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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387704

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Pathogenic protozoans, like Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis, represent a major health problem in tropical countries; and polymeric nanoparticles could be used to apply plant extracts against those parasites. Objective: To test Curcuma longa ethanolic extract and Berberis vulgaris methanolic extracts, and their main constituents, against two species of protozoans. Methods: We tested the extracts, as well as their main constituents, curcumin (Cur) and berberine (Ber), both non-encapsulated and encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), in vitro. We also determined nanoparticle characteristics by photon correlation spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and hemolytic capacity by hemolysis in healthy erythrocytes. Results: C. longa consisted mainly of tannins, phenols, and flavonoids; and B. vulgaris in alkaloids. Encapsulated particles were more effective (P < 0.001); however, curcumin and berberine nanoparticles were the most effective treatments. CurNPs had IC50 values (µg/mL) of 9.48 and 4.25, against E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, respectively, and BerNPs 0.24 and 0.71. The particle size and encapsulation percentage for CurNPs and BerNPs were 66.5 and 73.4 nm, and 83.59 and 76.48 %, respectively. The NPs were spherical and significantly reduced hemolysis when compared to non-encapsulated extracts. Conclusions: NPs represent a useful and novel bioactive compound delivery system for therapy in diseases caused by protozoans.


Resumen Introducción: Los protozoos patógenos, como Entamoeba histolytica y Trichomonas vaginalis, representan un importante problema de salud en los países tropicales; y se podrían usar nanopartículas poliméricas para aplicar extractos de plantas contra esos parásitos. Objetivo: Probar los extractos etanólicos de Curcuma longa y Berberis vulgaris, y sus principales constituyentes, contra dos especies de protozoos. Métodos: Probamos los extractos, así como sus principales constituyentes, curcumina (Cur) y berberina (Ber), tanto no encapsulados como encapsulados en nanopartículas poliméricas (NPs), in vitro. También determinamos las características de las nanopartículas por espectroscopía de correlación de fotones y microscopía electrónica de barrido, y la capacidad hemolítica por hemólisis en eritrocitos sanos. Resultados: C. longa tenía principalmente: taninos, fenoles y flavonoides; y B. vulgaris, alcaloides. Las partículas encapsuladas fueron más efectivas (P < 0.001); sin embargo, las nanopartículas de curcumina y berberina fueron los tratamientos más efectivos. CurNPs tenía valores IC50 (µg/mL) de 9.48 y 4.25, contra E. histolytica y T. vaginalis, respectivamente, y BerNPs 0.24 y 0.71. El tamaño de partícula y el porcentaje de encapsulación para CurNPs y BerNPs fueron: 66.5 y 73.4 nm, y 83.59 y 76.48 %, respectivamente. Los NP son esféricos y redujeron significativamente la hemólisis en comparación con los extractos no encapsulados. Conclusiones: Las NP representan un sistema de administración de compuestos bioactivos útil y novedoso para la terapia enfermedades causadas por protozoos.


Subject(s)
Trichomonas vaginalis , Berberis vulgaris , Curcuma , Entamoeba histolytica
2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 242-247, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394957

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present the case of a 56-year-old black female patient from a rural area in the Morón municipality, Ciego de Ávila province, Cuba. She was admitted with symptoms of dysentery with several days of evolution and a later episode of high fever, compromised general status, and abdominal pain located in the right hypochondrium. Analytical studies reported leukocytosis with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells, Entamoeba histolytica was found in the stool study. Abdominal ultrasound reported a mixed image of 110 x 84 mm in the upper right lobe of the liver, as confirmed by computed tomography. This image was interpreted as a possible liver abscess. The patient received antimicrobial treatment for four weeks without a good response, thus requiring surgical intervention. She evolved favorably and was discharged after 21 days.


Resumen Se presenta el caso de una paciente de raza negra de 56 años procedente de área rural de Morón, provincia Ciego de Ávila (Cuba), quien ingresa por cuadro clínico de disentería de varios días de evolución acompañado de fiebre, compromiso de su estado general y dolor abdominal en el hipocondrio derecho. Los estudios analíticos de laboratorio mostraron leucocitosis con predominio de neutrófilos y presencia de trofozoitos de Entamoeba histolytica en la materia fecal. La ecografía de abdomen reporto una imagen mixta de 110 x 84 mm en el lóbulo derecho del hígado y la tomografía confirmó la lesión que se interpretó como un posible absceso hepático. Se inició tratamiento antimicrobiano por un periodo de 4 semanas sin adecuada respuesta por lo que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico. Su evolución fue favorable con egreso a los 21 días.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Liver , Liver Abscess, Amebic , Tomography , Abdominal Pain , Ultrasonography , Racial Groups , Dysentery , Entamoeba histolytica , Analytical Epidemiology , Fever , Leukocytosis , Liver Abscess
4.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 596-602, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395573

