Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 49
Filter
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of rare synonymous variants of the ATP7B gene on the splicing of its precursor mRNA.@*METHODS@#A total of 248 rare synonymous variants with allelic frequency of T (p.L540L) and c.3888C>T (p.A1296A) variants could lead to abnormal splicing of the corresponding exons, resulting in complete skipping of exon 4 and 25% increase in the skipping of exon 18, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Synonymous variants may affect the splicing of precursor mRNA in various ways, particularly the destruction of ESE motif. This study confirmed that the c.1620C>T (p.L540L) and c.3888C>T (p.A1296A) variants can affect the mRNA splicing of the ATP7B gene, resulting in skipping of corresponding exons, which may provide a basis for genetic diagnosis and consultation of carriers.


Subject(s)
Alternative Splicing , Copper-Transporting ATPases/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Exons , Gene Frequency , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772940

ABSTRACT

Enhancers activate transcription in a distance-, orientation-, and position-independent manner, which makes them difficult to be identified. Self-transcribing active regulatory region sequencing (STARR-seq) measures the enhancer activity of millions of DNA fragments in parallel. Here we used STARR-seq to generate a quantitative global map of rice enhancers. Most enhancers were mapped within genes, especially at the 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR) and in coding sequences. Enhancers were also frequently mapped proximal to silent and lowly-expressed genes in transposable element (TE)-rich regions. Analysis of the epigenetic features of enhancers at their endogenous loci revealed that most enhancers do not co-localize with DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) and lack the enhancer mark of histone modification H3K4me1. Clustering analysis of enhancers according to their epigenetic marks revealed that about 40% of identified enhancers carried one or more epigenetic marks. Repressive H3K27me3 was frequently enriched with positive marks, H3K4me3 and/or H3K27ac, which together label enhancers. Intergenic enhancers were also predicted based on the location of DHS regions relative to genes, which overlap poorly with STARR-seq enhancers. In summary, we quantitatively identified enhancers by functional analysis in the genome of rice, an important model plant. This work provides a valuable resource for further mechanistic studies in different biological contexts.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Base Sequence , Deoxyribonuclease I , Metabolism , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genes, Plant , Genomics , Methods , Histone Code , Genetics , Histones , Metabolism , Models, Genetic , Oryza , Genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics , Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Transcription, Genetic
3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 9(36): 14-21, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968270

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama (CM) es el segundo más común en el mundo y el más frecuente entre las mujeres. La incidencia varía entre regiones. Además, el CM es la quinta causa de muerte por cáncer a nivel mundial, la más frecuente en las regiones menos desarrolladas y la segunda en las más desarrolladas y en Sudamérica. En Argentina, registra las mayores tasas de incidencia y mortalidad entre las mujeres. OBJETIVOS: Comprender los motivos de las demoras, las consecuencias y las estrategias usadas por mujeres con diagnóstico de CM para afrontar barreras durante sus trayectorias de atención. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con abordaje cualitativo, basado en mujeres diagnosticadas con CM en dos hospitales públicos de la provincia de Santa Fe. Se efectuaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, que fueron grabadas previo consentimiento informado. Se utilizó el programa Atlas-ti (V.7.2) para el análisis del material. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron barreras a nivel personal (cuestiones financieras, creencias de las pacientes), interpersonal (cuestiones laborales, responsabilidad familiar, comunicación médico-paciente) y del sistema de salud (organización de servicios, calidad de atención). CONCLUSIONES: La investigación aporta evidencia para comprender las barreras que enfrentan las mujeres diagnosticadas con CM y muestra las oportunidades para implementar la estrategia de navegación de pacientes a fin de reducir o mitigar las demoras en la atención


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Enhancer Elements, Genetic
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772967

ABSTRACT

In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEns) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in a spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions is how the genomic characteristics of enhancers relate to enhancer activities. To date, only a limited number of enhancer sequence characteristics have been investigated, leaving space for exploring the enhancers' DNA code in a more systematic way. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational framework, Transcribed Enhancer Landscape Search (TELS), aimed at identifying predictive cell type/tissue-specific motif signatures of TrEns. As a case study, we used TELS to compile a comprehensive catalog of motif signatures for all known TrEns identified by the FANTOM5 consortium across 112 human primary cells and tissues. Our results confirm that combinations of different short motifs characterize in an optimized manner cell type/tissue-specific TrEns. Our study is the first to report combinations of motifs that maximize classification performance of TrEns exclusively transcribed in one cell type/tissue from TrEns exclusively transcribed in different cell types/tissues. Moreover, we also report 31 motif signatures predictive of enhancers' broad activity. TELS codes and material are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/TELS.


