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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 78-86, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) is a fruit with high antioxidant capacity and could be an adjuvant strategy to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury. Objective: To evaluate the influence of açaí in global ischemia-reperfusion model in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: Control (C: receiving standard chow; n = 9) and Açaí (A: receiving standard chow supplemented with 5% açaí; n = 10). After six weeks, the animals were subjected to the global ischemia-reperfusion protocol and an isolated heart study to evaluate left ventricular function. Level of significance adopted: 5%. Results: There was no difference between the groups in initial body weight, final body weight and daily feed intake. Group A presented lower lipid hydroperoxide myocardial concentration and higher catalase activity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase than group C. We also observed increased myocardial activity of b-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, complex I, complex II and ATP synthase in the A group as well as lower activity of the lactate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase enzymes. The systolic function was similar between the groups, and the A group presented poorer diastolic function than the C group. We did not observe any difference between the groups in relation to myocardial infarction area, total and phosphorylated NF-kB, total and acetylated FOXO1, SIRT1 and Nrf-2 protein expression. Conclusion: despite improving energy metabolism and attenuating oxidative stress, açai supplementation did not decrease the infarcted area or improve left ventricular function in the global ischemia-reperfusion model.


Resumo Fundamento: Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) é uma fruta com alta capacidade antioxidante e pode ser uma estratégia adjuvante para atenuar a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do açaí no modelo global de isquemia-reperfusão em ratos. Metodologia: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em 2 grupos: Controle (C: recebendo ração padrão; n = 9) e Açaí (A: recebendo ração padrão suplementada com 5% de açaí; n = 10). Após seis semanas, os animais foram submetidos ao protocolo global de isquemia-reperfusão e a estudo do coração isolado para avaliar a função ventricular esquerda. Nível de significância adotado: 5%. Resultados: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao peso corporal inicial e final, e a ingestão diária de ração. O grupo A apresentou menor concentração miocárdica de hidroperóxido lipídico e maior atividade de catalase, superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase do que o grupo C. Também observamos aumento da atividade miocárdica da b-hidroxiacil coenzima-A desidrogenase, piruvato desidrogenase, citrato sintase, complexo I, complexo II e ATP sintase no grupo A, bem como menor atividade das enzimas lactato desidrogenase e fosfofructoquinase. A função sistólica foi semelhante entre os grupos, e o grupo A apresentou função diastólica pior que C. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos em relação à área de infarto do miocárdio, e expressão proteica de NF-kB total e fosforilado, e das proteínas FOXO1, SIRT1 e Nrf-2. Conclusão: apesar de melhorar o metabolismo energético e atenuar o estresse oxidativo, a suplementação de açaí não diminuiu a área infartada nem melhorou a função ventricular esquerda no modelo global de isquemia-reperfusão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Euterpe/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Energy Metabolism/physiology
2.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 57-63, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090419

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar respostas metabólicas, cardiovasculares e ventilatórias do incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) e do Glittre activities of daily living test (Glittre-ADL test). Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com indivíduos saudáveis. A capacidade funcional (CF) foi avaliada pela distância percorrida e consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico) no ISWT e pelo tempo gasto e VO2 no Glittre-ADL test. Trinta indivíduos percorreram 656,67 (IC95%:608,8-704,5) metros no ISWT e executaram o Glittre-ADL test em 2,4 (IC95%:2,2-2,6) minutos. O VO2 pico do ISWT foi 27,8 (IC95%25,6-29,9) versus 22,2 (IC95%20,5-24,1)mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0,001) no estado estável (EE) do Glittre-ADL test. As correlações entre distância percorrida no ISWT e o tempo gasto no Glittre-ADL test, o VO2pico do ISWT e o VO2 no EE do Glittre-ADL test e a FC no pico do ISWT e no EE do Glittre-ADL test foram de moderada a alta magnitude. O Glittre-ADL test apresenta menores respostas metabólicas, cardiovasculares e ventilatórias se comparado ao ISWT.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar y comparar las respuestas metabólicas, cardiovasculares y ventilatorias de incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) y de Glittre activities of daily living test (Glittre-ADL test). Es un estudio transversal realizado con individuos sanos. La capacidad funcional (CF) se evaluó utilizando la distancia recorrida y consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2máx) en el ISWT y el tiempo empleado y VO2 en el Glittre-ADL test. Treinta individuos caminaron 656,67 (IC95%:608,8-704,5) metros en el ISWT y realizaron el Glittre-ADL test en 2,4 (IC95%:2,2-2,6) minutos. El VO2 máx del ISWT fue de 27,8 (IC95%25,6-29,9) versus 22,2 (IC95%20,5-24,1)mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0,001) en el estado estable (EE) del Glittre-ADL test. Las correlaciones entre la distancia recorrida en el ISWT y el tiempo empleado en el Glittre-ADL test, el VO2máx del ISWT y el VO2 en el EE de Glittre-ADL test y la FC en el máximo del ISWT y en el EE de Glittre-ADL test fueron de moderada a alta magnitud. El Glittre-ADL test presenta respuestas metabólicas, cardiovasculares y ventilatorias más bajas en comparación con el ISWT.