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad las investigaciones entorno a la calidad de vida desde la salud, son de vital importancia a nivel mundial, puesto que la identificación de los factores que desencadenan ciertas patologías prevalentes sirven para actuar y mejorar las condiciones de vida; en específico en este trabajo nos referiremos al grupo infantil y la parasitosis pediátrica, la misma que genera índices de anemia, peso bajo, entre otros. El propósito fue identificar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en escolares de 6 a 12 años en poblaciones rurales, de la ciudad de Paute, Ecuador. Se realizó una investigación de tipo cuantitativa, descriptiva y transversal, se trabajó con 608 niños pertenecientes a zonas rurales de Paute, el análisis coprológico fue mediante el método convencional, se reportó número de parásitos por campo. Esta investigación fue desarrollada bajo el permiso de un Comité de Bioética. Se analizaron 608 muestras coproparasitarias, obteniéndose una significancia estadística con respecto al sexo, los varones presentaron una prevalencia de parasitismo (14,63%) sobre las mujeres (8,88%), el parásito con mayor prevalencia es la Entamoeba histolytica. La prevalencia de parasitosis infantil en el sector rural de Paute, Ecuador es de 23,52%, siendo mayor en varones, el parásito más frecuente es la E. histolytica(AU)


Currently, the research about life's quality from a health's point of view has received tremendous attention around the world, because the identification of the facts that start a variety of prevalent pathologies are being used to improve life conditions. In this work we try the child group and its pediatric parasitosis, that produce anemia, low weight, and others. The purpose was to recognize the prevalence of intestinal parasites in scholar children from 6 to 12 years old in marginal populations of the city Paute, Ecuador. A quantity type of investigation was made, descriptive and transversal, using a population of 608 children from the rural population of Paute, the coprological analysis was using conventional methods, number of parasites were reported. This research was developed under the permission of the Bioethics Committee. 608 coproparasites samples were analyzed, getting a significative statistic in reference to sex. Boy's samples show a prevalence of parasitism (14,63%) in girls' samples (8,88%), the more prevalent parasite is Entamoeba Histolytica. The prevalence of children's parasitosis in the rural sector of Paute, Ecuador is 23,52% being more affected boys than girls. The most frequent parasite is E. Histolytica(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Prevalence , Giardia lamblia , Entamoeba histolytica , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases , Rural Health , Hymenolepis nana , Ecuador/epidemiology , Anemia
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 23-34, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285447

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Las amebas no patógenas Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii y Entamoeba bangladeshi son morfológicamente idénticas a Entamoeba histolytica, parásito responsable de la amebiasis, por lo cual se necesitan técnicas moleculares para diferenciarlas. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de las diferentes especies de Entamoeba mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR) en muestras fecales de niños menores de cinco años con diarrea, provenientes de Maracaibo (Venezuela). Materiales y métodos. Se recolectó una muestra fecal por individuo en 75 niños con diarrea (grupo de casos) y en 25 niños sin diarrea (grupo control). Las heces se evaluaron mediante examen microscópico, método de concentración de formól-éter y PCR múltiple anidada en una sola ronda para identificar E. histolytica, E. dispar y E. moshkovskii. Además, se hizo una encuesta en la que se recopilaron los datos demográficos, signos, manifestaciones clínicas y estrato socioeconómico de los niños. Resultados. El 48 % de los participantes (38 del grupo de casos y 10 del grupo de control) tenían enteroparásitos. Solo en las muestras de cuatro de los niños, se encontraron quistes del complejo Entamoeba (tres en el grupo de casos y uno en el de control). Mediante PCR se amplificaron nueve muestras (9 %) para la detección de las amebas estudiadas. En el grupo de casos se registraron tres (28,13 %) de E. histolytica, cuatro (30,50 %) de E. dispar y una (9,37 %) de E. moshkovskii, en tanto que solo una (25 %) muestra amplificó para E. dispar en el grupo de control. Conclusión. En general, predominó E. dispar; sin embargo, todos los infectados con E. histolytica se detectaron en el grupo de niños con diarrea y se detectó el primer caso de E. moshkovskii en la región.