Subject(s)
Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genomics , Methods , Humans , Nucleotide Motifs , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Methods , Transcription, Genetic
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 250-266, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757149

ABSTRACT

Transposable elements (TEs) have no longer been totally considered as "junk DNA" for quite a time since the continual discoveries of their multifunctional roles in eukaryote genomes. As one of the most important and abundant TEs that still active in human genome, Alu, a SINE family, has demonstrated its indispensable regulatory functions at sequence level, but its spatial roles are still unclear. Technologies based on 3C (chromosome conformation capture) have revealed the mysterious three-dimensional structure of chromatin, and make it possible to study the distal chromatin interaction in the genome. To find the role TE playing in distal regulation in human genome, we compiled the new released Hi-C data, TE annotation, histone marker annotations, and the genome-wide methylation data to operate correlation analysis, and found that the density of Alu elements showed a strong positive correlation with the level of chromatin interactions (hESC: r = 0.9, P < 2.2 × 10(16); IMR90 fibroblasts: r = 0.94, P < 2.2 × 10(16)) and also have a significant positive correlation with some remote functional DNA elements like enhancers and promoters (Enhancer: hESC: r = 0.997, P = 2.3 × 10(-4); IMR90: r = 0.934, P = 2 × 10(-2); Promoter: hESC: r = 0.995, P = 3.8 × 10(-4); IMR90: r = 0.996, P = 3.2 × 10(-4)). Further investigation involving GC content and methylation status showed the GC content of Alu covered sequences shared a similar pattern with that of the overall sequence, suggesting that Alu elements also function as the GC nucleotide and CpG site provider. In all, our results suggest that the Alu elements may act as an alternative parameter to evaluate the Hi-C data, which is confirmed by the correlation analysis of Alu elements and histone markers. Moreover, the GC-rich Alu sequence can bring high GC content and methylation flexibility to the regions with more distal chromatin contact, regulating the transcription of tissue-specific genes.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , Genetics , Base Composition , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chromatin , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , CpG Islands , DNA , Metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genetics , Genome, Human , Histones , Metabolism , Humans , Methylation
6.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 68-78, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757635

ABSTRACT

Pax6 and its Drosophila homolog Eyeless (Ey) play essential roles during eye development. Ey/Pax6 contains two distinct DNA binding domains, a Paired domain (PD) and a Homeodomain (HD). While Ey/Pax6 PD is required for the expression of key regulators of retinal development, relatively little is known about the HD-dependent Ey function. In this study, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to determine the functions of different Ey domains on cell growth and on retinal development. We showed that Ey can promote cell growth, which requires the HD but not the PD. In contrast, the ability of Ey to activate Ato expression and induce ectopic eye formation requires the PD but not the HD. Interestingly, deletion of the HD enhanced Ey-dependent ectopic eye induction while overexpression of the HD only Ey forms antagonizes ectopic eye induction. These studies revealed a novel function of Ey HD on cell growth and a novel antagonistic effect of Ey HD on Ey PD-dependent eye induction. We further show the third helix of the Ey HD can directly interact with the RED subdomain in Ey PD and that deletion of the HD increased the binding of Ey PD to its target. These results suggest that the direct interaction between the HD and the PD potentially mediates their antagonistic effects. Since different Ey splicing forms are expressed in overlapping regions during normal development, we speculate that the expression ratios of the different Ey splice forms potentially contribute to the regulation of growth and differentiation of these tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Metabolism , Binding Sites , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , DNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Drosophila , Metabolism , Drosophila Proteins , Metabolism , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Eye Proteins , Metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins , Metabolism , PAX6 Transcription Factor , Paired Box Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Repressor Proteins , Metabolism , Retina , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Wings, Animal
7.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 80-86, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91766

ABSTRACT

Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as 180degrees and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed.


