatty acids and glucose was decreased in the failing heart, accompanied by the increase of ketone body oxidative metabolism. The enhancement of ketone body metabolism in HF is a compensatory change during HF. The failing heart preferentially uses ketone body oxidation to provide energy, which helps to improve the body's cardiac function. This review will discuss the potential significance of ketone body metabolism in the treatment of HF from three aspects: normal myocardial ketone body metabolism, the change of ketone body metabolism in HF, the effect of ketogenic therapy on HF and its treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Failure/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Ketone Bodies/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Energy Metabolism
4.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 632-649, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982404

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia seen in clinical settings, which has been associated with substantial rates of mortality and morbidity. However, clinically available drugs have limited efficacy and adverse effects. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of andrographolide (Andr) with respect to AF. We used network pharmacology approaches to investigate the possible therapeutic effect of Andr. To define the role of Andr in AF, HL-1 cells were pro-treated with Andr for 1 h before rapid electronic stimulation (RES) and rabbits were pro-treated for 1 d before rapid atrial pacing (RAP). Apoptosis, myofibril degradation, oxidative stress, and inflammation were determined. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to investigate the relevant mechanism. Andr treatment attenuated RAP-induced atrial electrophysiological changes, inflammation, oxidative damage, and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. RNA-seq indicated that oxidative phosphorylation played an important role. Transmission electron microscopy and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content assay respectively validated the morphological and functional changes in mitochondria. The translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus and the molecular docking suggested that Andr might exert a therapeutic effect by influencing the Keap1-Nrf2 complex. In conclusions, this study revealed that Andr is a potential preventive therapeutic drug toward AF via activating the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus and the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to promote mitochondrial bioenergetics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oxidative Stress , Energy Metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1
5.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 585-594, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the thermic effect of food (TEF) in a Chinese mixed diet in young people.@*METHODS@#During the study, the participants were weighed and examined for body composition every morning. The total energy expenditure (TEE) of the participants was measured by the doubly labeled water method for 7 days, and during this period, basal energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity energy expenditure was measured by an accelerometer. The value obtained by subtracting basal energy expenditure and physical activity energy expenditure from TEE was used to calculate TEF.@*RESULTS@#Twenty healthy young students (18-30 years; 10 male) participated in the study. The energy intake of the participants was not significantly different from the Chinese Dietary Reference Intake of energy ( P > 0.05). The percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate were all in the normal range. The intakes of fruits, milk and dietary fiber of the participants were significantly lower than those in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the body weight of the participants during the experiment ( P > 0.05). When adjusted for body weight, there was no significant difference in either TEE or basal energy expenditure between the male and female participants ( P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in physical activity energy expenditure and TEF between the male and female participants ( P > 0.05). The percentage of TEF in TEE was 8.73%.@*CONCLUSION@#The percentage of TEF in TEE in a Chinese mixed diet in young people was significantly lower than 10% ( P < 0.001). A value of 10% is usually considered to be the TEF in mixed diets as a percentage of TEE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Body Composition , Body Weight , Diet , East Asian People , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Exercise
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 65-69, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970953

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the differences to determine resting energy expenditure (REE) measured with indirect calorimetry and REE predicted by formula method and body composition analyzer in patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis, so as to provide theoretical guidance for the implementation of precision nutrition intervention. Methods: Patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis who were admitted to Henan Provincial People's Hospital from April 2020 to December 2020 were collected. REE was determined by the body composition analyzer and the H-B formula method. Results: were analyzed and compared to REE measured by the metabolic cart. Results A total of 57 cases with liver cirrhosis were included in this study. Among them, 42 were male, aged (47.93 ± 8.62) years, and 15 were female aged (57.20 ± 11.34) years. REE measured value in males was (1 808.14 ± 201.47) kcal/d, compared with the results calculated by the H-B formula method and the measured result of body composition, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). REE measured value in females was (1 496.60 ± 131.28) kcal/d, compared with the results calculated by the H-B formula method and the measured result of body composition, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016 and 0.004, respectively). REE measured with the metabolic cart had correlation with age and area of visceral fat in men (P = 0.021) and women (P = 0.037). Conclusion: Metabolic cart use will be more accurate to obtain resting energy expenditure in patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis. Body composition analyzer and formula method may underestimate REE predictions. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the effect of age on REE in H-B formula should be fully considered for male patients, while the area of visceral fat may have a certain impact on the interpretation of REE in female patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Energy Metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect/methods , Hospitalization
7.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 9-15, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970439