Abstract | Introduction: Entamoeba histolytica is an amebiasis-producing parasite. However, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba bangladeshi are non-pathogenic amoebae morphologically identical to it and, therefore, molecular techniques are required for their differentiation. Objective: To determine the frequency of Entamoeba species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in fecal samples from children under five years with diarrhea from Maracaibo (Venezuela). Materials and methods: A fecal sample per individual was collected from 75 children with diarrhea (case group) and 25 children without diarrhea (control group). Stools were evaluated by microscopic examination, formol-ether concentration method, and nested-multiplex PCR in a single round for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii. In addition, a survey was conducted in which demographic data, signs, clinical manifestations, and socioeconomic status were registered. Results: In total, 48% of the children (38 from the case group and 10 from the control group) had intestinal parasites. Only four children presented cysts of the Entamoeba complex in their samples (three from the case group and one from the control group). By means of PCR, nine samples (9%) amplified for the studied amoebae. In the case group, three (28.13%) amplified for E. histolytica, four (30.50%) for E. dispar, and one (9.37%) for E. moshkovskii while only one (25%) sample amplified for E. dispar in the control group. Conclusion: In general, E. dispar predominated. Nevertheless, all those infected with E. histolytica were detected within the group of children with diarrhea and we reported the first case of E. moshkovskii in the region.


Subject(s)
Child , Entamoeba , Venezuela , Diarrhea , Entamoeba histolytica , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 599-603, nov. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144257

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) han definido la amebiasis como la infección por Entamoeba histolytica, independientemente de los síntomas. La colitis amebiana necrosante es una forma rara de amebiasis que se asocia con una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. Caso clínico: Presentamos a un paciente femenino de 68 años, con antecedentes de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, con colitis amebiana necrosante con múltiples perforaciones, que fue sometida a una hemicolectomía derecha con íleo-transverso anastomosis. Conclusiones: Se necesitan intervenciones efectivas para prevenir la colitis amebiana y terapias adicionales para tratar la colitis amebiana fulminante y mejorar los resultados.


Abstract Background: Amebiasis has been defined by World Health Organization (WHO) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as the infection with Entamoeba histolytica regardless of symptoms. Necrotizing amoebic colitis is a rare clinical form of amebosis that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Case Report: We present a 68-years-old-female patient with necrotizing amoebic colitis with multiple perforations who survived after right hemicolectomy with ileus-transverse anastomosis. Conclusions: Effective interventions to prevent amebic colitis, and additional therapies to treat fulminant amebic colitis are needed to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Colitis , Dysentery, Amebic/drug therapy , Dysentery, Amebic/diagnostic imaging , Entamoeba histolytica
7.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(6): 402-407, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289712

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Amebiasis is an infectious disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica. It represents one of the three worldwide leading causes of death by parasites and a public health problem due to its frequency, morbidity, mortality, and easy dispersion. Objective The study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of Lactobacillus spp. postbiotics on E. histolytica trophozoites (HM1-IMSS strain) and to determine morphometric changes in trophozoite membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods Bioassays on trophozoites were conducted with lyophilized postbiotics at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/mL concentrations, and trophozoite samples were obtained for AFM analysis Results Results indicated postbiotic inhibitory activity; the highest percentage inhibition was 89.63% at 0.5 mg/mL. Trophozoites nanomechanical analysis showed 28.32% increase in ruggedness and 56% decrease in size with treatments compared to the control. Conclusion Our study showed that the synergy of Lactobacillus postbiotics inhibited E. histolytica HM1-IMSS in vitro growth under axenic conditions, inducing morphometric alterations in trophozoites’ cell membrane. These results would allow designing strategies or treatments aimed at E. histolytica control in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Entamoeba histolytica/physiology , Trophozoites/physiology , Lactobacillus/physiology , In Vitro Techniques , Probiotics/pharmacology
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343567

ABSTRACT

As enteroparasitoses acometem grande número de pessoas, e sua frequência está associada a condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento básico, representando um problema de saúde pública. Apesar da transição epidemiológica mundial, muitos países, como o Brasil, ainda mantêm nas doenças parasitárias importante causa de morbimortalidade. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a prevalência de enteroparasitos em exames parasitológicos de fezes em uma unidade laboratorial de um distrito de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil. Foram incluídos 2.304 pacientes que realizaram exames parasitológicos de fezes, entre março de 2011 e junho de 2013, e excluídos os sem dados. As variáveis foram obtidas da base de dados do laboratório local e os dados foram analisados utilizando o software SPSS, versão 17.0. Os pacientes estudados foram com frequência mulheres (59,0%) e com idade inferior a 40 anos (66,2%). Parasitos intestinais foram encontrados em 1.112 pacientes (48,3%). Protozoários representaram 93,3%, e helmintos, 10,3%. O monoparasitismo foi predominante (72,2%). Os parasitos mais frequentes foram Giardia lamblia (8,7%), seguido de Entamoeba histolytica (6,6%), Ancylostomideo SP (4,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2,0%), Hymenolepis SP (1,7%) e Schistosoma mansoni (1,6%). A prevalência de enteroparasitos foi elevada, com predominância de protozoários e monoparasitoses, e o perfil da população estudada caracterizou-se por maior frequência de mulheres e adultos jovens.


The endoparasites affect large number of people; their frequency is associated with socioeconomic conditions and basic sanitation, representing a public health problem. Despite the worldwide epidemiological transition, many countries, such as Brazil, still have a major cause of morbidity and mortality in parasitic diseases. To describe the prevalence of endoparasites in parasitological exams of feces in a laboratorial unit in a district of Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. The study included 2,304 patients that underwent parasitological stool testes between March 2011 and June 2013, absent from missing data. The variables were obtained from the local laboratory database. The data were analyzed using software SPSS v. 17.0. The patients studied were more frequently women (59.0%) and younger than 40 years (66.2%). Intestinal parasites were found in 1,112 patients (48.3%). Protozoa represent 93.3% and helminthes 10.3%. The monoparasitism was prevailing (72.2%). The more frequent parasites were Giardia lamblia (8.7%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica (6.6%), Ancylostomideo SP (4.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.0%), Hymenolepis SP (1.7%) and Schistosoma mansoni (1.6%). The prevalence of endoparasites increased; protozoa and monoparasites predominated; and the studied population's profile was characterized by a higher frequency of women and young adults.


Los enteroparásitos acometen a un gran número de personas, y esta frecuencia está asociada a condiciones socioeconómicas y de saneamiento básico que indican un problema de salud pública. Pese a la transición epidemiológica mundial, muchos países como Brasil todavía mantienen un relevante reflejo de morbimortalidad a causa de enfermedades por parásitos. Este artículo tuvo como objetivo describir la prevalencia de enteroparásitos en muestras parasitológicas de heces en una unidad laboratorial de un distrito de Feira de Santana, Bahía, Brasil. Se incluyeron a 2.304 pacientes que realizaron muestras parasitológicas de heces entre marzo de 2011 a junio de 2013, y se excluyeron a los participantes con datos ausentes. Las variables obtenidas fueron basadas en datos del laboratorio local, y para el análisis de datos se utilizó el programa SPSS, versión 17.0. Hubo un predominio de la población femenina (59,0%) y con edad inferior a 40 años (66,2%). Se encontró parásitos intestinales en 1.112 pacientes (48,3%). Los protozoarios representaron el 93,3%; y los helmintos, 10,3%. Hubo mayor predominancia de un solo parásito (72,2%). Los parásitos más frecuentes fueron: Giardia lamblia (8,7%), seguido de Entamoeba histolytica (6,6%), Ancylostomideo SP (4,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2,0%), Hymenolepis SP (1,7%) y Schistosoma mansoni (1,6%). La prevalencia de enteroparásitos fue elevada, predominaron protozoarios y un solo parásito; y el perfil de la población estudiada se ha caracterizado por una mayor frecuencia en mujeres y adultos jóvenes.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Basic Sanitation , Entamoeba histolytica , Feces , Feces/parasitology
9.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(1): 21-30, Junio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000435

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la presencia de parásitos en expendedores y hortalizas de los mercados públicos de Cuenca. Materiales y métodos: es un estudio analítico transversal. La muestra fue de 144 expendedores de hortalizas, realizado en cuatro mercados de Cuenca. Inicialmente se informó a los comerciantes sobre las características de la investigación, se solicitó el respectivo consentimiento informado, se aplicó una encuesta y se les pidió una muestra de heces, posteriormente se compró una lechuga y perejil para su análisis respectivo. A la materia fecal se le realizó un examen coproparasitológico y concentrado de heces mediante el método de Ritchie simplificada, técnica en fresco con solución salina y lugol, para su observación al microscopio; las hortalizas se les colocó por separado en un vaso de precipitado con 400 ml de agua destilada, se dejó 24 horas en reposo, posterior a ello se colocó 8 ml de esta agua en un tubo de ensayo y se centri-fugó, el sedimento se observó al microscopio. El procesamiento de muestras cumplió las normas de calidad y bioseguridad. Los datos fueron analizados mediante programa estadístico IBM SPSS Statistics 20 y el programa Epi info 7 (versiones de prueba).Resultados: se determina presencia de parásitos en los comerciantes en un 68.10%, los principales protozoarios observados son quistes de Enta-moeba histolytica 19.03% y oocitos de Cryptosporidium parvum 16.45%. La contaminación por parásitos en el perejil fue del 44.40 % y en la lechuga el 38.90 %. En ambos productos se destaca la presencia de larvas filariformes de Uncinaria spp.Conclusiones: se observa la presencia de parásitos en expendedores y productos de venta. Los parásitos intestinales más frecuentes son losquistes de Entamoeba coli y oocitos de Criptosporidium parvum. En las hortalizas destaca la presencia de las larvas filariformes de Uncinaria spp


Objective: determine the presence of parasites in sellers and vegetables of the public markets of Cuenca.Materials and methods: it is a transversal analyti-cal study. The sample consisted of 144 sellers; it was made in four markets in Cuenca. Initially the merchants were informed about the characteristics of the investigation, the informed consent was re-quested, a survey was applied and a stool sample was requested, later a lettuce and some parsley were purchased for their respective analysis. The faecal matter was subjected to a coproparasitolo-gical examination and stool concentrate using the simplified Ritchie method, fresh technique with saline solution and lugol, and for the observation through a microscope; the vegetables were pla-ced separately in a beaker with 400 ml of distilled water for 24 hours, later about 8 ml of this water was placed in a test tube and it was centrifuged, the sediment was observed with microscope. The processing of samples met the standards of quality and biosafety. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 program and the Epi info 7 program (trial versions). Results: the presence of parasites in sellers is determined by 68.10%, the main protozoa obser-ved are Entamoeba histolytica 19.03% cysts and 16.45% Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes. The pa-rasite contamination in parsley was 44.40% and in lettuce 38.90%. In both products, there is the pre-sence of filariform larvae of Uncinaria sppConclusions: the presence of parasites in sellers and products is observed. The most frequent intes-tinal parasites are the cysts of Entamoeba coli and oocytes of Criptosporidium parvum. In the vegeta-bles, the presence of the filariform larvae of Unci-naria spp is prominent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Parasites , Vegetables , Food Contamination , Oocytes , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Entamoeba histolytica
10.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): e1917, fev. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-996064

ABSTRACT

A diarreia crônica, caracterizada pela presença de mais de três dejeções de consistência pastosa durante pelo menos quatro semanas, é frequentemente encontrada na prática clínica. Na diarreia crônica, a probabilidade de uma etiologia infecciosa é baixa, sendo as causas funcionais, inflamatórias, osmóticas ou secretórias mais comuns. A amebíase intestinal é uma causa de diarreia crônica, causada pelo protozoário Entamoeba histolytica, sendo comum e prevalente em países em desenvolvimento. Pode ter várias formas de apresentação, sendo na maioria dos casos assintomática. Apresenta-se o caso clínico de um paciente de 27 anos, sexo masculino, raça caucasiana, homem que pratica sexo com homens (HSH), com diarreia crônica com início há cerca de seis anos. O exame objetivo não revelava alterações. Realizou exame parasitológico de fezes, com isolamento de quistos de Entamoeba histolytica. Foi medicado com metronidazol e paromomicina com resolução clínica do quadro. É importante para o Médico de Família equacionar esta etiologia na investigação de pacientes com diarreia, para um correto e atempado diagnóstico e tratamento, de modo a evitar exames desnecessários, possíveis complicações, a transmissão do agente e um grave problema de saúde pública.


Chronic diarrhea, characterized by the presence of more than three loose stools for at least four weeks, is often found in clinical practice. In chronic diarrhea, the probability of an infectious etiology is low, having usually a functional, inflammatory, osmotic or secretory origin. Intestinal amebiasis is a cause of chronic diarrhea, caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, common and prevalent in developing countries. It can have different presentations but most patients are asymptomatic. We present a 27-year-old Caucasian male, man who have sex with men (MSM), with chronic diarrhea starting six years ago. The physical exam was normal. A parasitological stool examination was performed with isolation of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica. He was treated with metronidazole and paromomycin with clinical resolution. It is important for General Practice to address this etiology in the investigation of patients with diarrhea for a correct and timely diagnosis and treatment, to avoid unnecessary testing, possible complications, transmission of the agent and a serious public health problem.


La diarrea crónica, caracterizada por la presencia de más de tres heces de consistencia blanda durante al menos cuatro semanas, es frecuentemente encontrada en la práctica clínica. En la diarrea crónica, la probabilidad de una etiología infecciosa es baja, siendo las causas funcionales, inflamatorias, osmóticas o secretoras más comunes. La amebiasis intestinal es una causa de diarrea crónica, causada por el protozoario Entamoeba histolytica, siendo común y prevalente en los países en desarrollo. Puede tener varias formas de presentación, siendo en la mayoría de los casos asintomática. Presentamos un paciente de 27 años, sexo masculino, caucásico, hombre que tiene sexo con hombres (HSH), con diarrea crónica con inicio hace cerca de seis años. El examen objetivo no reveló alteraciones. Realizó un examen parasitológico de heces, con aislamiento de quistes de Entamoeba histolytica. Fue medicado con metronidazol y paromomicina con resolución clínica del cuadro. Es importante para el médico de familia considerar esta etiología en la investigación de pacientes con diarrea, para un correcto y oportuno diagnóstico y tratamiento, de modo a evitar, exámenes innecesarios, posibles complicaciones, la transmisión del agente y un grave problema de salud pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Public Health , Diarrhea , Dysentery, Amebic , Entamoeba histolytica
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786648

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasites that affected the inhabitants of the city of Acre on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean during the Ottoman Period. This is the first archaeological study of parasites in the Ottoman Empire. We analysed sediment from a latrine dating to the early 1800s for the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan parasites which caused dysentery. The samples were examined using light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. We found evidence for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), fish tapeworm (Dibothriocephalus sp.), Taenia tapeworm (Taenia sp.), lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum), and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite taxa recovered demonstrate the breadth of species present in this coastal city. We consider the effect of Ottoman Period diet, culture, trade and sanitation upon risk of parasitism in this community living 200 years ago.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Diet , Dysentery , Eggs , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fasciola hepatica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Microscopy , Ottoman Empire , Ovum , Parasites , Sanitation , Taenia , Toilet Facilities
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742225

ABSTRACT

Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Association between risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 16.1%. Soil-transmitted helminth infections (14.3%) were more common than protozoan infections (1.8%). The most common intestinal parasites were hookworms (6.7%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis, (5.0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.3%) and Trichuris trichiura (1.3%). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.0%), Giardia intestinalis (0.4%), and Blastocystis hominis (0.4%) were the protozoans identified. A high prevalence of infections was found in male participants of ≥40 years who raised dogs in the households and did not wear boots while working fields. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of intestinal parasitic infections with gender with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.1–5.2 (P=0.020). The results showed a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among adults in rural communities which were particularly apparent regarding the skin-penetrating species of nematodes. A greater focus on intervention is required by improving sanitation and personal hygiene to prevent the spread of intestinal parasitic infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Ascaris lumbricoides , Blastocystis hominis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dogs , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Family Characteristics , Formaldehyde , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Humans , Hygiene , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Parasites , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections , Public Health , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Sanitation , Strongyloides stercoralis , Thailand , Trichuris
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742220

ABSTRACT

Soluble antigens from an axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica were used to develop a commercial ELISA kit to quantify anti-E. histolytica antibodies in sera of patients with extraintestinal amebiasis in non-endemic settings. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the test were assessed retrospectively using 131 human serum samples with amoebic serologic status available. They were selected according to their results in immunofluorescence (IFAT) and were separated in 2 sample categories: 64 sera with positive results by IFAT and 67 with negative results by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA kit were assessed at 95.0% and 94.0% compared to the IFAT. The test can be useful to exclude a potential diagnosis of amebiasis and could be used as a screening method since ELISA is an automated technique.


Subject(s)
Amebiasis , Antibodies , Axenic Culture , Diagnosis , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Mass Screening , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
14.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S49-S52, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117784

ABSTRACT

Amebiasis is the infection by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan capable of invading the colonic mucosa causing a diarrheic syndrome, although most of the time is mild, it can lead to a fulminating colitis. Sometimes it can spread to other organs; among extra-intestinal manifestations of this parasite, the most frequent is the amebic liver abscess. In the next pages, general aspects of this protozoan, its epidemiology, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed, emphasizing the possibilities of diagnosis and treatment available in Chile.


La amebiasis corresponde a la infección por Entamoeba histolytica, protozoo capaz de invadir la mucosa del colon provocando un cuadro diarréico que, si bien la mayoría de las veces es leve, puede llegar a una colitis fulminante. En algunas oportunidades puede diseminarse a otros órganos; dentro de las manifestaciones extra-intestinales de este parásito, la más frecuente es el absceso hepático amebiano. A continuación se revisan aspectos generales de este protozoo, su epidemiología, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico y tratamiento, destacando las posibilidades de diagnóstico y tratamiento disponibles en Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysentery, Amebic/diagnosis , Dysentery, Amebic/drug therapy , Liver Abscess, Amebic/diagnosis , Liver Abscess, Amebic/drug therapy , Diarrhea/parasitology , Dysentery, Amebic/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/pathogenicity , Liver Abscess, Amebic/parasitology , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715718

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and remains a major cause of hospitalization. Following the Syrian refugee crisis and insufficient clean water in the region, this study reviews the etiological and epidemiological data in Lebanon. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed demographic, clinical and routine laboratory data of 198 children from the age of 1 month to 10 years old who were admitted with the diagnosis of AGE to a private tertiary care hospital located in the district of Nabatieh in south Lebanon. RESULTS: Males had a higher incidence of AGE (57.1%). Pathogens were detected in 57.6% (n=114) of admitted patients, among them single pathogens were found in 51.0% (n=101) of cases that consisted of: Entamoeba histolytica 26.3% (n=52), rotavirus 18.7% (n=37), adenovirus 6.1% (n=12) and mixed co-pathogens found in 6.6% (n=13). Breast-fed children were significantly less prone to rotavirus (p=0.041). Moreover, children who had received the rotavirus vaccine were significantly less prone to rotavirus (p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the high prevalence of E. histolytica infection as the major cause of pediatric gastroenteritis in hospitalized children, during the summer period likely reflecting the insanitary water supplies and lack of hygiene. Moreover the 42.4% of unidentified causative pathogens should prompt us to widen our diagnostic laboratory arsenal by adopting new diagnostic technologies.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Amebiasis , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Entamoeba histolytica , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hygiene , Incidence , Lebanon , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Refugees , Rotavirus , Tertiary Healthcare , Water , Water Supply
16.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 22(7): 625-630, oct.-nov. 2017. tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1047084

ABSTRACT

O parasitismo acontece quando há associação de dois seres vivos onde um deles se desenvolve e prejudica de alguma forma o outro ser, chamado hospedeiro (El parasitismo ocurre cuando existe una asociación de dos seres vivos, donde uno de ellos se desarrolla y afecta de algún modo al otro, que se llama huésped). Alguns parasitos como Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia solium, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e Enterobius vermicularis são transmitidos pela água e/ou (se transmiten por el agua o por) alimentos contaminados e afetam grande parte da população mundial no desempenho (y afectan a una gran parte de la población mundial en el desarrollo) de suas atividades físicas, mentais e sociais, expondo-a a diversas manifestações clínicas que podem gerar elevados níveis (pueden generar altos niveles) de morbidade. Considerando que, aproximadamente, 11% da população brasileira sofrem com algum tipo de deficiência intelectual e/ou múltipla e pouco se tem estudado sobre a ocorrência (y poco se ha estudiado acerca de la existencia) de enteroparasitos nesse grupo populacional, estudos parasitológicos laboratoriais foram realizados em 50 estudantes da Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais (APAE) da cidade de São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Do total de amostras analisadas 28 (56%) estavam positivas para um ou mais parasitos e comensais, sendo (uno o más parásitos y comensales, siendo) 5 (17.85%) por G. lamblia, 7 (25.00%) por E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moschkovskii, 11 (39.28%) por Entamoeba coli, 6 (21.43%) por Balantidium coli, 2 (7.14%) por Endolimax nana e 3 (10.7%) por E. vermicularis. Considerando a elevada frequência de indivíduos parasitados torna-se necessário a busca (se hace necesaria la búsqueda) de investimentos em profilaxia e educação higiênico-sanitária, além da realização (además de la realización) constante de exames parasitológicos, garantindo uma melhor (garantizando una mejor) qualidade de vida à população da APAE de São Mateus.


Parasitism occurs when there is an association between two living beings, in which one develops and in some way harms the other being, called host. Some parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia solium, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis are transmitted by contaminated water and/or food and affect a large number of the world population in their physical, mental and social activities, exposing them to diverse clinical manifestations that can generate high levels of morbidity. Considering that approximately 11% of the Brazilian population suffers from some type of intellectual and/or multiple deficiency and little has been studied about the occurrence of enteroparasites in this population group, laboratory parasitological studies were performed in 50 students of the Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais (APAE) of the city of São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brazil. From the total of the analyzed samples, 28 (56%) were positive for one or more parasites and commensals, of which 5 (17.85%) were positive for G. lamblia, 6 (25.00%) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, 11 (39.28%) for Entamoeba coli, 7 (21.43%) for Balantidium coli, 2 (7.14%) for Endolimax nana and 3 (10.7%) for E. vermicularis. Considering the high prevalence of parasitic infection in this population, it is necessary to seek greater investment in prophylaxis and hygienic-sanitary education, in addition to constantly conducting parasitological examinations that might guarantee a better quality of life for the population of São Mateus APAE.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Parasitology , Balantidiasis , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Endolimax , Entamoeba/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/parasitology , Enterobius/parasitology , Infections/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Intestines/parasitology
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5997, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839277

ABSTRACT

Amebiasis is one of the twenty major causes of disease in Mexico; however, the diagnosis is difficult due to limitations of conventional microscopy-based techniques. In this study, we analyzed stool samples using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to differentiate between Entamoeba histolytica (pathogenic) and E. dispar (non-pathogenic). The target for the PCR amplification was a small region (228 bp) of the adh112 gene selected to increase the sensitivity of the test. The study involved 62 stool samples that were collected from individuals with complaints of gastrointestinal discomfort. Of the 62 samples, 10 (16.1%) were positive for E. histolytica while 52 (83.9%) were negative. No sample was positive for E. dispar. These results were validated by nested PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and suggest that PCR-DGGE is a promising tool to differentiate among Entamoeba infections, contributing to determine the specific treatment for patients infected with E. histolytica, and therefore, avoiding unnecessary treatment of patients infected with the non-pathogenic E. dispar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis/methods , Entamoeba histolytica/genetics , Entamoeba histolytica/isolation & purification , Entamoeba/genetics , Entamoeba/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Entamoebiasis/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787041

ABSTRACT

Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amebiasis. Amebiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, used to be a prevalent protozoan disease in Korea, however, with an improving sanitary system, it has been among very uncommon etiology of liver abscess. A recent report suggested that ALA is an emerging parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients even in areas where the disease is not endemic and recommended HIV screening in patients in areas where ALA is not endemic, particularly those without history of travel to a disease-endemic area. We report on two patients who were admitted for treatment of ALA and then diagnosed as HIV infection. We also reviewed the etiology and characteristics of ALA in our hospital during the last 5 years.


Subject(s)
Amebiasis , Diagnosis , Entamoeba histolytica , HIV Infections , HIV , Humans , Korea , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Amebic , Mass Screening
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180611

ABSTRACT

Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9.8% mixed). Rotavirus (19.6%), Giardia duodenalis (16.5%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (8.5%) were the mostly detected pathogens. Adenovirus 40/41 (4.2%), Salmonella (3%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (3%), and Entamoeba histolytica (2.4%) were also detected. Norovirus GI/II, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B were not detected in any patients. All pathogens were involved in coinfections except E. histolytica. Giardia (5.5%) and rotavirus (3%) were the most commonly detected in co-infections. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (2.4%), Campylobacter spp. (2.4%), E. coli 0157 (1.8%), and Shigella spp. (1.2%) were detected in patients only as co-infections. Infections were more in children 0–4 years, less in adults 40 years, with statistically significant differences in risk across age groups observed with rotavirus (P < 0.001), Giardia (P=0.006), and Cryptosporidium (P=0.036) infections. Lastly, infections were not significantly more in the spring. This report demonstrates the high burden of various enteropathogens in the setting. Further studies are needed to define the impact of these findings on the clinical course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adult , Bacteria , Campylobacter , Child , Clostridioides difficile , Coinfection , Cryptosporidium , Developing Countries , Diarrhea , Entamoeba histolytica , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Giardia , Giardia lamblia , Humans , Norovirus , Prospective Studies , Rotavirus , Salmonella , Saudi Arabia , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Shigella , Vibrio cholerae , Yersinia enterocolitica
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180610

ABSTRACT

A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Aeromonas , Ancylostomatoidea , Ascaris lumbricoides , Blastocystis hominis , Cestoda , Cyclospora , Disease Outbreaks , Endolimax , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Human Activities , Humans , Hymenolepis , Parasites , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections , Public Health , Risk Factors , Rivers , Shigella , Strongyloides stercoralis , Trichuris , Vibrio , Water
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