Subject(s)
DNA End-Joining Repair , DNA Transposable Elements , DNA , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Hand , Homologous Recombination , Retroelements
8.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2013 Jan; 19(1): 78-83
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147640

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Amplification of Guanine-Cytosine (GC) -rich sequences becomes important in screening and diagnosis of certain genetic diseases such as diseases arising due to expansion of GC-rich trinucleotide repeat regions. However, GC-rich sequences in the genome are refractory to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and require a special reaction conditions and/or modified PCR cycle parameters. AIM: Optimize a cost effective PCR assay to amplify the GC-rich DNA templates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR 1) is an ideal candidate for PCR optimization as its GC content is more than 80%. Primers designed to amplify the GC rich 5’ untranslated region of the FMR 1 gene, was selected for the optimization of amplification using DNA extracted from buccal mucosal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A simple and rapid protocol was used to extract DNA from buccal cells. PCR optimization was carried out using three methods, (a) substituting a substrate analog 7-deaza-dGTP to dGTP (b) in the presence of a single PCR additive and (c) using a combination of PCR additives. All PCR amplifications were carried out using a low-cost thermostable polymerase. RESULTS: Optimum PCR conditions were achieved when a combination of 1M betaine and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to amplify the GC rich region of FMR 1 gene with reproducibility in the presence of betaine and DMSO as additives without the use of commercially available kits for DNA extraction and the expensive thermostable polymerases.


Subject(s)
Cheek/cytology , Cytosine/analogs & derivatives , DNA/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 459-463, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278062

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To generate a gene delivery plasmid carrying the dominant negative form of the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit a (DN-PP2Aca) driven by a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue-specific promoter and investigate its ability to inhibit growth of cultured hepatoma cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The gene delivery plasmid was constructed by PCR-amplifying DN-PP2Aca from wild-type PP2Aca using site-directed mutagenesis and then ligating the sequence-verified amplicon downstream of an alpha-fetoprotein enhancer and phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (AFpg) in the luciferase reporter vector pGL3-Basic. Following transfection into two AFP+ hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and HepG3) and two AFP- hepatoma cell lines (SK-HEP-1 and L02), the transcriptional activity of the AFpg-driven DN-PP2Aca plasmid was tested using luciferase reporter gene assay and western blotting. The effect on cell growth was tested using MTT assay. Between group differences were assessed by t-test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The AFpg-driven DN-PP2Aca plasmid showed high transcriptional activity and protein expression in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells. At 72 h after transfection, the proliferation capacities were repressed by 42.65%+/-3.99% (P = 0.0002) and 39.87%+/-3.91% (P = 0.0002) in AFP+ HepG2 and Hep3B cells, respectively (vs. untransfected). In contrast, the plasmid was transcriptionally inactive in and had no effect on proliferation of AFP- cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The AFpg-driven DN-PP2Aca plasmid exhibits selective cytotoxicity against AFP+ hepatoma cells, and may represent a useful gene therapy strategy to treat HCC.</p>


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Genetics , Metabolism , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Phosphatase 2 , Genetics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 186-194, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295827