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of excess oxygen supply for different time periods on the mitochondrial energy metabolism in alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells. Methods Rat RLE-6TN cells were assigned into a control group (21% O2 for 4 h) and excess oxygen supply groups (95% O2 for 1,2,3,and 4 h,res-pectively).The content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP),the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V,and the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by luciferase assay,micro-assay,and fluorescent probe JC-1,respectively.Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1),cytochrome b (Cytb),cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COXI),and adenosine triphosphatase 6 (ATPase6) in the core subunits of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,and Ⅴ,respectively. Results Compared with the control group,excess oxygen supply for 1,2,3,and 4 h down-regulated the mRNA levels of ND1 (q=24.800,P<0.001;q=13.650,P<0.001;q=9.869,P<0.001;q=20.700,P<0.001),COXI (q=16.750,P<0.001;q=10.120,P<0.001;q=8.476,P<0.001;q=14.060,P<0.001),and ATPase6 (q=22.770,P<0.001;q=15.540,P<0.001;q=12.870,P<0.001;q=18.160,P<0.001).Moreover,excess oxygen supply for 1 h and 4 h decreased the ATPase activity (q=9.435,P<0.001;q=11.230,P<0.001) and ATP content (q=5.615,P=0.007;q=5.029,P=0.005).The excess oxygen supply for 2 h and 3 h did not cause significant changes in ATPase activity (q=0.156,P=0.914;q=3.197,P=0.116) and ATP content (q=0.859,P=0.557;q=1.273,P=0.652).There was no significant difference in mitochondrial membrane potential among the groups (F=0.303,P=0.869). Conclusion Short-term excess oxygen supply down-regulates the expression of the core subunits of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and reduces the activity of ATPase,leading to the energy metabolism disorder of alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Energy Metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine Triphosphatases , RNA, Messenger , Oxygen
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 17-26, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970102

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that long-term spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the potential to spontaneously transform into pluripotent stem cells, which is speculated to be related to the tumorigenesis of testicular germ cells, especially when p53 is deficient in SSCs which shows a significant increase in the spontaneous transformation efficiency. Energy metabolism has been proved to be strongly associated with the maintenance and acquisition of pluripotency. Recently, we compared the difference in chromatin accessibility and gene expression profiles between wild-type (p53+/+) and p53 deficient (p53-/-) mouse SSCs using the Assay for Targeting Accessible-Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques, and revealed that SMAD3 is a key transcription factor in the transformation of SSCs into pluripotent cells. In addition, we also observed significant changes in the expression levels of many genes related to energy metabolism after p53 deletion. To further reveal the role of p53 in the regulation of pluripotency and energy metabolism, this paper explored the effects and mechanism of p53 deletion on energy metabolism during the pluripotent transformation of SSCs. The results of ATAC-seq and RNA-seq from p53+/+ and p53-/- SSCs revealed that gene chromatin accessibility related to positive regulation of glycolysis and electron transfer and ATP synthesis was increased, and the transcription levels of genes encoding key glycolytic enzymes and regulating electron transport-related enzymes were markedly increased. Furthermore, transcription factors SMAD3 and SMAD4 promoted glycolysis and energy homeostasis by binding to the chromatin of the Prkag2 gene which encodes the AMPK subunit. These results suggest that p53 deficiency activates the key enzyme genes of glycolysis in SSCs and enhances the chromatin accessibility of genes associated with glycolysis activation to improve glycolysis activity and promote transformation to pluripotency. Moreover, SMAD3/SMAD4-mediated transcription of the Prkag2 gene ensures the energy demand of cells in the process of pluripotency transformation and maintains cell energy homeostasis by promoting AMPK activity. These results shed light on the importance of the crosstalk between energy metabolism and stem cell pluripotency transformation, which might be helpful for clinical research of gonadal tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Male , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Chromatin , Energy Metabolism , Gene Deletion , Stem Cells , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Spermatogonia/cytology
9.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 144-153, mayo-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1377463