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to assess and compare the cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses of the Incremental Shuttle Walk test (ISWT) and Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (Glittre-ADL test). This is a cross-sectional study with individuals. The functional capacity (FC) was evaluated by distance and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in the ISWT and time spent and VO2 in Glittre-ADL test. Thirty individuals went through 656.67 (CI95%:608.8-704.5) meters at the ISWT and performed the Glittre-ADL test in 2.4 (CI95%:2.2-2.6) minutes. The peak VO2 of the ISWT was 27.8 (CI95%25.6-29.9) vs. 22.2 (CI95%20.5-24.1) mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0.001) in the steady state (SS) of the Glittre-ADL test. Correlations between distance traveled in the ISWT and the time spent in Glittre-ADL test, VO2 peak of ISWT and VO2 in SS of Glittre-ADL test and HR at the ISWT peak and at the Glittre-ADL test SS were moderate to high magnitude. The Glittre-ADL test has lower metabolic, cardiovascular and ventilatory responses compared to ISWT, despite correlations between variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise Test/methods , Walk Test/methods , Physical Functional Performance , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology
3.
Actual. osteol ; 15(2): 78-93, mayo - ago. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048450

ABSTRACT

Los hallazgos osteológicos se intensi!caron en los últimos años. Se demostró que el esqueleto se comporta, además de sus funciones clásicas, como un órgano de secreción endocrina que sintetiza al menos dos hormonas: el factor de crecimiento de !broblastos 23 (FGF-23) y la osteocalcina (Ocn). La Ocn es un péptido pequeño que contiene 3 residuos de ácido glutámico. Estos residuos se carboxilan postraduccionalmente, quedando retenida en la matriz ósea. La forma decarboxilada en el primer residuo de ácido glutámico (GluOcn) fue reportada por poseer efectos biológicos; la resorción ósea es el mecanismo clave para su bioactivación. La presente revisión se centra en los conocimientos actuales sobre la función hormonal de la Ocn. A la fecha se reporta que la Ocn regularía el metabolismo energético aumentando la proliferación de células ` pancreáticas, y la secreción de insulina y de adiponectina. Sobre el músculo esquelético actuaría favoreciendo la absorción y el catabolismo de nutrientes. La función reproductiva masculina estaría regulada mediante el estímulo a las células de Leydig para sintetizar testosterona; en el desarrollo cerebral y la cognición, la Ocn aumentaría la síntesis de neurotransmisores monoaminados y disminuiría el neurotransmisor inhibidor GABA. Si bien son indispensables mayores evidencias para dilucidar los mecanismos reguladores por medio de los cuales actuaría la Ocn, los resultados enumerados en los distintos estudios experimentales establecen la importancia de este novedoso integrante molecular. Dilucidar su rol dentro de estos procesos interrelacionados en seres humanos abriría la posibilidad de utilizar a la Ocn en el tratamiento de enfermedades endocrino-metabólicas. (AU)


Osteological !ndings have intensi!ed in recent years. The skeleton behaves as an endocrine secretion organ that synthesizes at least two hormones: osteocalcin (Ocn) and !broblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). Ocn is a small peptide that contains 3 glutamic acid residues. After translation, these residues are carboxylated to make possible its retention into the bone matrix. Decarboxylation on the !rst glutamic acid residue (GluOcn) has been reported to have biological effects. Bone resorption is the key mechanism for its bioactivation. This review focuses on current knowledge on Ocn hormonal function. It has been reported that Ocn regulates energy metabolism by increasing the proliferation of pancreatic ` cells, and the secretion of insulin and adiponectin. On the skeletal muscle, it may act by favoring the absorption and catabolism of nutrients. Male reproductive function might be regulated by stimulating Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone. Regarding brain development and cognition, Ocn would increase monoamine neurotransmitters synthesis and decrease inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Although more evidence is needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of Ocn, different experimental studies establish the importance of this novel molecular mediator. Clarifying its role within interrelated processes in humans, might open the possibility of using Ocn in different treatments of endocrine-metabolic diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Osteocalcin/therapeutic use , Skeleton/physiology , Skeleton/metabolism , Skeleton/pathology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Osteocalcin/biosynthesis , Osteocalcin/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , Fertility , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Infertility/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 1022-1031, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013010

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The energy imbalance produced by an increase in caloric intake and/or decrease in energy expenditure induces obesity. However, the fatty acid composition of a diet can affect the metabolism in different ways, having a role in the development of obesity. AIM To determine the effect of different fatty acids types and composition on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) and postprandial energy expenditure in humans. METHODS A search in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, yielded a total of 269 potential articles as a first result; 254 were excluded according to the criteria. RESULTS Fifteen articles were used for this systematic review. The studies analyzed report different effects of the fatty acids of the treatment on the diet-induced thermogenesis. Evidence indicates that the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids causes a greater DIT than saturated fatty acids. Also, the consumption of medium-chain fatty acids compared to long-chain fatty acids has been shown to increase DIT. Likewise, the use of certain oils has shown positive effects on postprandial energy expenditure, as is the case of olive oil, compared to rapeseed oil. CONCLUSIONS The use of specific types of fatty acids in the everyday diet can increase postprandial energy expenditure in humans. Nevertheless, longer-term studies are required.


RESUMO O desequilíbrio energético produzido pelo aumento da ingestão calórica e/ou diminuição do gasto energético provoca obesidade. Sem embargo, a composição de ácidos graxos da dieta pode afetar diferencialmente o metabolismo, tendo um papel no desenvolvimento da obesidade. OBJETIVO Determinar os efeitos de diferentes tipos de ácidos graxos e sua composição na termogênese induzida por dieta e no gasto energético pós-prandial em humanos. MÉTODOS Uma busca nas bases de dados da PubMed e da Web of Science gerou um total de 269 artigos potenciais como primeiro resultado; 254 foram excluídos de acordo com os critérios. RESULTADOS Quinze artigos foram utilizados para esta revisão sistemática. Os estudos analisados informam os efeitos diferenciais dos ácidos graxos no tratamento da termogênese induzida pela dieta. As evidências indicam que o consumo dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados ocasiona maior DIT que os ácidos graxos saturados. Além disso, demonstra-se que o consumo dos ácidos graxos da cadeia média, em comparação com os ácidos graxos da cadeia longa, aumenta o DIT. Do mesmo modo, o uso de certos azeites demonstra os efeitos positivos sobre o gasto de energia pós-prandial, como é o caso do azeite de oliva, em comparação com o azeite de colza. CONCLUSÃO O uso de tipos específicos de ácidos graxos na dieta habitual pode aumentar o gasto de energia pós-prandial nos seres humanos. Sem embargo, é necessária maior investigação no longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postprandial Period/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Meals/physiology , Thermogenesis/physiology , Diet
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 165-168, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neotropical nectar-feeding bats consume large amounts of sugar and use most of their energy-rich diet directly from the bloodstream, suggesting an adaptation towards lower body energy reserves. Here we tested the hypothesis that bats Glossophaga soricina spare the energy costs of storing energy reserves, even if this would represent a risky susceptibility during fasting. Blood glucose concentrations in 18 h fasted bats showed a 40% decrease. Breast muscle and adipose tissue lipids, as well as carcass fatty acids and liver glycogen, were also decreased following fasting. The inability to keep normoglycemia following a short-term fasting (i.e. 28 h) confirm that nectar bats invest little on storing energy reserves and show a severe fasting susceptibility associated to this pattern. Our study also support the general hypothesis that evolutionary specializations towards nectar diets involve adaptations to allow a decreased body mass, which reduces the energy costs of flight while increases foraging time.


Resumo Morcegos nectarívoros que ocorrem na região Neotropical consomem grandes quantidades de carboidratos, e usam a energia obtida da dieta diretamente, a partir da glicose na circulação sanguínea. Esta adaptação sugere que morcegos nectarívoros tenham evoluído no sentido de apresentar adaptações fisiológicas que permitam o baixo armazenamento de reservas energéticas corporais. Nós testamos a hipótese de que morcegos Glossophaga soricina poupam o gasto energético envolvido com a formação de reservas energéticas teciduais, mesmo que isso represente uma arriscada suscetibilidade da espécie frente ao jejum. As concentrações de glicose apresentaram uma diminuição de 40% após 18 h de jejum. As concentrações de lipídios do músculo peitoral e do tecido adiposo, bem como as de ácidos graxos da carcaça e glicogênio hepático também diminuíram após 18 h de jejum. A incapacidade de manter a normoglicemia observada após o jejum de curto-prazo confirma que morcegos nectarívoros desta espécie não investem na formação de reservas energéticas, e apresentam, consequentemente, uma severa susceptibilidade ao jejum. Este estudo suporta a hipótese de que adaptações evolucionárias da espécie envolvem diminuição da massa corporal, reduzindo o custo energético do voo e aumentado o tempo de forrageamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/physiology , Fasting/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Plant Nectar/metabolism , Blood Glucose/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/chemistry , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry , Feeding Behavior
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(6): 483-485, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977849

ABSTRACT

This article aims to describe the evolution of techniques that have enabled the proper application of the Laws of Thermodynamics for physical activity and athletes. The objective is to propose performance indicators to help add information to the current indices used in medicine and sports, such as the lactate threshold and maximum oxygen consumption. A number of analyses of the results obtained by the group were carried out for this purpose. Moreover, a discussion regarding which techniques would provide a better response to the measurements was analyzed. Some examples are the substitution of the treadmill running test with the stationary bicycle (known performed work), and a literature search in order to measure internal temperature more accurately. Level of Evidence V; Expert opinion.


Este artigo descreve a evolução de técnicas que possibilitaram a aplicação adequada das Leis da Termodinâmica às atividades físicas e aos atletas. O objetivo é propor indicadores de desempenho que ajudem a acrescentar informações aos índices atuais usados em medicina e nos esportes, como o limiar de lactato e o consumo máximo de oxigênio. Diversas análises dos resultados obtidos pelo grupo foram realizadas com essa finalidade. Além disso, procedeu-se à análise da discussão sobre quais técnicas proporcionariam resposta melhor às medições. Alguns exemplos são a substituição do teste de corrida em esteira pela bicicleta ergométrica (que sabidamente, pode ser usada para o trabalho), e a pesquisa da literatura para medir a temperatura interna com maior precisão. Nível de Evidência V; Opinião de especialista.


Este artículo describe la evolución de técnicas que posibilitaron la aplicación adecuada de las Leyes de la Termodinámica a las actividades físicas y a los atletas. El objetivo es proponer indicadores de desempeño que ayuden a acrecentar informaciones a los índices actuales usados en medicina y en los deportes, como el umbral de lactato y el consumo máximo de oxígeno. Fueron realizados diversos análisis de los resultados obtenidos por el grupo con esa finalidad. Además, se procedió al análisis de la discusión sobre qué técnicas proporcionarían respuesta mejor a las mediciones. Algunos ejemplos son la sustitución del test de carrera en cinta por la bicicleta ergométrica (que sabidamente, puede ser usada para el trabajo), y la investigación de la literatura para medir la temperatura interna con mayor precisión. Nivel de Evidencia V; Opinión de especialista.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thermography/methods , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Athletic Performance , Athletes , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Physical Endurance , Body Temperature , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Test/methods
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 464-471, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951584

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fish may experience periods of food deprivation or starvation which produce metabolic changes. In this study, adult Rhamdia quelen males were subjected to fasting periods of 1, 7, 14, and 21 days and of refeeding 2, 4, 6, and 12 days. The results demonstrated that liver protein was depleted after 1 day of fasting, but recovered after 6 days of refeeding. After 14 days of fasting, mobilization in the lipids of the muscular tissue took place, and these reserves began to re-establish themselves after 4 days of refeeding. Plasmatic triglycerides increased after 1 day of fasting, and decreased following 2 days of refeeding. The glycerol in the plasma oscillated constantly during the different periods of fasting and refeeding. Changes in the metabolism of both protein and lipids during these periods can be considered as survival strategies used by R. quelen. The difference in the metabolic profile of the tissues, the influence of the period of fasting, and the type of reserves mobilized were all in evidence.


Resumo Os peixes podem sofrer períodos de privação de alimentos ou de fome, que produzem mudanças metabólicas. Neste estudo, jundiás machos adultos foram submetidos a jejum períodos de 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias e realimentação 2, 4, 6, e 12 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que a proteína do fígado foi esgotada depois de um dia de jejum, mas restabeleceu após 6 dias de realimentação. Após 14 dias de jejum, ocorreu a mobilização dos lípidos no tecido muscular sendo que estas reservas começaram a re-estabelecer-se após 4 dias de realimentação. Os triglicérides plasmáticos aumentam após um dia de jejum, e diminuiram após 2 dias de realimentação. O glicerol no plasma oscilou constantemente durante os diferentes períodos de jejum e realimentação. As alterações no metabolismo de proteína e lipídios durante estes períodos podem ser consideradas uma estratégias de sobrevivência utilizada pelo Rhamdia quelen. Sendo que a diferença no perfil metabólico tecidual bem como a influência do período de jejum e o tipo de reserva a ser mobilizada foram observadas neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Catfishes/physiology , Fasting/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Feeding Behavior , Adaptation, Physiological , Fasting/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Animal Feed , Muscles
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 652-657, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976009

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the resting energy expenditure, growth, and quantity of energy and macronutrients intake in a group of preterm newborns. Methods: The cohort study was performed with appropriate and small for gestational age preterm infants (birth weight lower than 1500 g or gestational age < 32 weeks). Resting energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of life, and at discharge. Length, head circumference and body weight were assessed weekly. Nutritional therapy was calculated during the hospital stay and the information for each type of food was recorded in software that calculates the total amount of energy and macronutrients. Results: 61 preterm infants were followed; 43 appropriate and 18 small for gestational age infants. There was no statistical difference for resting energy expenditure between the groups, and it increased from the first to the fourth week of life (appropriate: 26.3% and small: 21.8%). Energy intake in the first two weeks of life was well below the energy requirement. Conclusion: Considering that the results demonstrate high energy expenditure during the first weeks of life, there is an evident need to provide the best quality of nutrition for each child in the first weeks of life so that preterm infants with or without intrauterine growth restriction can achieve their maximum potential for growth and development.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o gasto energético de repouso, o crescimento e a quantidade ofertada de energia e macronutrientes em um grupo de recém-nascidos pré-termo. Método: Foi feito estudo de coorte com recém-nascidos pré-termo adequados e pequenos para a idade gestacional (peso de nascimento inferior a 1.500 gramas ou idade gestacional < 32 semanas). O gasto energético foi avaliado com a calorimetria indireta nos dias 7°, 14°, 21°, 28° dias de vida e alta hospitalar. Medidas do comprimento, perímetro cefálico e peso corporal foram avaliadas semanalmente. A terapia nutricional foi calculada durante a internação do recém-nascido e as informações de cada tipo de alimentação foram registradas em um software que calcula a quantidade total de energia e macronutrientes. Resultados: Foram acompanhados 61 recém-nascidos, sendo 43 adequados e 18 pequenos para idade gestacional. O gasto energético de repouso não apresentou diferença estatística entre os grupos e aumentou entre a primeira e quarta semana de vida (adequados: 26,3% e pequenos: 21,8%). O aporte energético nas duas primeiras semanas de vida mostrou-se bem abaixo do requerimento energético mensurado pela calorimetria. Conclusão: Considerando os resultados que demonstram um gasto energético alto ao longo das primeiras semanas de vida, fica evidente a necessidade de fornecer ao recém-nascido pré-termo um melhor aporte energético já nas primeiras semanas de vida, para que os neonatos com ou sem restrição intrauterina possam atingir o seu potencial máximo de crescimento e desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature/growth & development , Infant, Premature/metabolism , Infant, Small for Gestational Age/growth & development , Infant, Small for Gestational Age/metabolism , Nutritional Support/methods , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Basal Metabolism/physiology , Body Weight , Energy Intake/physiology , Calorimetry, Indirect/methods , Cephalometry , Nutritional Status/physiology , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hospitalization
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 582-595, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The literature suggests that a fetus will adapt to surrounding adversities by optimizing its use of energy to improve survival, ultimately leading to the programming of the individual's energy intake and expenditure. While recent reviews focused on the fetal programming of energy intake and food preferences, there is also some evidence that fetal adversity is associated with diminished physical activity levels. Therefore, we aimed to review (a) the evidence for an association between being born with intrauterine growth restriction and sedentarism over the life-course and (b) the potential benefits of physical activity over cardiometabolic risk factors for this population. Sources: PubMed, Scielo, Scopus and Embase. Summary of findings: Most clinical studies that used objective measures found no association between intrauterine growth restriction and physical activity levels, while most studies that used self-reported questionnaires revealed such relationships, particularly leisure time physical activity. Experimental studies support the existence of fetal programming of physical activity, and show that exposure to exercise during IUGR individuals' life improves metabolic outcomes but less effect was seen on muscle architecture or function. Conclusions: Alterations in muscle strength and metabolism, as well as altered aerobic performance, may predispose IUGR individuals to be spontaneously less physically active, suggesting that this population may be an important target for preventive interventions. Although very heterogeneous, the different studies allow us to infer that physical activity may have beneficial effects especially for individuals that are more vulnerable to metabolic modifications such as those with IUGR.