ABSTRACT

By altering the electrostatic charge of histones or providing binding sites to protein recognition molecules, Chromatin marks have been proposed to regulate gene expression, a property that has motivated researchers to link these marks to cis-regulatory elements. With the help of next generation sequencing technologies, we can now correlate one specific chromatin mark with regulatory elements (e.g. enhancers or promoters) and also build tools, such as hidden Markov models, to gain insight into mark combinations. However, hidden Markov models have limitation for their character of generative models and assume that a current observation depends only on a current hidden state in the chain. Here, we employed two graphical probabilistic models, namely the linear conditional random field model and multivariate hidden Markov model, to mark gene regions with different states based on recurrent and spatially coherent character of these eight marks. Both models revealed chromatin states that may correspond to enhancers and promoters, transcribed regions, transcriptional elongation, and low-signal regions. We also found that the linear conditional random field model was more effective than the hidden Markov model in recognizing regulatory elements, such as promoter-, enhancer-, and transcriptional elongation-associated regions, which gives us a better choice.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Chromatin , Genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Epigenomics , Histones , Genetics , Humans , Markov Chains , Models, Genetic , Models, Statistical , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine fulfilling a broad variety of immunoregulatory functions. Monocytes and macrophages play a pivotal role in inflammation and immune regulation. NF-kappaB and HIF-1 are known to increase expression of the TNF-alpha gene in a separate way. METHODS: Human monocytic leukemia, U937 cells, were transfected using the standard electroporation method for intracellular expression of NF-kappaB and HIF-1. We performed analysis using the mammalian two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay for detection of protein interaction of both proteins. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis was performed for examination of NF-kappaB and HIF-1 binding on the TNF-alpha gene promoter. RESULTS: Here we show that NF-kappaB and HIF-1 cooperatively induced an increase in expression of the TNF-alpha gene dependent on promoter activity by the direct protein interaction of these two transcription factors. Hypoxia signaling induced marked enhancement of the transactivation of TNF-alpha promoter by HIF-1 and NF-kappaB. A tandem NF-kappaB/HIF-1 binding site was identified within the TNF-alpha promoter, which acted as a strong enhancer element. Physical association of the Rel domain of NF-kappaB and the N-TD domain of HIF-1 was required. Hypoxia treatment also resulted in a significant increase in the protein interaction of NF-kappaB and HIF-1 in vivo. Both transcription factors were recruited on the chromatin TNF-alpha promoter dependent on hypoxia stimuli. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that a variety of extracellular signals for activation of TNF-alpha gene expression might converge on the transcriptional regulation through the NF-kappaB/HIF-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Binding Sites , Chromatin , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Electroporation , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Inflammation , Leukemia , Macrophages , Monocytes , NF-kappa B , Proteins , Transcription Factors , Transcriptional Activation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Two-Hybrid System Techniques , U937 Cells
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246192

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutation in the Enhancer I (HBV Enh I)/X-promoter and to analysis the relationship between chronic HBV-related disease spectrum.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>275 patients were enrolled in this study, including 100 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 74 cases of liver cirrhosis (LC), 101 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), grouping by different HBV genotypes, using semi-nested PCR amplification of HBV Enh I/X-promoter and sequencing DNA, the mutations were determined by alignment to HBV reference sequence, the data was compared by chi2 test and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Genotyping results: 61.48% (158/257) were infected with HBV genotype B, including 70 cases of CHB, 36 cases of LC and 52 cases of HCC; 38.52% (117/257) were infected with HBV genotype C, including 30 cases of CHB, 38 cases of LC and 49 cases of HCC. (2) In the patients were infected with HBV genotype B, A1123Y mutation in LC was significantly higher than in CHB (30.56% vs. 8.58%, chi2 = 8.533, P = 0.005, A = 4.693, 95% CI [1.567-14.056]), HCC was significantly higher than in CHB (28.85% vs. 8.58%, chi2 = 8.607, P = 0.003, A = 4.324,95% CI [1.544-2.109]); A1317G mutation in HCC was significantly higher than in CHB (30.77% vs. 7.14%, chi2 = 11.687, P = 0.001, A = 5.778, 95% CI [1.955-17.076]). In the patients were infected with HBV genotype C, T1323C mutation in HCC was significantly higher than in CHB (30.61% vs. 6.67%, chi2 = 6.318, P = 0.12, A = 6.176, 95% CI [1.301-29.331]). (3) Multivariate regression analyses showed that A1317G (OR = 5.706, 95% CI [1.770-18.837], P = 0.004) and T1323C (A = 5.810, 95% CI [1.114-30.306], P = 0.037) mutation were risk factors for HCC.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HBV Enh I/X-promoter mutations were associated with the development of LC and HCC, the mutations can help to predict the occurrence of LC and HCC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Female , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus , Classification , Genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Promoter Regions, Genetic
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186642