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La depresión es una problemática de salud pública responsable de alta carga de mortalidad, afecta principalmente a jóvenes universitarios. La evidencia sugiere que la participación en actividad física genera beneficios en salud mental. Resulta importante estudiar esta asociación teniendo en cuenta otra serie de factores como variables sociodemográficas y el tipo de carrera universitaria. Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de sintomatología depresiva y evaluar si el nivel de actividad física podría ser un factor protector en estudiantes de una universidad con enfoque deportivo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con muestra representativa de 291 estudiantes. Se aplicó cuestionario Beck II y versión larga del International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado con razones de prevalencia para depresión, según nivel de actividad física ajustadas mediante modelos de regresión generalizados con vínculo logarítmico de distribución binomial. Resultados: Las prevalencias de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física son respectivamente 27% y 22%. La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión es 46% mayor en quienes no son suficientemente activos (RP: 1,46 IC95%:0,95-2,25). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de síntomas de depresión e inactividad física más bajas comparadas con poblaciones similares, probablemente se relacionan con el enfoque deportivo de la institución.


Introduction: Depression is a public health problem that has a burden of high mortality, mainly affecting the young university student population. The evidence suggests that participation in physical activity generates mental health benefits. It is important to study this association as well as the relationship between depression and sociodemographic variables and university program. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptomatology and assess whether physical activity levels can be a Protective factor in university students enrolled in sports programs. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 291 students. The Beck II questionnaire and long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were applied. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed with prevalence ratios for depression, according to the level of physical activity adjusted by generalized regression models with logarithmic link of binomial distribution. Results: The prevalence rates of depression symptoms and physical inactivity were 27% and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of depression symptoms is 46% higher in those who are not sufficiently active (RP: 1.46 IC95%:0.95-2.25). Conclusions: Prevalence of depressive symptoms and physical inactivity were lower compared to similar populations and are probably related to the sport focus of the institution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Exercise , Public Health , Health , Mental Health , Depression , Energy Metabolism , Movement
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 100-108, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381416

ABSTRACT

Las investigaciones realizadas durante el último siglo relacionadas con la descripción de la Microbiota Intestinal (MI) sugieren una relación concreta entre su composición y la salud del huésped. Su desregulación denominada disbiosis intestinal ha sido asociada a distintos tipos de enfermedades gastrointestinales, metabólicas, oncológicas e incluso psiquiátricas. Destacan numerosos reportes que han informado la condición de disbiosis en la obesidad, tanto en modelos animales como humanos de distintos grupos etarios y regiones del mundo. A su vez, la composición del microbioma también ha logrado asociarse a las diferentes comorbilidades de la obesidad, postulando que la MI posee influencia en la disfunción del tejido adiposo (TA), entendiendo que corresponde al principal modulador de la patogénesis de la obesidad. Sin embargo, aún no es posible establecer una explicación mecanicista plausible. Actualmente, la utilización de tecnologías multiómicas, junto con la evaluación de variables fisiológicas, nos podrían proporcionar una mejor comprensión a la incógnita planteada. Frente a esto, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los últimos avances en la comprensión de la influencia de la microbiota intestinal en el TA y su contribución a los mecanismos relacionados con la patogénesis de la obesidad. Entre los principales mecanismos identificados, la evidencia reporta nexos fisiológicos entre la composición de la MI y la modulación de inflamación, permeabilidad intestinal y adipogénesis. Las vías implicadas derivan de la influencia de la disbiosis intestinal en el accionar de ácidos grasos de cadena corta, claudinas, macrófagos, oligosacáridos, entre otros. Los mecanismos implicados, principalmente estudiados en modelos animales, deberían ser considerados para su evaluación en próximos estudios longitudinales y experimentales en humanos con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión sobre la implicancia de cada mecanismo en la patogenia global de la obesidad(AU)


The investigations carried out during the last century related to the description of the Gut Microbiota (GM) suggest a concrete relationship between its composition and the health of the host. Its deregulation called intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with different types of gastrointestinal, metabolic, oncological and even psychiatric diseases. Numerous reports that have described the condition of dysbiosis in obesity stand out, both in animal and human models of different age groups and regions of the world. In turn, the composition of the microbiome has also been associated with the different comorbidities of obesity, postulating that MI has an influence on adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, understanding that it corresponds to the main modulator of the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not yet possible to establish a plausible mechanistic explanation. Currently, the use of multi-omics technologies, together with the evaluation of physiological variables, could provide us with a better understanding of the question raised. In view of this, this review aims to review the latest advances in understanding the influence of the intestinal microbiota on AT and its contribution to the mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of obesity. Among the main mechanisms identified, the evidence reports physiological links between the composition of GM and the modulation of inflammation, intestinal permeability and adipogenesis. The pathways involved derive from the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the action of short-chain fatty acids, claudins, macrophages, oligosaccharides, among others. The mechanisms involved, mainly studied in animal models, should be considered for evaluation in future longitudinal and experimental studies in humans in order to obtain a better understanding of the implication of each mechanism in the global pathogenesis of obesity(AU)


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity/pathology , Energy Metabolism , Adipogenesis , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases
11.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386960

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: determinar el gasto energético y el tiempo dedicado a actividad física en condición de vida libre de escolares costarricenses con sobrepeso u obesidad. Metodología: participaron 31 niños y 13 niñas entre 6 y 9 años (7.6 ± 1.03 años) con sobrepeso u obesidad, estado nutricional que se estableció según el IMC. Las variables del estudio fueron la antropometría, el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC), el gasto energético total producto de la actividad física a lo largo del día (GEAF total diario), el gasto energético por actividad física (GEAF) y el tiempo dedicado a la actividad física (TAF), las dos últimas se estimaron según condición sedentaria, ligera, moderada o vigorosa, por medio del acelerómetro Actiheart. Resultados: la talla y el %GC fueron significativamente mayores en las niñas (126.8 ± 5.9 cm, 34.0 ± 6.4 %GC) que en los niños (123.0 ± 5.4 cm, 25.2 ± 6.9 %GC). Los niños registraron un GEAF total diario de 824 ± 228.1 kcal/day, GEAF moderada + vigorosa de 285.6 ± 131.7 kcal/day y un TAF moderada + vigorosa de 147.0 ± 66.6 min, valores superiores (p<0.05) a los de las niñas 395 ± 144.4 kcal/day, 139.6 ± 90.1 kcal/day y 75.6 ± 43.2 min, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los escolares cumplen más de los 60 min/día recomendados de TAF de moderada a vigorosa intensidad, sin embargo, el GEAF de moderada a vigorosa intensidad no alcanza el mínimo de 300 kcal/día para la reducción de peso, lo cual podría ser una de las causas del sobrepeso.


Abstract Objective: To determine the energy expenditure and time spent on physical activities in Costa Rican overweight or obese schoolchildren in free-living conditions. Methodology: Participants were 31 boys and 13 girls aged 6 to 9 years old (7.6 ± 1.03 years) with overweight or obesity; nutritional status was established by BMI. The variables of the study were: anthropometric, body fat percentage (%BF), total energy expenditure product of physical activity performed during the day (EEPA daily total), plus the energy expenditure by physical activity (EEPA), and time spent on physical activity (TPA), both variables in sedentary condition, light, moderate and vigorous intensity estimated by the Actiheart accelerometer. Results: Size and %BF were significantly higher in girls (126.8 ± 5.9 cm, 34.0 ± 6.4% BF) than in boys (123.0 ± 5.4 cm, 25.2 ± 6.9% BF). Boys recorded a daily total EEPA of 824 ± 228.1 kcal / day, moderate + vigorous EEPA 285.6 ± 131.7 kcal / day and a moderate + vigorous TPA 147.0 ± 66.6 min; significantly higher (P <0.05) than girls 395 ± 144.4 kcal / day, 139.6 ± 90.1 kcal / day and 75.6 ± 43.2 min respectively . Conclusions: Schoolchildren perform over 60 min/day moderate to vigorous intensity PA recommended, however; the EEPA moderate to vigorous intensity does not meet the minimum recommendation of 300 kcal / day for weight reduction. This could be one of the causes for overweight schoolchildren.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Exercise , Energy Metabolism , Obesity Management , Costa Rica , Accelerometry
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 91-97, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385597

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Carnosine is known as a natural dipeptide, which inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells throughout its action on mitochondrial respiration and cell glycolysis. However, not much is known about its effects on the metabolism of healthy cells. We explored the effects of Karnozin EXTRA® capsule with different concentrations of L-carnosine, on the cell viability and the expressions of intermediate filament vimentin (VIM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in normal fibroblasts BHK-21/C13. Furthermore, we investigated its action on the energy production of these cells. Cell viability was quantified by the MTT assay. The Clark oxygen electrode (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments, England) was used to measure the "intact cell respiration rate", state 3 of ADP-stimulated oxidation, maximum oxidation capacity and the activities of complexes I, II and IV. Results showed that Karnozin EXTRA® capsule in concentrations of 2 and 5 mM of L-carnosine did not induce toxic effects and morphological changes in treated cells. Our data revealed a dose-dependent immunofluorescent signal amplification of VIM and SOD2 in the BHK-21/C13 cell line. This supplement substantially increased the recorded mitochondrial respiration rates in the examined cell line. Due to the stimulation of mitochondrial energy production in normal fibroblasts, our results suggested that Karnozin EXTRA® is a potentially protective dietary supplement in the prevention of diseases with altered mitochondrial function.


RESUMEN: La carnosina se conoce como dipéptido natural, que inhibe la proliferación de células tumorales a través de su acción sobre la respiración mitocondrial y la glucólisis celular. Sin embargo, no se sabe mucho de sus efectos sobre el metabolismo de las células sanas. Exploramos los efectos de la cápsula Karnozin EXTRA® con diferentes concentraciones de L-carnosina, sobre la viabilidad celular y las expresiones de vimentina de filamento intermedio (VIM) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD2) en fibroblastos normales BHK-21 / C13. Además, estudiamos su acción sobre la producción de energía de estas células. La viabilidad celular se cuantificó mediante el ensayo MTT. Se utilizó el electrodo de oxígeno Clark (Oxygraph, Hansatech Instruments, Inglaterra) para medir la "tasa de respiración de células intactas", el estado 3 de oxidación estimulada por ADP, la capacidad máxima de oxidación y las actividades de los complejos I, II y IV. Los resultados mostraron que la cápsula de Karnozin EXTRA® en concentraciones de 2 y 5 mM de L- carnosina no indujo efectos tóxicos ni cambios morfológicos en las células tratadas. Nuestros datos revelaron una amplificación de señal inmunofluorescente dependiente de la dosis de VIM y SOD2 en la línea celular BHK-21 / C13. Este suplemento aumentó sustancialmente las tasas de respiración mitocondrial registradas en la línea celular examinada. Debido a la estimulación de la producción de energía mitocondrial en fibroblastos normales, nuestros resultados sugirieron que Karnozin EXTRA® es un suplemento dietético potencialmente protector en la prevención de enfermedades con función mitocondrial alterada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carnosine/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Kidney/cytology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Vimentin/drug effects , Biological Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cricetinae , Cell Culture Techniques , Energy Metabolism
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38095, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415848