Resumo Objetivo: A literatura sugere que um feto se adaptará às adversidades externas ao aprimorar seu gasto energético para melhorar a sobrevida, o que leva, em última instância, à programação do consumo e gasto energético do indivíduo. Apesar de análises recentes terem focado na programação fetal do consumo energético e preferências alimentares, ainda há alguma comprovação de que as adversidades fetais estão associadas aos baixos níveis de atividade física. Portanto, visamos a analisar: a) a comprovação de uma associação entre nascer com restrição de crescimento intrauterino (RCIU) e sedentarismo durante o curso de vida e b) os possíveis benefícios da atividade física sobre os fatores de risco cardiometabólico dessa população. Fontes: PubMed, Scielo, Scopus e Embase. Resumo dos achados: A maior parte dos estudos clínicos que usaram medidas objetivas não constatou associação entre RCIU e os níveis de atividade física, ao passo que a maior parte dos estudos que usaram questionários de autorrelato revelou essas relações, principalmente no que diz respeito à atividade física de lazer. Estudos experimentais corroboram a existência de programação fetal de atividade física e mostram que a exposição a exercícios durante a vida de indivíduos com RCIU melhora os resultados metabólicos, porém menos efeito foi visto sobre a arquitetura ou função muscular. Conclusões: Alterações na força muscular e no metabolismo, bem como o desempenho aeróbico alterado, podem predispor indivíduos com RCIU a serem espontaneamente menos ativos fisicamente, sugere que essa população pode ser um importante alvo de intervenções preventivas. Apesar de muito heterogêneos, os diferentes estudos nos possibilitam deduzir que a atividade física pode ter efeitos benéficos principalmente em indivíduos mais vulneráveis a modificações metabólicas, como aqueles com RCIU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exercise/physiology , Fetal Development/physiology , Sedentary Behavior , Fetal Growth Retardation/metabolism , Time Factors , Birth Weight/physiology , Risk Factors , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Motivation/physiology
10.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(5): 338-342, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977833

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity has become less frequent since the 1980s, even among more active children. OBJECTIVE: To analyze excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children during and after three different activities. METHODS: Sixteen healthy children (9.6±0.1 yrs.) randomly underwent the following procedures lasting 30 minutes on different days: (a) traditional games (PLAY), (b) active video game (Dance Dance Revolution; DDR), and (c) watching television (TV). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured at rest, at the 10th, 20th, and 30th minute of intervention, and for 40 minutes post-intervention. TEE was also measured. RESULTS: At the end of intervention, VO2 had increased by 330% and 166% for PLAY and DDR, respectively, compared to the rest. EPOC in PLAY was seen to occur at the 10th, 20th, and 30th post-interventional minutes from 7.00±1.02 (at rest) to 10.83±0.94, 10.03±0.58, and 9.80±0.77mL.kg-1.min-1, respectively. However, EPOC in DDR occurred at only the 10th postinterventional minute (7.04 to 8.61 mL.kg-1.min-1; p<0.01). After intervention, TEE in PLAY was greater than in DDR and TV (112.08±19.45 vs 56.98±6.34 vs 36.39±4.5 kcal; p<0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PLAY induced children to reach a greater VO2 during activity and greater EPOC and TEE compared to DDR and TV. Level of evidence A1b; Crossover study.


INTRODUÇÃO: A prática de atividade física tornou-se menos frequente a partir dos anos 80, mesmo entre crianças mais ativas. OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo excessivo de oxigênio pós-exercício (EPOC) e o gasto energético total (TEE) em crianças durante e após três atividades distintas. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis crianças saudáveis (9,6 ± 0,1 anos) foram submetidas aleatoriamente aos seguintes procedimentos com duração de 30 minutos em dias diferentes: (a) brincadeiras tradicionais (PLAY), (b) videogame ativo (Dance Dance Revolution, DDR) e (c) assistir à televisão (TV). O consumo de oxigênio (VO2) foi medido em repouso, no 10°, 20° e 30° minuto de intervenção e 40 minutos depois da intervenção. O TEE também foi calculado. RESULTADOS: No final da intervenção, o VO2 aumentou 330% e 166% para PLAY e DDR, respectivamente, em comparação com o repouso. Observou-se que o EPOC no PLAY ocorreu aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos depois da intervenção, de 7,00 ± 1,02 (em repouso) para 10,83 ± 0,94, 10,03 ± 0,58 e 9,80 ± 0,77 mL.kg-1.min-1, respectivamente. O EPOC no DDR ocorreu apenas no 10° minuto pós-intervenção (7,04 a 8,61 mL.kg-1.min-1, p < 0,01). Após a intervenção, o TEE no PLAY foi maior que em DDR e TV (112,08 ± 19,45 vs. 56,98 ± 6,34 vs. 36,39 ± 4,5 kcal, p < 0,01), respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O PLAY induziu as crianças a maior VO2 durante a atividade e maior EPOC e TEE com relação a DDR e TV. Nível de evidência A1b; Estudo cruzado.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La actividad física se ha vuelto menos frecuente desde la década de 1980, incluso entre los niños más activos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el consumo excesivo de oxígeno post ejercicio (EPOC) y el gasto de energía total (TEE) en niños durante y después del juego activo tradicional y comparar con el video game activo y televisión. MÉTODOS: Dieciséis niños saludables (9,6 ± 0,1 años) fueron sometidos durante 30 minutos, en días diferentes, a las siguientes sesiones: (a) juegos tradicionales (PLAY), (b) video game activo (DDR) y (c) televisión (TV). El consumo de oxígeno (VO2) fue medido en reposo en el 10°, 20° y 30° minuto de intervención y durante 40 minutos después de la intervención. El TEE se calculó a partir de datos VO2. RESULTADOS: Durante las sesiones de VO2 aumentó un 330% y 166% para PLAY y DDR, respectivamente, en relación al reposo. Se observó que el EPOC en PLAY se produjo a los 10, 20 y 30 minutos post intervención 7,00 ± 1,02 (en reposo) a 10,83 ± 0,94, 10,03 ± 0,58 y 9, 80 ± 0,77 mL.kg-1.min-1, respectivamente. El EPOC en DDR se produjo apenas en el 10° min después de la intervención (7,04 a la 8,61 mL.kg-1.min-1, p <0,01). Después de la intervención, el TEE fue mayor en el DDR y TV (112,08 ± 19,45 vs 56,98 ± 6,34 vs 36,39 ± 4,5 kcal, P <0,01), respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La sesión PLAY llevó a un mayor VO2 durante la actividad y mayor EPOC y gasto de energía en relación a la DDR y TV. Nivel de evidencia A1b; Estudio crossover con.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Oxygen Consumption , Play and Playthings , Exercise/physiology , Video Games , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Heart Rate , Television/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Analysis of Variance , Sedentary Behavior
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 259-266, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959194

ABSTRACT

Abstract The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an ectoparasite capable of transmitting a large number of pathogens, causing considerable losses in the cattle industry, with substantial damage to livestock. Over the years, important stages of its life cycle, such as the embryo, have been largely ignored by researchers. Tick embryogenesis has been typically described as an energy-consuming process, sustaining cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth. During the embryonic stage of arthropods, there is mobilization of metabolites of maternal origin for the development of organs and tissues of the embryo. Glycogen resynthesis in late embryogenesis is considered as an effective indicator of embryonic integrity. In the cattle tick R.(B. (B.) microplus, glycogen resynthesis is sustained by protein degradation through the gluconeogenesis pathway at the end of the embryonic period. Despite recent advancements in research on tick energy metabolism at the molecular level, the dynamics of nutrient utilization during R. (B.) microplus embryogenesis is still poorly understood. The present review aims to describe the regulatory mechanisms of carbohydrate metabolism during maternal-zygotic transition and identify possible new targets for the development of novel drugs and other control measures against R. (B.) microplus infestations.


Resumo O carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus é um ectoparasita capaz de transmitir diversos patógenos, sendo responsável por grandes perdas na pecuária pelos danos causados ao gado. Atualmente, muitos estudos têm negligenciado fases importantes do ciclo de vida deste parasita, como a fase embrionária. A embriogênese é classicamente descrita como um processo que demanda um consumo de energia, possibilitando a proliferação celular, diferenciação e crescimento. Além disso, em artrópodes, o estágio da embriogênese é caracterizado pela mobilização de metabolitos de origem materna para o desenvolvimento de novos tecidos e órgãos. A ressíntese de glicogênio no final da embriogênese tem sido descrita em diversas espécies de artrópodes, sendo considerada um indicador de integridade do embrião. No caso do R. (B.) microplus a ressíntese de glicogênio é sustentada pela degradação de proteínas durante a gliconeogênese, no terço final da embriogênese. Apesar dos recentes avanços, no estudo molecular e do metabolismo energético, os mecanismos envolvidos na dinâmica da utilização de diferentes substratos energéticos durante a embriogênese do carrapato R. (B.) microplus ainda é pouco entendido. Diante deste panorama, estudos que descrevam a regulação destes mecanismos e da associação do metabolismo de carboidratos com a transição materno zigótica, pode auxiliar na busca de novos alvos para o desenvolvimento de novos acaricidas e outras intervenções para o controle infestações de R. (B.) microplus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rhipicephalus/embryology , Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Gluconeogenesis/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Rhipicephalus/metabolism
13.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(1): e1018137, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895055

ABSTRACT

AIM: Taurine is considered a semi-essential amino acid characterized by having various physiological functions in the body that modulate mechanisms of action involved in the muscle contraction process, increased energy expenditure, insulin signaling pathway, carbohydrate metabolism, and scavenging free radicals. These functions are crucial for aerobic exercise performance; thus, taurine supplementation may benefit athletes' performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine supplementation on the resting energy expenditure and physical performance of swimming athletes. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 14 male swimmers were randomized into two groups: the taurine group (n = 7) and the placebo group (n = 7), which received 3 g per day of taurine or placebo in capsules during 8 weeks. Resting energy expenditure, plasma taurine, physical performance, anthropometry, dietary consumption were measured and an incremental test was performed to determine their maximal front crawl swimming performances before and after the 8-week period. RESULTS: The levels of serum taurine (p < 0.0001) and lactate (p = 0.0130) showed a significant increase in the taurine group; however, the other variables were not different. No changes were observed in the resting energy expenditure, mean speed performed, and the anaerobic threshold of the swimmers post-supplementation period. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of taurine increased plasma concentrations of this amino acid, but did not lead to significant changes in food intake, rest energy expenditure, and athletes' performance. However, the supplemented group presented a higher lactate production, suggesting a possible positive effect of taurine on the anaerobic lactic metabolism.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Athletic Performance , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Swimming/physiology , Taurine
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6964, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889089

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) availability potentiates fat oxidation after an exhaustive high-intensity exercise bout. Eight physically active men underwent a high-intensity exercise (∼95% V̇O2max) until exhaustion under low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The protocol to manipulate pre-exercise CHO availability consisted of a 90-min cycling bout at ∼70% V̇O2max + 6 × 1-min at 125% V̇O2max with 1-min rest, followed by 48 h under a low- (10% CHO, low-CHO availability) or high-CHO diet (80% CHO, high-CHO availability). Time to exhaustion was shorter and energy expenditure (EE) lower during the high-intensity exercise in low- compared to high-CHO availability (8.6±0.8 and 11.4±1.6 min, and 499±209 and 677±343 kJ, respectively, P<0.05). Post-exercise EE was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (425±147 and 348±54 kJ, respectively, P>0.05), but post-exercise fat oxidation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in low- (7,830±1,864 mg) than in high-CHO availability (6,264±1,763 mg). The total EE (i.e., exercise EE plus post-exercise EE) was similar between low- and high-CHO availability (924±264 and 1,026±340 kJ, respectively, P>0.05). These results suggest that a single bout of high-intensity exercise performed under low-CHO availability increased post-exercise fat oxidation, and even with shorter exercise duration, both post-exercise EE and total EE were not impaired.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Exercise Test/methods , Oxidation-Reduction , Time Factors
15.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 42: 1-6, Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The determination of resting energy expenditure (REE) in critically ill patients could prevent complications such as hypo- and hyper alimentation. This study aims to describe the REE in septic patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI) and compare the REE estimated by the Harris-Benedict equation (HB) with the REE measured by indirect calorimetry (IC). METHODS: Prospective and observational study was performed. Septic patients older than 18 years, undergoing mechanical ventilation, with or without AKI defined by KDIGO criteria, and admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of University Hospital from Brazil were included. The REE was estimated by HB equation and measured by the IC within72 h after the diagnosis of sepsis and 7 days after the initial measure. RESULTS:Sixty-eight patients were evaluated, age was 62.5 ± 16.6 years, 64.7% were male, 63.2% had AKI, and SOFA was9.8 ± 2.35. The measured REE was 1857.5 ± 685.32 kcal, while the estimated REE was 1514.8 ± 356.72 kcal, with adequacy of 123.5 ± 43%. Septic patients without AKI (n= 25) and with AKI (n= 43) had measured REE statistically higher than the estimated one (1855.0 (1631.75­2052.75) vs. 1551.0 kcal (1349.0­1719.25),p= 0.007 and 1868.0(1219.5­2364.75) vs. 1388.0 kcal (1254.0­1665.5),p= 0.026, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two groups (with and without AKI) in measured and estimated REE (p= 0.63 and 0.64, respectively). There was no significant difference in evolutional REE (1845.95 ± 658.27 kcal vs. 1809.54 ± 755.08 kcal, p=0.86).CONCLUSIONS: The REE measured by IC was significantly higher than that estimated by HB equation in both septic with and without AKI. There was no significant difference in REE between the septic patients with and without AKI, suggesting that AKI does not influence the energy metabolism of septic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Acute Kidney Injury , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Sepsis/metabolism
16.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(3): 109-123, set. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-957976

ABSTRACT

Se describe la relación funcional del metabolismo de las grasas y los hidratos de carbono y su interdependencia, desde los tradicionales conceptos del ciclo glucosa-ácidos grasos (Randle) y la hipótesis portal de la insulinorresistencia hasta los nuevos sobre los adipocitos marrones y beiges, con énfasis en el normal funcionamiento de un patrón endocrino cuya disfunción es clave en la fisiopatología: el eje adipoinsular, vinculado funcionalmente incluso con el hipotálamo, la hipófisis y las adrenales, que involucra 2 hormonas adipogénicas (insulina y glucocorticoide) que facilitarían el desarrollo de la grasa omental perivisceral, con fuertes consecuencias metabólicas. Se discute la ectopia o asiento de grasa en tejido magro por incapacidad del tejido adiposo para seguir atesorando grasas y la actividad endocrina del adipocito, con la producción de moléculas que influyen sobre los mecanismos productores de insulinorresistencia (leptina, adiponectina, TNF-α, resistina, etc.) y disfunción insular. Se describe la disminución de la capacidad oxidativa en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial y el renacer del concepto de lipogénesis de novo, ambas favorecedoras del atesoramiento de grasas intracelular. En tejidos magros existen pequeñas reservas intracelulares de grasas que mantienen una regulación de funciones esenciales, aunque si aparece una sobrecarga lipídica, el fenómeno conduciría a disfunción (lipotoxicidad) y muerte celular (lipoapoptosis). La tormentosa relación entre las grasas y el islote de Langerhans va más allá del esfuerzo funcional que impone la insulinorresistencia periférica sobre la célula β, por efectos directos de los lípidos o sus derivados sobre la función del islote pancreático. Sin déficit de insulina no hay diabetes.


A review is presented on a functional relationship between fat and carbohydrate metabolism and inter-dependence from the traditional concepts of glucose-fatty acids cycle (Randle), and from the insulin resistance portal hypothesis up to the new aspects on brown and beige adipocytes. Emphasis is placed on the normal function of an endocrine pattern, in which its malfunction is the key in the pathophysiology of these conditions: the adipoinsular axis, with a functional link with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which involves 2 adipogenic hormones (insulin and glucocorticoid). This has an influence on the development of omental peri-visceral fat, with severe metabolic consequences. A discussion is also presented on the concept of ectopic fat on non-adipose tissues that results in the incapacity of fatty tissue for storing lipids and the considerations about the endocrine activity of adipocyte producing substances that influence several mechanisms that could result in insulin resistance (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, resistin, etc.). New aspects are considered regarding the decrease in the oxidative capacity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the rebirth of the concept of de novo lipogenesis that increases the storing of intra-cellular fat. In non-adipose tissues there are small intra-cellular fat quantities for essential functions, but lipid overloading leads to cell dysfunction (lipo-toxicity) and death (lipo-apoptosis). The stormy relationship between fat and Langerhans' Islets goes beyond the functional effort as consequence of peripheral insulin-resistance and the pancreatic beta cell suffers a direct lipid (or derivatives) functional effect. Without insulin deficiency diabetes does not appear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Adipogenesis/physiology , Lipid Metabolism , Adipokines/metabolism
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(4): 314-320, ago. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894485

ABSTRACT

La autofagia es un proceso de reciclado de partes de la célula. Como se describe en esta revisión, ocurre naturalmente preservando a las células de la acumulación de toxinas, moléculas y organelas dañadas y además permite los procesos de desarrollo y diferenciación de los tejidos. En el transcurso de la autofagia, el procesamiento de los sustratos a reciclar genera ATP, lo que constituye una fuente alternativa de energía en situaciones de estrés. En este sentido, bajo condiciones hostiles como hipoxia o falta de nutrientes, el proceso puede dispararse de modo exacerbado llevando a la muerte celular. Algunas alteraciones en su funcionamiento pueden involucrar el desarrollo de diversas patologías, tales como el daño hepático, el cáncer y las enfermedades neurodegenerativas.


Autophagy is a process of recycling parts of the cell. As described in this review, it occurs naturally in order to preserve cells from the accumulation of toxins, damaged molecules and organelles, and to allow processes of tissue development and differentiation. In the course of autophagy, the processing of the substrates to be recycled generates ATP, thus providing an alternative source of energy in stress situations. In this sense, under hostile conditions such as hypoxia or lack of nutrients, the autophagy process can be exacerbated leading to cell death. Some alterations in its functioning may involve the development of various pathologies, including liver damage, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/physiology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Survival/physiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Hypoxia , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Neoplasms/physiopathology
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(3): 257-262, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887559

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the applicability of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the effects of OSA severity on REE. Materials and methods Twenty-nine obese men, 41.5 ± 7 years old, with moderate and severe OSA were recruited. All subjects were submitted to a clinical polysomnography, body composition, and indirect calorimetry measurements. REE was also predicted by three different equations: Harris and Benedict (1919), Cunningham (1990), and DRI (2002). Results No effects of OSA severity on REE were found. The measured REE (2416.0 ± 447.1 kcal/day) and the REE predicted by equations were different from each other (F = 2713.88; p < 0.05): Harris and Benedict (2128.0 ± 245.8 kcal/day), Cunningham (1789.1 ± 167.8 kcal/day) and DRI (2011.1 ± 181.4 kcal/day). Pearson correlations showed a moderate positive correlation between the REE measured and predicted by all equations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that predictive equations for REE underestimate the energy expenditure in obese patients with sleep apnea. Also, no effects of OSA severity on REE were found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Rest/physiology , Algorithms , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Body Composition/physiology , Calorimetry, Indirect/methods , Anthropometry , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1305-1312, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Fasting/metabolism , Thermogenesis/physiology , Body Size/physiology , Characidae/metabolism , Fresh Water , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Reference Values , Linear Models , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Characidae/anatomy & histology
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 317-324, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-833823

ABSTRACT

A hipótese deste estudo é de que o uso da combinação de butafosfan e cianocobalamina pode melhorar a resistência periférica à insulina, aumentar a quantidade de glicose disponível para a glândula mamária e a produção de leite. Assim, o objetivo foi investigar os efeitos combinados de butafosfan e cianocobalamina sobre o metabolismo da glicose em vacas leiteiras no período pós-parto. Vinte e uma vacas leiteiras foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (CON, n= 11), que recebeu cinco aplicações de solução salina (20mL / animal 0,9% NaCl), e grupo Catosal(r) (ABC, n= 10), que recebeu cinco aplicações de 20mL de uma solução contendo as substâncias butafosfan e cianocobalamina (B12 Catosal(r), 100mg da substância butafosfan e 50µg de cianocobalamina por mL). As aplicações foram realizadas por via intramuscular, nos dias sete, 12, 17, 22 e 27 pós-parto. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a avaliação das concentrações plasmáticas de fósforo, glicose, ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE), albumina, aspartato aminotransferase (AST) e creatina quinase (CK). Nos dias oito e 28 pós-parto, os animais foram pesados e submetidos aos testes de tolerância à glicose e à insulina. O tratamento promoveu perda de peso (ABC 40,4kg, CON 10,73kg, P<0,05) e aumento da AST (ABC 62,92 ±3,31U/L, CON 53,11±3,49 U / L, P<0,05) e dos níveis de CK (ABC 134,09± 19,08U / L, CON 79,43 ± 18,27U / L). Os grupos não diferiram quanto ao metabolismo (área sob a curva) da glicose nos dias oito e 28, porém os animais tratados tiveram um aumento na glicemia (P<0,05) no dia 28 pós-parto (97,54 ± 8,54mg / dL), após a administração de insulina, em comparação ao dia oito (83,01 ± 8,54mg / dL). Assim, pode-se concluir que a combinação de butafosfan e cianocobalamina melhora a adaptação do metabolismo da glicose em vacas leiteiras no início da lactação.(AU)


The hypothesis of this study is that the combined use of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin could enhance peripheral insulin resistance, increasing the amount of glucose available for the mammary gland and milk production. Thus, our aim was to investigate the combined effects of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the glucose metabolism in dairy cows during the postpartum period. Twenty one dairy cows were divided into two groups: Control Group (CON, n= 11), that received 5 injections of saline solution (20mL/animal 0.9 % NaCl), and Catosal group (ABC, n= 10) which received 5 injections of 20mL of a Butafosfan and Cyanocobalamin solution (Catosal(r) B12, 100mg of Butafosfan and 50µg Cyanocobalamin for mL). The injections were performed by intramuscular route, on days 7, 12, 17, 22 and 27 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on these days to evaluate plasma concentrations of phosphorus, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK). On days 8 and 28 postpartum, the animals were weighted and subjected to the glucose tolerance and insulin challenge tests. The treatment promoted weight loss (ABC 40.4kg, CON 10.73kg, P< 0.05) and increased AST (ABC 62.92 ±3.31U/L, CON 53.11 ±3.49U/L, P< 0.05) and CK levels (ABC 134.09 ±19.08U/L, CON 79.43 ±18.27U/L). Glucose metabolism (area under the curve) did not differ (P> 0.05) among groups on days 8 and 28; however, ABC animals showed higher serum glucose levels (P< 0.05) after insulin administration on day 28 postpartum (97.54 ±8.54mg/dL) when compared to day 8 (83.01 ±8.54mg/dL). It could be concluded that the combined use of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin interferes positively with the adaptation of glucose metabolism in dairy cows in early lactation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Phosphorus/blood , Postpartum Period , Vitamin B 12/metabolism , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Insulin Resistance
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