ABSTRACT

DNA methylation may regulate gene expression by restricting the access of transcription factors. We have previously demonstrated that GATA-1 regulates the transcription of the CCR3 gene by dynamically interacting with both positively and negatively acting GATA elements of high affinity binding in the proximal promoter region including exon 1. Exon 1 has three CpG sites, two of which are positioned at the negatively acting GATA elements. We hypothesized that the methylation of these two CpGs sites might preclude GATA-1 binding to the negatively acting GATA elements and, as a result, increase the availability of GATA-1 to the positively acting GATA element, thereby contributing to an increase in GATA-1-mediated transcription of the gene. To this end, we determined the methylation of the three CpG sites by bisulfate pyrosequencing in peripheral blood eosinophils, cord blood (CB)-derived eosinophils, PBMCs, and cell lines that vary in CCR3 mRNA expression. Our results demonstrated that methylation of CpG sites at the negatively acting GATA elements severely reduced GATA-1 binding and augmented transcription activity in vitro. In agreement, methylation of these CpG sites positively correlated with CCR3 mRNA expression in the primary cells and cell lines examined. Interestingly, methylation patterns of these three CpG sites in CB-derived eosinophils mostly resembled those in peripheral blood eosinophils. These results suggest that methylation of CpG sites at the GATA elements in the regulatory regions fine-tunes CCR3 transcription.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Cell Line , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Eosinophils/cytology , Exons , Fetal Blood/cytology , GATA1 Transcription Factor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, CCR3/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Transcription, Genetic
14.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 47(4): 769-778, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618070

ABSTRACT

The present investigation aims to evaluate an isotropic and thermodynamically stable nanoemulsion formulation for transdermal delivery of glycyrrhizin (GZ), with minimum surfactant and cosurfactant (Smix) concentrations that could improve its solubility, permeation enhancement, and stability. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed and various nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using soyabean oil as oil, Span 80, Brij 35 as a surfactant and isopropyl alcohol as a cosurfactant. Nanoemulsion formulations that passed the thermodynamic stability tests were characterized for pH, viscosity and droplet size using a transmission electron microscopy. The transdermal ability of glycyrrhizin through human cadaver skin was determined using Franz diffusion cells. The in vitro skin permeation profile of the optimized nanoemulsion formulation (NE2) was compared to that of conventional gel. A significant increase in permeability parameters such as steady-state flux (Jss) and permeability coefficient (Kp) was observed in the optimized nanoemulsion formulation (NE2), which consisted of 1 percent wt/wt of mono ammonium glycyrrhizinate (MAG), 32.4 percent Span 80, 3.7 percent Brij 35, 10 percent isopropyl alcohol, 46.5 percent soyabean oil and 6.4 percent distilled water. No obvious skin irritation was observed for the studied nanoemulsion formulation (NE2) or the gel. The results indicated that nanoemulsions are promising vehicles for transdermal delivery of glycyrrhizin through human cadaver skin, without the use of additional permeation enhancers, because excipients of nanoemulsions act as permeation enhancers themselves.