ABSTRACT

This scoping review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence of the associations between molecular and genetic markers of mitochondrial metabolism and fatigue in human adults. The research question guiding this review was, "Are there potential relationships between mitochondrial metabolism markers and fatigue?" The literature search used three terms (mitochondria; fatigue; energy metabolism), which yielded 263 manuscripts and 22 theses/dissertations. The studies included in the review had to meet three criteria: (1) Include adult participants (≥18 years of age); (2) Show a relationship between mitochondrial energy metabolism and fatigue; (3) Be published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Of the 17 articles included for a full-text review, some had a cross-sectional design (6/17, 35%), and more than half (12/17, 70%) were published between 2015 and 2020. The predominant population studied were patients diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (9/17, 53%). Most studies (15/17, 88%) assessed fatigue with validated instruments. Mitochondrial markers associated with fatigue are a) mitochondrial transport pathways and respiratory chain, b) mutations in mitochondrial DNA, and c) energy disorders in cells of the immune system, such as natural killer cells. Mitochondrial metabolic activities, such as the production and transport of ATP, are significant components that may help understand the etiology of fatigue. Future directions should include longitudinal study designs, characterization of fatigue phenotypes, and the identification of markers involved in production and transport pathways. The clinical relevance in this field can lead to interventions targeting mitochondrial markers to reduce or prevent fatigue.


Subject(s)
Oxidative Phosphorylation , Energy Metabolism , Fatigue , Mitochondria
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378572

ABSTRACT

A cana-de-açúcar e a cana energia são plantas intercruzáveis que compõe o complexo Saccharum. Estas plantas são fonte de biomassa para produção de açúcar, biocombustíveis, eletricidade, entre outros, e utilizam a energia assimilada pela fotossíntese de forma contrastante, ainda que ambas resultem em alta produtividade. O relógio biológico é um mecanismo molecular que gera informações sobre a hora do dia em conjunto com estímulos ambientais, adaptando respostas fisiológicas em prol de otimizar o desenvolvimento dos organismos em um ambiente cíclico, processo que regula cerca de 64% dos genes de cana-deaçúcar no campo. Em organismos sésseis como as plantas, o recorrente processo de produção de energia apenas durante o período luminoso, gera ritmos de metabólitos que influenciam na atividade de enzimas quinases que assim funcionam como sensores do estado energético, em vias conservadas nos eucariotos. Porém, pouco se sabe a respeito de como estes sinais são percebidos a nível transcricional, principalmente em plantas cultiváveis. Para elucidar como estas vias atuam em conjunto em plantas do complexo Saccharum, medimos o nível de transcrição de componentes do relógio biológico, de subunidades que compõe o complexo TOR, e da subunidade catalítica de SnRK1, KIN10. Medimos o desempenho do relógio biológico das variedades através da quantificação de amido em quatro pontos temporais, para obter uma dinâmica de produção e consumo, processo que é regulado pelo relógio biológico e tem genes com perfil de expressão rítmicos em cana de-açúcar. Curiosamente, uma das quatro variedades onde identificamos provável perfil rítmico de consumo de amido é a S.officinarum SP80-3280, cana-de-açúcar utilizada anteriormente para estudos de relógio biológico. Os nove acessos foram divididos em dois grupos com base em sua partição de carbono contrastante. HF (high fiber) com mais fibras e perfilho e grupo HS (high sucrose), com maior armazenamento de açúcares e amido que HF, em todos os horários de coleta, e com baixa produção de fibras. Estes grupos não diferem em expressão dos componentes de relógio biológico, no entanto, HS tem maior transcrição de uma subunidade do complexo TOR, em apenas um dos horários analisados (ZT12). Em conjunto, a expressão dos componentes do relógio biológico divide os acessos entre os que possuem altos níveis de transcrição de ScLHY, no ZT03, e os que possuem maior transcrição dos genes PRR59, 73 e 95, no ZT12, grupos com contrastante partição de carbono. A transcrição dos sensores energéticos se correlaciona no começo da noite em acessos de HS e Krakatau e, no começo da manhã, em acessos de HF e IN84-105, sem agrupar as variedades por espécie ou destino de carbono. Este trabalho sugere que há diferentes níveis de correlação entre a transcrição dos genes mensurados e as contrastantes partições de carbono das plantas do complexo Saccharu


Sugarcane and Energycane are intercrossable plants that make up the Saccharum complex. These plants are a source of biomass, sugar, biofuels, electricity among others, and even though they use the energy assimilated by photosynthesis in a contrasting way, both results in high productivity. The biological clock is a molecular mechanism that generates information about the time of day in conjunction with environmental stimuli, adapting physiological responses to optimize the development of organisms in a cyclic environment, a process that regulates about 64% of sugarcane genes in field-grown plants. In organisms such as plants, the recurrent process of energy production that happens only during the luminous period generates rhythmicity that may influence the activity of kinase enzymes, thus giving an energy sensor property for then. However, little is known about how these signs are perceived at the transcriptional level, especially in crops and monocots. To elucidate how these pathways act together in plants of the Saccharum complex, we measured the transcription level of the daytime loop of the biological clock, subunits that make up the TOR complex, and the catalytic subunit of SnRK1, KIN10. We measured starch content in four time points, to obtain a dynamic of production and consumption, a process that is regulated by the biological clock and has genes with a rhythmic expression profile in sugarcane. Interestingly, one of the four varieties where we could identify a probable rhythmic profile of starch consumption is a sugarcane SP80-3280 (S. officinarum), that have been used for biological clock studies. The nine genotypes were divided into two groups based on their contrasting carbon partition. HF (high fiber) with more fiber and tiller and group HS (high sucrose), with higher sugar and starch storage than HF, but with lower fiber production. These groups do not differ in expression of biological clock components; however, HS has a higher transcription of a subunit of the TOR complex, in only one of the analyzed times (ZT12). Together, the expression of components of the biological clock divides the genotypes between those with higher levels of ScLHY in ZT03 and those with more transcripts of PRR59, 73 and 95 genes in ZT12, groups that also have contrasting carbon partition. The transcription of TOR complex correlates in the early evening in HS and KRAKATAU, but in the morning, in HF and IN84-105, with no clear correlation with the C destination preferences. This work suggests that there are different levels of correlation between the transcription of biological clock and energy sensors component genes and the contrasting carbon partitions of plants from the Saccharum complex


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Biological Clocks , Saccharum/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism , Phosphotransferases , Sucrose , Biomass , Growth and Development , Efficiency/classification , Sugars/classification
15.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220009821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356490

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: This study determined the energy expenditure and effort intensity of athletes during women's artistic gymnastics training sessions. Methods: Ten gymnasts (age 10.9 ± 1.7 years) performed a test to estimate the maximum rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max), during which the maximum heart rate (HRmax) was also obtained. The heart rate (HR) of these gymnasts was recorded during five training sessions and then used to estimate the exercise intensity and energy expenditure. Results: Mean duration of training sessions was 4.08 ± 0.42 h, with mean HR corresponding to 137 ± 8 bpm or 69.0 ± 3.5% of HRmax. Gymnasts spent less training time at 90-100% HRmax compared to the other HR ranges (p < 0.05). Time spent at 60-70% and 70-80% was higher compared to 80-90% HRmax (p = 0.012 and p = 0.001, respectively). The training impulse was 239.2 ± 35.4 AU. Estimated energy expenditure was 768.3 ± 168.5 kcal, metabolic rate was 3.1 ± 0.6 kcal/min, and the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) corresponded to 6.1 ± 0.6. Conclusion: Young gymnasts performed prolonged and moderate-intensity training sessions that generated high energetic demands. This information is beneficial to gymnasts since the coaching team can use the data to control the training load and prescribe a proper diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Athletes , Gymnastics/physiology
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 394-421, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939861

ABSTRACT

Obesity and aging are two important epidemic factors for metabolic syndrome and many other health issues, which contribute to devastating diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and cancers. The brain plays a central role in controlling metabolic physiology in that it integrates information from other metabolic organs, sends regulatory projections and orchestrates the whole-body function. Emerging studies suggest that brain dysfunction in sensing various internal cues or processing external cues may have profound effects on metabolic and other physiological functions. This review highlights brain dysfunction linked to genetic mutations, sex, brain inflammation, microbiota, stress as causes for whole-body pathophysiology, arguing brain dysfunction as a root cause for the epidemic of aging and obesity-related disorders. We also speculate key issues that need to be addressed on how to reveal relevant brain dysfunction that underlines the development of these disorders and diseases in order to develop new treatment strategies against these health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , Brain/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 273-277, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928903

ABSTRACT

A high-precision human metabolic measurement system is designed. The system uses STM32F103 as the main control chip to acquire oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow signals to calculate four quantitative indicators: oxygen consumption(VO2), carbon dioxide production(VCO2), respiratory entropy(RQ) and resting energy metabolism(REE), and finally uses an upper computer to display the calculation results.In this paper, the signal acquisition circuit design was carried out for the oxygen sensor, carbon dioxide sensor and flow sensor, and the validity of the device was verified with the American machine MGCDiagnositcs using Bland-Altman analysis method, and the results showed that the four parameters of VO2,VCO2, RQ and REE of both devices fell in the agreement interval of more than 95%. The device thus provides accurate metabolic measurements and offers an effective tool for the field of general health and clinical nutrition support in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calorimetry, Indirect , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1904-1912, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928187

ABSTRACT

This study selected three typical Chinese herbs with cold property(Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Coptidis Rhizoma) and another three with heat property(Cinnamomi Cortex, Zingiberris Rhizoma, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata) to observe their regulatory effects on metabolism in animal organism, especially on lipid and energy metabolism in mice after a short-(7 d) and long-term(35 d) intervention. The mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism genes in epididymal adipose tissue and liver were determined by real-time PCR. The oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy consumption were detected by metabolic system. After the short-term intervention, the Chinese herbs with heat property significantly reduced epididymal adipose tissue index and elevated the expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACC), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), and carnitine-palmityl transferase 1(CPT-1) in liver and epididymal adipose tissues. However, those with cold property promoted the expression of above-mentioned genes in epididymal adipose tissue. After the long-term intervention, cold and heat Chinese herbs had no significant effect on epididymal adipose tissue index of animals, while cold Chinese herbs could increase carbon dioxide production and energy consumption and reduce activity. These findings demonstrated that the short-term intervention effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on animal metabolism were significantly stronger than the long-term intervention effects. Specifically, the short-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs enhanced the lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue, while the heat Chinese herbs promoted lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue and liver. The long-term intervention with cold and heat Chinese herbs resulted in no obvious change in lipid level, but long-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs accelerated energy consumption of the body. This study preliminarily observed the effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on normal animal physiology from lipid and energy metabolism, which would provide reference for explaining the biological basis of Chinese herbs with cold or heat property based on biological response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aconitum , Carbon Dioxide , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Lipids
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 586-593, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 382-387, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939752

ABSTRACT

Indirect energy metabolism measurement is the gold standard for providing nutritional support for critical illness. The accuracy of the measurement data directly affects the outcome of the disease. In order to study the influence of sampling delay on the accuracy of energy metabolism measurement under mechanical ventilation, the Matlab/Simulink platform and respiratory electrical model were used for simulation and quantitative analysis. The results show that the error of indirect energy metabolism measurement increases with the increase of sampling delay, the error of sampling delay in mechanical ventilation mode is larger than that of spontaneous breathing, and the error of sampling delay in PCV mode of mechanical ventilation is larger than that in VCV mode. Therefore, there should be different sampling delay compensation strategies under severe mechanical ventilation and its different control modes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computer Simulation , Critical Illness , Energy Metabolism , Respiration, Artificial
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