O objetivo da investigação é avaliar uma nanoemulsão isotrópica termodinamicamente estável para a administração transdérmica da glicirrizina (GZ), com concentrações mínimas de tensoativo e co-tensoativo (Smix), que poderiam melhorar a sua solubilidade, a permeação e a estabilidade. Os diagramas pseudo-ternários de fase foram desenvolvidos e diversas nanoemulsões foram preparadas com óleo de soja como óleo, Span 80, Brij 35 como tensoativos e álcool isopropílico como co-tensoativo. As nanoemulsões que passaram por testes de estabilidade termodinâmica foram caracterizadas por pH, viscosidade, tamanho de gota e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A capacidade transdérmica da glicirrizina em passar através da pele de cadáver humano foi determinada por células de difusão de Franz. O perfil in vitro de permeação cutânea da formulação otimizada (NE2) foi comparada com a de gel convencional. Observou-se aumento significativo nos parâmetros de permeabilidade, como fluxo de equilíbrio (JSS) e coeficiente de permeabilidade (Kp) na formulação otimizado (NE2), que consistiu de 1 por cento wt/wt de monoglicirrizinato de amônio (MAG), 32,4 por cento de Span 80, 3,7 por cento de Brij 35, 10 por cento de álcool isopropílico, 46,5 por cento de óleo de soja e 6,4 por cento de água destilada. Não se observou irritação óbvia da pele para as nanoemulsões estudadas (NE2) ou de gel. Os resultados indicaram que nanoemulsões são promissores veículos para a administração transdérmica de glicirrizina através da pele de cadáveres humanos, sem o uso adicional de promotor de permeação, porque excipientes de nanoemulsões atuam como promotores de permeação.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , In Vitro Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nanotechnology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacokinetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1546-1554, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351563

ABSTRACT

FRUITFULL (FUL) is an MADS box gene that functions early in controlling flowering time, meristem identity and cauline leaf morphology and later in carpel and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to clarify the regulation of FUL expression the upstream regulatory region, -2148 bp - +96 bp and the first intron of the FUL gene were cloned, and vectors with a series of deletion of FUL promoter, and the ones fused with the first intron were constructed. Vectors harboring the fusion of cis-acting elements with the constitutive promoters of TUBULIN and ACTIN were also constructed. Beta-Glucuronidase activity assays of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed that two cis-elements were involved in the repression of FUL expression, with one of the two being probably the binding site of the transcriptional factor AP1. And the two CArG boxes played a important role in FUL initiation particularly. Furthermore, the first intron of FUL was shown to participate in the development of carpel and stamen as an enhancer.


Subject(s)
Actins , Genetics , Arabidopsis , Genetics , Metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins , Genetics , Base Sequence , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Flowers , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Introns , Genetics , MADS Domain Proteins , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330791

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the enhancers of human lung specific X protein (LUNX) and their regulation at the transcription level in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three enhancer fragments (E1:+3770~+3959bp; E2: +6454~+6555bp; E3: +14553~+14652 bp) predicted by bioinformatics software were isolated from the human genomic DNA by PCR amplification. Luciferase assay was performed to detect the activities of the enhancers in transcriptional regulation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PCR products were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The amplified enhancers digested by Kpn I/Xho I and BamH I/Sal I, to generate the sticky-end fragments were inserted into PGL3-promoter in a reporter vector, and 6 luciferase expression vectors were obtained. All the reporter plasmids and pGL3-promoter were transiently transfected into HEK293 cells with an internal control of pSV-β-Galactosidase reporter vector. The enhancer activity of each construct was evaluated by luciferase assay of the cell extracts after transfection for 48 h. The results showed that the 3 fragments, when located upstream, did not increase transcription of reporter gene, but when at the downstream, E1 and E3 increased the transcription by 2.83 and 1.59 folds of that of pGL3-promoter, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>LUNX gene sequences from +3770 to +3959 bp and +14553 to +14652 bp possess the capacity to enhance gene transcription.</p>


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Glycoproteins , Genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Phosphoproteins , Genetics , Transcription, Genetic
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316932

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To screen enhancer-like sequences from Escherichia coli strain C600 genome, to construct an expression vector harboring prokaryotic enhancer-like sequence and study the effect of interferon gene expression.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Enhancer-like element from Escherichia coli strain C600 genome was obtained by using the chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) gene as reporter gene. An expression vector harboring prokaryotic enhancer-like sequence from Escherichia coli strain C600 was constructed. Interferon was expressed and assayed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>An enhancer-like sequences with distance and orientation independence property were screened and named 3A. Quantification test showed that the direct and reverse orientation of 3A could increase the activity of beta-galactosidase with 7.11 and 2.93 times. The enhancing activity of the element was on transcription level. An expression vector harboring the prokaryotic enhancer-like sequence 3P3 which was enhancing function region of sequence 3A was constructed. Using this vector the antiviral activity of interferon alpha-2b was increased by 3.7 times in comparison with the original expression plasmid.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>3A enhancer-like sequence was screened from Escherichia coli strain C600 genome. Interferon gene was highly expressed by using an expression vector harboring enhancer-like sequences.</p>


Subject(s)
Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genetics , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Gene Expression , Genetics , Genes, Reporter , Genetic Vectors , Chemistry , Interferons , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Prokaryotic Cells , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , beta-Galactosidase , Genetics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230815

ABSTRACT

To establish a transgenic cell model based on anti-oxidative response element (ARE) and green fluorescence protein(GFP) reporter gene, the TK minimal promoter was amplified by PCR and cloned into pEGFP-N1 for constructing reporter vector pTK-GFP/Neo. Four synthetic oligonucleotide ARE motifs were annealed and purified and then were inserted into pTK-GFP/Neo one by one to construct the eukaryotic reporter vector p4ARE-TK-GFP/Neo. Two reconstruct eukaryotic reporter vectors were transfected into HepG2 cells mediated by lipofectamine. The positive clones were obtained by the screen of G418. The cell model was tested with PDTC and tBHQ, well known inducers of phase II enzymes, by determining GFP activity. The results showed that the expression level of GFP was significantly increased by PDTC and tBHQ, and a transgenic cell model based on ARE was established successfully.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Metabolism , Base Sequence , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genetics , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Genetics , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Response Elements , Genetics , Thymidine Kinase , Genetics , Transfection , Transgenes
19.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 7(2): 314-325, 2008. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641008

ABSTRACT

We explored the potential of fusion of hepatic locus control region 1 (HCR-1) with HCR-2 to express B-domain-deleted human factor VIII (FVIII) in four cell lines. B-domain-deleted human FVIII expression was controlled by HCR-1/HCR-2, followed by liver specific and ubiquitous promoters. Chimera enhancer HCR-1/HCR-2, followed by cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, gave 2-fold more FVIII expression in all cell lines (105.6 ± 2.8 for Hek-293, 68.8 ± 3.8 for HepG2, 34.8 ± 1.3 for CHO, and 27.2 ± 1.6 ng-mL-1-106 cells-1 for L.N.) when compared to the vector with CMV alone (54.8 ± 3.3 for Hek-293, 32.4 ± 1.2 for HepG2, 18.6 ± 1.1 for CHO, and 10.1 ± 1.7 ng-mL-1-106 cells-1 for L.N.). Elongation factor 1-α gene and human CMV promoters were more efficient than the promoters from the human α-1-antitrypsin gene, and fviii was less efficient in hepatic cell lines. HCR-1/HCR-2, followed by strong promoters, increases FVIII expression in vitro. Our results underscore the importance of cis sequences for enhancing in vitro FVIII expression; this may be helpful for designing new strategies to improve heterologous expression systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics , Factor VIII/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Factor VIII/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Plasmids , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325414

ABSTRACT

To develop a GFP transgenic cell model under the transcriptional control of TK promoter adjacent to which ARE enhancer was inserted. Synthetic oligonucleotide ARE motif was annealed and purified then inserted into pTK-GFP to construct the vector of pARE-TK-GFP. The TK and ARE-TK fragments were amplified by PCR and cloned into pEGFP-N1 to reconstruct eukaryotic expression vectors of pTK-GFP/Neo and pARE-TK-GFP/Neo. They were transfected into HepG2 cells and clones resistant G418 were isolated. PDTC and Lentinan were used to induce the cell levels of GFP and the fluorescence was measured using a fluorescence plate reader. The results showed that the induced level of GFP is significantly increased and have dose-dependeny in a certain range. This findings indicated that such a cell model offered a potential platform for preliminary screening of all kinds of natural or synthetic chemopreventive agents.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Base Sequence , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Methods , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genetics , Gene Expression , Gentamicins , Pharmacology , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Lentinan , Pharmacology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Molecular Sequence Data , Oligonucleotides , Genetics , Proline , Pharmacology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Thiocarbamates , Pharmacology , Transfection
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL