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1.
Article in English | ID: biblio-1347991

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of entire layers of the bladder wall. The condition has been described in adults, children, and dogs. However, there are no consensus guidelines for the treatment of eosinophilic cystitis. Although human and veterinary literature reviews show some effectiveness in management with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics, a variety of serious and frequent side effects are associated with steroid therapy. As a result, steroids are relatively contraindicated for patients with diabetes mellitus and Cushing's syndrome. A five-year-old neutered male chow-chow with controlled diabetes was referred with an 18-month history of malodorous urine, gross haematuria, and dysuria that were nonresponsive to antibiotics. The findings on general examination were unremarkable except for abdominal suprapubic discomfort. The complete blood count and biochemical profile (such as urea and creatinine) were normal except for mild peripheral eosinophilia. Although ultrasonography, bladder contrast radiography, and urine cytology findings indicated malignancy, with the presence of atypical urothelial cells, histopathology confirmed eosinophilic cystitis. Management with cyclosporine was adequate with complete remission of haematuria. This case report presents the first reported successful use of cyclosporine for the treatment of eosinophilic cystitis in a dog with diabetes.(AU)


A cistite eosinofílica é uma doença inflamatória rara caracterizada por infiltração eosinofílica de todas as camadas da parede da bexiga. Essa enfermidade já foi descrita em adultos, crianças e cães. No entanto, não há um consenso de diretrizes sobre o seu tratamento. Mesmo que as literaturas humana e veterinária mostrem alguma eficácia no manejo com corticosteroides, anti-histamínicos e antibióticos, uma variedade de efeitos colaterais graves e frequentes está associada à terapia com esteroides. Dessa forma, o uso de esteroides é relativamente contraindicado para pacientes com diabetes mellitus e síndrome de Cushing, por exemplo. Um chow-chow, macho, castrado, de cinco anos e diabético estável foi encaminhado para atendimento com histórico de urina fétida, hematúria macroscópica e disúria não responsiva a antibióticos há 18 meses. A avaliação dos parâmetros físicos estava dentro dos padrões, exceto por desconforto abdominal suprapúbico à palpação. O hemograma e o perfil bioquímico (como a ureia e a creatinina) estavam dentro da normalidade para a espécie, exceto por eosinofilia periférica leve. Embora a ultrassonografia, a radiografia contrastada da bexiga e os achados da urinálise indicassem malignidade, com a presença de células uroteliais atípicas, a histopatologia confirmou o diagnóstico definitivo de cistite eosinofílica. O manejo com ciclosporina foi satisfatório, com ausência completa da hematúria. Este relato de caso apresenta o primeiro uso documentado de ciclosporina para o tratamento de cistite eosinofílica com sucesso em um cão com diabetes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Cyclosporine , Cystitis , Dogs , Hematuria , Enterobacter , Eosinophilia , Klebsiella pneumoniae
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 317-322, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1128169

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old male mixed-breed dog was admitted for recurrent signs of urinary tract infection (UTI). Urinary bladder ultrasonography revealed decreased thickness of its wall with floating hyperopic particles within its lumen. Ultrasonography revealed a structure invading the dorsal wall of the penile urethral lumen, located in a segment distal to the bladder. Radiographies showed bone resorption with proliferation at the caudal aspect of the penile bone, stricture of the final aspect of the penile urethra, and no radiopaque images compatible with a urethrolith. Computed tomography showed bone proliferation causing stricture of the urethral lumen at two different sites. Presumptive diagnosis of penile neoplasia was considered more likely and the dog underwent penectomy along with orchiectomy and scrotal urethrostomy. Enterobacter spp. was cultured from the urine sample and antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that the bacterium was susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem. Histopathology revealed severe suppurative urethritis, bone resorption, and hyperostosis, suggestive of osteomyelitis of the penile bone. Neoplastic cells were not observed at any part of the examined tissue. The findings in the present case suggest that osteomyelitis of the penile bone should be included in differential diagnosis for partial and complete urethral obstruction in dogs with recurrent UTI.(AU)


Um cão mestiço, com 10 anos, foi admitido por sinais recorrentes de infecção do trato urinário (ITU). A ultrassonografia da bexiga urinária revelou diminuição da espessura de sua parede com partículas flutuantes dentro de seu lúmen. A ultrassonografia demonstrou estrutura invadindo a parede dorsal do lúmen da uretra peniana, localizada em segmento distal à bexiga. Radiografias evidenciaram reabsorção óssea com proliferação no aspecto caudal do osso peniano, estenose do aspecto final da uretra peniana e ausência de imagens radiopacas compatíveis com uretrólito. Pela tomografia computadorizada, observou-se proliferação óssea causando estreitamento da luz uretral em dois locais diferentes. Diagnóstico presuntivo de neoplasia peniana foi considerado mais provável e o cão foi submetido à penectomia, juntamente com orquiectomia e uretrostomia escrotal. Enterobacter spp. foi cultivada da amostra de urina e testes de sensibilidade revelaram susceptibilidade ao amicacina, imipenem e ao meropenem. A histopatologia revelou uretrite supurativa grave, reabsorção óssea e hiperostose compatível com osteomielite do osso peniano. Células neoplásicas não foram observadas em nenhuma parte do tecido examinado. Os achados do presente caso sugerem que a osteomielite do osso peniano deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de obstrução uretral parcial e completa em cães com ITU recorrente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Osteomyelitis/veterinary , Penis , Urethritis/veterinary , Urinary Tract Infections/veterinary , Enterobacter , Bone and Bones , Bone Resorption , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2018. 92 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-963973

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, é recomendado que durante a limpeza dos Produtos para Saúde (PPS) o detergente utilizado possua ação enzimática. Embora a Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada nº 55 de 14 de novembro de 2012 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária desaconselhe a reutilização desta solução de limpeza, sabe-se que na prática clínica elas são reaproveitadas por diversas vezes para imersão de PPS, como os aparelhos endoscópicos, o que pode comprometer a efetividade da ação do detergente enzimático e com isso a segurança no processamento do PPS. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a carga microbiana presente na solução de detergente enzimático durante sua reutilização na limpeza manual de aparelhos endoscópicos gastrointestinais. Tratou-se de um estudo transversal realizado em um serviço de endoscopia digestiva de um hospital universitário de Belo Horizonte e no Laboratório de Microbiologia Oral e Anaeróbios do ICB/UFMG. A amostra foi composta por 57 aparelhos endoscópicos e 76 alíquotas de solução de detergente enzimáticos coletadas de diversos reusos de 19 diferentes soluções. O material coletado foi agitado em vórtex, acrescido a Caldo Letheem Modificado e submetido a filtração em membrana Millipore® 0,45µm. A membrana foi depositada em Tryptic Soy Ágar para crescimento microbiano. A identificação presuntiva dos micro-organismos foi realizada manualmente considerando-se aspectos morfotintoriais e reações bioquímico/fisiológicas. As variáveis foram descritas utilizando frequências, porcentagens e medidas de tendência central. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CAAE ­ 67493417.1.0000.5149). As médias das cargas microbianas na solução de detergente enzimático variaram de 19,9 UFC/mL após primeiro uso, 51,1 UFC/mL após terceiro uso e 67,1UFC/mL após o quinto reuso. Nos canais de ar/água e biópsia houve aumento de micro-organismos Gram negativos ao longo das reutilizações do detergente. Foram recuperados, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphyloccocus aureus, Staphyloccocus coagulase negativa. Pseudomonas spp. foi o micro-organismo mais identificado em todas as alíquotas coletadas. Verificou-se a importância da escovação do canal de biópsia para correta remoção de micro-organismos. Conclui-se que a reutilização das soluções de detergente enzimático contribuiu para contaminação dos aparelhos endoscópicos com micro-organismos potencialmente patogênicos. Faz-se necessário a reavaliação de protocolos institucionais, no sentido de que seja cumprida a orientação da Anvisa por meio da RDC nº 55 de 14 de novembro de 2012 de que os detergentes enzimáticos não devem ser reutilizados sob perda da eficiência do produto. As características físico químicas dos detergentes enzimáticos devem ser respeitadas pelos serviços de saúde conforme parâmetros estabelecidos pelos fabricantes.(AU)


In Brazil, it is recommended that during the cleaning of Health Products the detergent used has enzymatic action. Although Collegiate Board Resolution No. 55 of November 14, 2012 of the National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance advises against the reuse of this cleaning solution, it is known that in clinical practice they are reused several times for immersion of health products, such a gastrointestinal endoscope, which may compromise the effectiveness of the enzymatic detergent action and thus the safety in the processing. This research aimed to evaluate the microbial load present in the enzymatic detergent solution during its reuse in the manual cleaning of endoscopic gastrointestinal devices. This was a cross-sectional study performed at a gastrointestinal endoscopy service at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte and at the Oral Microbiology and Anaerobic Laboratory of ICB/UFMG. The sample consisted of 57 endoscopes and 76 aliquots of enzymatic detergent solution collected from several replicates of 19 different solutions. The collected material was vortexed, added to Modified Letheem Broth and subjected to Millipore® 0.45 µm membrane filtration. The membrane was deposited in Tryptic Soy Ágar for microbial growth. The identification of the microorganisms was performed manually considering morphotintorial aspects and biochemical/physiological reactions. The variables were described using frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency. The project was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (CAAE - 67493417.1.0000.5149). The mean values of the microbial loads in the enzymatic detergent solution varied from 19.9 UFC/mL after first use, 51.1 UFC/mL after third use and 67.1 UFC/mL after the fifth reuse. In the air/water and biopsy channels there was an increase of Gram negative microorganisms along the reuse of the detergent. Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphyloccocus were recovered. Pseudomonas spp. was the most identified microorganism in all aliquots collected. It was verified the importance of brushing the biopsy channel for correct removal of microorganisms. It was concluded that the reuse of enzyme detergent solutions contributed to the contamination of the endoscopes with potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It is necessary to re-evaluate institutional protocols, in order to comply with Anvisa's guidance through RDC nº. 55 of November 14, 2012 that enzymatic detergents should not be reused under loss of product efficiency. The physical characteristics of the enzymatic detergents must be observed by the health services according to the parameters established by the manufacturers.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infection Control/methods , Endoscopes/microbiology , Detergents/isolation & purification , Detergents/standards , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Containment of Biohazards , Academic Dissertation , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Enzymes , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/isolation & purification
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From January 2014 to December 2015, 69 clones of Enterobacter cloacae showing multidrug resistance to six classes of antimicrobial agents were collected from two medical centers in Korea. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the E-test method, and 17 genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The epidemiological relatedness of the strains was identified using repetitive element sequence-based PCR and multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: The 69 E. cloacae clones produced extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC and showed multidrug resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. We identified the following sequence types: ST56 of type VI for ESBL SHV (N=12, 17.4%); ST53, ST114, ST113, and ST550 of types I, IV, VI, and VII, respectively, for CTX-M (N=11, 15.9%); and ST668 of type III for the carbapenemase NDM gene (N=1, 1.5%). The AmpC DHA gene (N=2, 2.89%) was confirmed as ST134, although its type was not identified, whereas EBC (MIR/ACT; N=18, 26.1%) was identified as ST53, ST24, ST41, ST114, ST442, ST446, ST484, and ST550 of types V, I, III, IV, VII, and VI, respectively. The formed subclasses were bla CTX-M-3 and bla CTX-M-22 by CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-9 and bla CTX-M-125 by CTX-M-9, bla DHA-1 by DHA, and bla MIR-7 and bla ACT-15,17,18,25,27,28 by EBC (MIR/ACT). CONCLUSIONS: There were no epidemiological relationships between the gene products and the occurrence of resistance among the strains.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Aztreonam , Cefotaxime , Ceftazidime , Cloaca , Clone Cells , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Enterobacter cloacae , Enterobacter , Korea , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 706-714, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1 × 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1 × 109 cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Enterobacter/physiology , Antibiosis , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Botrytis/growth & development , Botrytis/physiology , Enterobacter/classification , Enterobacter/genetics , Alternaria/growth & development , Alternaria/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Fusarium/growth & development , Fusarium/physiology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 509-514, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889143

ABSTRACT

Abstract The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest® (bioMérieux), Vitek 2® automated system (bioMérieux) and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/genetics , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Polymyxin B/pharmacology
8.
Rev. ADM ; 74(1): 40-45, ene.-feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869351

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el material usado para fabricar aparatos protésicos parciales o totales es el polimetilmetacrilato, el cual forma una superficie sólida que se encuentra en íntimo contacto con la mucosa bucal del paciente, esta superfi cie puede presentar defectos (poros, grietas e irregularidades), que se producen al momento de su elaboracióny varían según la técnica de procesado, actuando como reservorios que contribuyen a la adherencia y proliferación de microorganismos,dentro de los cuales, el más frecuentemente aislado en pacientesportadores de prótesis es Candida albicans. Objetivo: Identifi car lasbacterias presentes en la superfi cie de una resina acrílica para base dedentadura (ProBase Hot®, Ivoclar, Vivadent). Material y métodos: Se seleccionaron 10 pacientes de ambos sexos, entre 25 y 30 años de edad que acudían a la clínica de prótesis. Las impresiones de alginato de los pacientes se utilizaron para crear modelos de yeso, que luegoconfeccionaron paladares de acrílico termocurado que los pacientes llevaban por un periodo de 24 horas. Una muestra del acrílico se tomóposteriormente para fi nes de identifi cación bacteriológica. El análisisestadístico consistió en estadística descriptiva con la distribución defrecuencia y porcentajes, realizando tablas de contingencia y respuestamúltiple (Programa IBM SPSS STATISTICS 21.0). Resultados: Labacteria identifi cada mayor número de veces fue Klebsiella pneumoniae,mientras que de las aisladas en menor frecuencia correspondió tanto a Escherichia coli como a Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa en tres oportunidades, seguido de Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus alfa hemolítico y Streptococcus hyicus solo un par de veces. Conclusiones: La resina acrílica usada en este estudio diopositivo a diferentes especies bacterianas y las más frecuentementeaisladas pertenecen a la familia de las enterobacterias.


Introduction: the material most commonly used to make full orpartial prosthetic dental appliances is polymethyl methacrylate, whichprovides a solid surface that is in close contact with the patient’s oralmucosa. During the production of the dental prosthetic, defects suchas holes, cracks, and other irregularities can appear on this surface(depending on the method used), which act as reservoirs that stimulatethe proliferation of microorganisms and make it easier for these toadhere to the surface. The most frequently isolated microorganism indenture wearers is Candida albicans. Objective: To identify the bacteriapresent on the acrylic resin surface of dentures bases (ProBase Hot®,Ivoclar, Vivadent). Material and methods: 10 subjects of both sexesaged between 25 and 30 years were selected from among patientsattending a prosthodontics clinic. Alginate impressions of the patientswere used to create plaster molds, which were then used to constructheat-cured acrylic resin palatal plates that the patients wore for aperiod of 24 hours. A sample of the acrylic was subsequently takenfor bacteriological identifi cation purposes. Statistical analysis wasperformed based on a descriptive analysis of frequency distributionand percentages, and crossover and multiple response tables created(IBM SPSS STATISTICS 21.0 software). Results: The most frequentlyidentifi ed bacterium in this study was Klebsiella pneumoniae, whilethe least frequently isolated were Escherichia coli and Enterobactercloacae (once each), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in three cases),and Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic andStreptococcus hyicus (two each). Conclusions: The acrylic resin usedin this study tested positive for various bacterial species, the mostfrequently isolated of these belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Bacterial Adhesion , Stomatitis, Denture/microbiology , Acrylic Resins/adverse effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Enterobacter/classification , Enterobacter/growth & development , Mexico , Statistical Analysis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81401

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the impact of revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for broad-spectrum cephalosporins (BSCs) on the susceptibilities of 1,742 isolates of Enterobacter species, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. The 2011 CLSI criteria for cefotaxime and ceftazidime reduced the rates of susceptibility by 2.9% and 5.9%, respectively. The 2014 CLSI criteria for cefepime reduced the rate of susceptibility by 13.9%, and categorized 11.8% isolates as susceptible-dose dependent (SDD) for cefepime. Among 183 isolates with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, implementation of the new criteria reduced the rates of susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime by 2.8%, 14.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The proportion of ESBL phenotype among BSC-susceptible isolates was low (0.9% for cefotaxime, 3.0% for ceftazidime, and 3.3% for cefepime). In summary, implementation of new CLSI criteria led to little change in susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime but a substantial change in susceptibility to cefepime. The recognition of revised CLSI criteria for BSC and SDD will help clinicians to select the optimal antibiotic and dosing regimen.


Subject(s)
Cefotaxime , Ceftazidime , Cephalosporins , Citrobacter freundii , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae , Morganella morganii , Phenotype , Serratia marcescens
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152584

ABSTRACT

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.


Subject(s)
Candida , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Colon , Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Estrogens , Female , Glycogen , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillus , Microbiota , Odorants , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Probiotics , Progesterone , Vagina , Vaginal Discharge , Vaginal Diseases , Vaginosis, Bacterial
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the performance of the modified Hodge test (MHT), Triton Hodge test (THT), Carba NP test (CNPt), simplified Carba NP test (CNPt-direct), blue-Carba NP test (BCT), and carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) for rapid and accurate carbapenemase detection. METHODS: The methods were evaluated by using 256 gram-negative isolates, including 197 Enterobacteriaceae (79 Enterobacter spp., 74 Klebsiella spp., 33 Escherichia coli, 10 Citrobacter spp., and 1 Serratia marcescens), 51 Acinetobacter baumannii, and 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The collection included 117 non-carbapenemase, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) producers, 46 New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDM) producers, 11 imipenemases (IMP) producers, and 51 oxacillinases (OXA) producers, and 13 strains harboring two different carbapenemase genes. RESULTS: The specificity of the THT (91.5%) was significantly lower than other methods, each of which had 100% specificity (P0.999). Because of improved detection of NDM carriers, THT showed significantly higher sensitivity than the MHT (84.9% vs 75.5%, P<0.001). However, poor performances in detecting OXA still influenced the sensitivities of the CNPt (66.2%) and BCT (82.0%), as well as the MHT and THT. CONCLUSIONS: CNPt-direct and CIM demonstrated the best performance for the efficient detection of carbapenemase among the six evaluated methods. Except the MHT and THT, the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by all the other methods was acceptable, when the OXA-type carbapenemase was not prevalent.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Citrobacter , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Methods , Neptune , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serratia
12.
HU rev ; 43(3): 199-203, jul-set 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946567

ABSTRACT

O crescente aumento de bactérias multirresistentes no ambiente hospitalar e a falta de opções terapêuticas a curto e médio prazo tem se tornado um grande desafio para o controle das infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde. As infecções por enterobactérias produtoras de Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), vem se destacando como a de maior risco para os pacientes debilitados que internam nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTIs). O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a prevalência de KPC em culturas de vigilância epidemiológica de amostras de swab retal de pacientes internados nas UTI´s adulto, neonatal e pediátrica de um Hospital de Ensino de Minas Gerais, no período de janeiro a julho de 2014. Realizou-se um estudo transversal descritivo retrospectivo onde os dados foram analisados a partir dos registros dos livros do laboratório de microbiologia do hospital. Este estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa número do parecer 948.342. Foram analisadas 422 amostras de swab retal, sendo que 367 (86,9%) eram provenientes das UTIs adulto e 55 (13%) da UTI neonatal e pediátrica. Foram positivas para KPC 31 (7,3%) das quais 21 eram da UTI adulto e 10 da UTI neonatal e pediátrica. Das 31 culturas positivas para KPC uma (3%) foi em Escherichia coli, quatro (13%) em Enterobacter sp e 26 (84%) em Klebsiella pneumoniae. A detecção laboratorial de enterobactérias produtoras de KPC exprime a importância das culturas de vigilância epidemiológica na rotina como medida de prevenção e controle da disseminação desses microrganismos multirresistentes, principalmente nas UTIs.


The increasing number of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the hospital environment and the lack of treatment options in the short and medium term have become a major challenge for the control of infections related to health care. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have emerged as the highest risk for debilitated patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of KPC in epidemiological surveillance cultures of samples of rectal swab of patients admitted to the adult, neonatal and pediatric ICUs, of a teaching hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil in the period from January to July 2014. We conducted a retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study in which data were analyzed from the records of the hospital's microbiology lab books. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee, protocol number 948 342. 422 samples of rectal swab were analyzed, of which 367 (86.9%) were from the adult ICU's and 55 (13%) of neonatal and pediatric ICU. Thirty-one samples (7.3%) were positive for KPC, 21 in adult ICU and 10 in neonatal and pediatric ICU. Of the 31 positive cultures for KPC, one (3%) was for Escherichia coli, four (13%) for Enterobacter sp. and 26 (84%) for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Laboratory detection of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae expresses the importance of routine epidemiological surveillance cultures as a preventive and control measure for the spread of these multiresistant microorganisms, especially in ICUs.


Subject(s)
Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Delivery of Health Care , Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Disease Prevention , Epidemiological Monitoring , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Hospitals, Teaching , Intensive Care Units
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 127 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-874921

ABSTRACT

Os carbapenêmicos são os antimicrobianos mais amplamente utilizados no tratamento empírico de infecções graves por bacilos Gram-negativos. A pressão seletiva gerada pelo uso desses antimicrobianos ao longo das últimas três décadas contribuiu para a disseminação de enterobactérias e Gram-negativos não fermentadores produtores de carbapenemases, particularmente as do tipo KPC e NDM. Os genes que codificam essas enzimas usualmente estão localizados em plasmídeos e/ou transpósons. A hipótese atualmente mais aceita é que o gene blaNDM-1 seja uma quimera criada em Acinetobacter baumannii. A NDM-1 foi descrita em paciente proveniente da Índia e subsequentemente evidenciou-se sua ampla disseminação nesse país. A epidemiologia que tem sido observada nos casos detectados na Europa e Estados Unidos tem sido viagem à Índia, ou seja, sem casos autóctones. No Brasil, os primeiros casos foram identificados no Rio Grande do Sul, e a seguir no Rio de Janeiro e em São Paulo. Diferentemente dos casos da Europa e América do Norte, os casos do Brasil não tem relação epidemiológica com a Índia. O sequenciamento integral dos plasmídeos e cromossomos albergando o gene blaNDM permitirá entender como ocorre a disseminação desse mecanismo de resistência no Brasil. Para isso, foi avaliado o perfil de susceptibilidade dos isolados, bem como a capacidade conjugativa e clonalidade. Das vinte e oito amostras utilizadas neste trabalho, treze delas pertencem à espécie Enterobacter hormaechei, uma à espécie Citrobacter freundii, sete à espécie Escherichia coli, quatro à Klebsiella pneumoniae e três ao gênero Acinetobacter spp. Os primeiros isolados incluídos neste estudo (Escherichia coli e Enterobacter hormaechei produzindo NDM-1) foram isolados em agosto de 2013, de uma mesma amostra de swab retal de um paciente do Rio de Janeiro que nunca viajou para o exterior. O sequenciamento completo do DNA plasmidial utilizando a plataforma Illumina e a anotação de ambos os plasmídeos albergando o gene blaNDM-1 revelou que estes pertencem a grupos de incompatibilidade diferentes, IncFIIK (E. hormaechei) e IncX3 (E. coli), e abrigam um novo transpóson composto designado Tn3000. A comparação da sequência nucleotídica do Tn3000 com aquelas disponíveis no GenBank evidencia que a mesma estrutura está presente em plasmídeos de isolados da cidade de Porto Alegre e também em diferentes continentes. As espécies de Acinetobacter (A. radioresistens, A. ursingii e A. guillouiae) isoladas em São Paulo e Porto Alegre, possuem o gene blaNDM-1 albergados em um mesmo plasmídeo não tipável de 41.087 pb. A avaliação da clonalidade dos isolados de Enterobacter hormaechei "subsp. oharae" mostrou dois perfis diferentes através da técnica de PFGE, sendo que todos os microrganismos foram isolados de um surto no mesmo hospital no Rio de Janeiro. Isolados de Klebsiella pneumoniae de uma mesma paciente internada em hospital em Salvador, de sítios distintos - swab retal, hemocultura e urina, em ordem cronológica - obtiveram o mesmo perfil clonal pela técnica de PFGE. O mesmo ocorreu com três isolados de Escherichia coli, de um mesmo paciente do Rio de Janeiro, em amostras de swab retal. Os achados deste estudo evidenciam que no Brasil, Nepal, Marrocos e Índia há uma disseminação do gene blaNDM-1 mediada por um novo elemento móvel designado Tn3000 em enterobactérias. A detecção de um mesmo plasmídeo em diferentes espécies de Acinetobacter evidencia que neste gênero bacteriano, no Brasil, a disseminação do gene blaNDM-1 ocorre por conjugação.


Carbapenems are the antimicrobials most widely used in the empirical treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. The selective pressure generated by the use of these antibiotics over the last three decades has contributed to the spread of enterobacteria and Gram-negative non-fermenting producing carbapenemases, mainly KPC and NDM. Genes encoding these enzymes are usually located in plasmids and/or transposons. Currently the most accepted hypothesis is that the blaNDM-1 gene is a chimera created in Acinetobacter baumannii. The NDM-1 was described in a patient from India and subsequently was reported to be broadly disseminate in this country. The epidemiology that has been observed in cases detected in Europe and United States is traveling to India, but no autochthonous cases. In Brazil, the first cases were identified in Rio Grande do Sul, and then in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Differently from the cases described in Europe and North America, the cases from Brazil have no epidemiological link with India. The complete sequencing of plasmids and chromosomes harboring blaNDM gene will understanding how the dissemination of this resistance mechanism in Brazil occurs. In this work we will be evaluate the susceptibility profile of the isolates, and their conjugal capacity and clonality. Of the twenty-eight samples used in this study, thirteen of them belong to the species Enterobacter hormaechei, one to Citrobacter freundii, seven to Escherichia coli, four to Klebsiella pneumoniae and three to the genus Acinetobacter sp. The first two isolates included in this study (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter hormaechei) were isolated in August 2013, from the same rectal swab sample from a patient from Rio de Janeiro that never traveled abroad. Complete sequencing of plasmid DNA using Illumina platform and annotation of both plasmids harboring the blaNDM-1 gene revealed that they belong to different incompatibility groups, IncFIIK (E. hormaechei) and IncX3 (E. coli), and are harbor to a new transposon designated Tn3000. The comparison of the Tn3000 nucleotide sequence with those available at GenBank shows that the same structure is present in plasmids from other Porto Alegre and also in different continents. The Acinetobacter species (A. radioresistens, A. ursingii and A. guillouiae) isolated in São Paulo and Porto Alegre, have the blaNDM-1 gene harbored in a single non-typing plasmid of 41,087 bp. The evaluation of clonal relationship of Enterobacter hormaechei "subsp. oharae" showed two different profiles by PFGE technique; of note all microorganisms were isolated from an outbreak in the same hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from a single patient hospitalized in Salvador, from different anatomical sites - rectal swab, blood culture and urine, in chronological order - obtained the same clonal profile by the PFGE technique. The same occurred with three Escherichia coli isolates, from the same patient from Rio de Janeiro, in swab rectal strains. Our findings suggest that in Brazil, Nepal, Morocco and India there is a spread of blaNDM-1 gene mediated by Tn3000 in enterobacteria. The detection of a same plasmid in different species of Acinetobacter shows that in this bacterial genus, in Brazil, the dissemination of the blaNDM-1 gene occurs by conjugation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genotype , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Phenotype , Citrobacter freundii , Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786718

ABSTRACT

The role of infectious agents in the etiology of inflammatory diseases once believed to be non-infectious is increasingly being recognized. Many bacterial components in the indoor dust can evoke inflammatory lung diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, so-called extracellular vesicles (EV). which are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory diseases. Microbiota compositions in the indoor dust revealed the presence of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Escherichia coli is a model organism of Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae. The repeated inhalation of E. coli-derived EVs caused neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema in a dose-dependent manner. The emphysema induced by E. coli-derived EVs was partially eliminated by the absence of Interferon-gamma or interleukin-17, suggesting that Th1 and/or Th17 cell responses are important in the emphysema development. Meanwhile, the repeated inhalation of Staphylococcus aureus-derived EVs did not induce emphysema, although they induced neutrophilic inflammation in the lung. In terms of microbial EV compositions in the indoor dust, genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Staphylococcus were dominant. As for the clinical significance of sensitization to EVs in the indoor dust, EV sensitization was closely associated with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and lung cancer. These data indicate that biological ultrafine particles in the indoor dust, which are mainly composed of microbial EVs, are important in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases associated with neutrophilic inflammation. Taken together, microbial EVs in the indoor dust are an important diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of chronic lung diseases, such as asthma, COPD, and lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Asthma , Bacteria , Dust , Emphysema , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Extracellular Vesicles , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Inflammation , Inhalation , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-17 , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Microbiota , Neutrophils , Particulate Matter , Pseudomonas , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Staphylococcus , Th17 Cells
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 578-583, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828036

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of proinflammatory (RANKL, TNF-a and IFN-g) and regulatory (TGF-b and IL-10) cytokines as reaction to experimental infection by mono or bi-association of Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433). F. nucleatum and E. faecalis, either in mono- or bi-association were inoculated into the root canal system (RCS) of Balb/c mice. Animals were sacrificed at 10 and 20 days after infection and periapical tissues surrounding the root were collected. The mRNA expression of the cytokines RANKL, TNF-a, IFN- g, TGF-b and IL-10 was assessed using real-time PCR. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. F. nucleatum mono-infection induced high expression of RANKL and TNF-a, while its modulation was due to IL-10. High expression of IFN-g at day 20 was up-regulated by E. faecalis and RANKL; TNF-a was up-regulated by an independent mechanism via IL-10 and TGF-b. Bi-association (F. nucleatum and E. faecalis) stimulated high expression of RANKL, TNF-a and IFN-g, which seemed to be modulated by TGF-b 20 days later. The gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines was more prominent in the earlier periods of the experimental periapical infection, which concomitantly decreased in the later period. This expression may be regulated by IL-10 and TGF-b in an infection-specific condition


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão gênica de citocinas pró-inflamatórias (RANKL, TNF-a e IFN-g) e regulatórias (TGF-b e IL-10) em resposta à infecção experimental por Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953) e Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433) como mono-infecção ou em bi-associação. F. nucleatum e E. faecalis foram inoculados no sistema de canais radiculares de camundongos Balb/c, tanto isoladas como em bi-associação. Os animais foram sacrificados em 10 e 20 dias após a infecção, e os tecidos periapicais foram coletados. As expressões do mRNA das citocinas RANKL, TNF-a, IFN-g, TGF-b e IL-10 foram analisadas por meio do real-time PCR. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para análise estatística. A mono-infecção com F. nucleatum induziu alta expressão de RANKL e TNF-a, enquanto sua modulação ocorreu devido à IL-10. A alta expressão de IFN-g no dia 20 foi regulada positivamente por E. faecalis e RANKL; TNF-a foi regulada positivamente por um mecanismo independente via IL-10 e TGF-b. A bi-associação (F. nucleatum e E. faecalis) estimulou uma alta expressão de RANKL, TNF-a e IFN-g, que parece ser modulada por TGF-b após 20 dias. A expressão gênica de citocinas pró-inflamatórias foi mais proeminente nos estágios iniciais da infecção periapical experimental, com concomitante redução no período tardio. Este fenômeno pode ser regulado por IL-10 e TGF-b em uma condição de infecção específica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/pathology , Enterobacter/metabolism , Fusobacterium nucleatum/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 584-588, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828042

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy and surface tension of established irrigating solutions with a new experimental chelating solution in infected dentin tubes. Twenty-five specimens were randomly assigned to each of the irrigating solutions. Twenty specimens were used as negative and positive controls. After 21 days of contamination with E. faecalis, the irrigating solutions MTAD, QMiX and Tetraclean NA were delivered into each infected root canal. The solutions were removed and dentin samples were withdrawn from the root canals with sterile low-speed round burs with increasing ISO diameters. The dentin powder samples obtained with each bur were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing 3 mL of BHI broth. After that, 100 μL from each test tube was cultured on blood agar. The grown colonies were counted and recorded as colony-forming units (CFU). The surface tension of the irrigants was measured using a Cahn DCA-322 Dynamic Contact Angle Analyzer. A Kruskal Wallis nonparametric ANOVA and a Friedman test were used (p<0.05). Tetraclean NA showed lower surface tension and CFU values than MTAD and QMiX. Better antibacterial action and low surface tension were observed for Tetraclean NA, probably due to the improved penetration into the root canal and dentinal tubes


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a eficácia antimicrobiana e tensão superficial de soluções irrigadoras e uma nova solução quelante em tubos de dentina infectada. Vinte e cinco espécimes foram aleatoriamente distribuídos conforme as soluções irrigantes. Decorrifdos 21 dias de contaminação com E. faecalis, a soluções de irrigação MTAD, QMiX e Tetraclean NA foram distribuídas em cada canal radicular infectado. As soluções foram removidas e as amostras de dentina foram retiradas dos canais radiculares com brocas esféricas de baixa velocidade com diâmetros ISO sucessivamente maiores. As amostras do pó de dentina obtidas com cada broca foram imediatamente colocadas em tubos de ensaio separados contendo 3 mL de caldo BHI. A seguir, 100 μL de cada amostra do tubo de teste foi cultivada em agar de sangue. As colônias crescidas foram contadas e registadas como unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC). A tensão superficial das soluções irrigantes foi medida utilizando o método de Wilhelmy. A análise não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Friedman foram utilizados (p<0,05). Tetraclean NA apresentou menor tensão de superfície e menores valores de UFC do que MTAD e QMiX. A melhor ação antibacteriana e baixa tensão superficial foram observadas para Tetraclean NA, provavelmente devido à melhor penetração no canal radicular e túbulos dentinários.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Surface Tension , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Enterobacter/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 116-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158392

ABSTRACT

The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 mM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 M of Ca2+; 50 M of Fe2+ and 60 M of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.


Subject(s)
Arachis/drug effects , Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/metabolism , Enterobacter/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/growth & development
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65436

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study we investigated pathogenic organisms, antibiotic susceptibility, and clinical characteristics of patients with Gram-negative bacterial keratitis and elucidated risk factors for poor visual outcomes. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective chart review of 161 eyes (169 isolates) with Gram-negative bacterial keratitis between January 1998 and December 2012 at Yeungnam University Hospital. The study was divided into 5 periods for analysis of the bacteriological profiles and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics were compared according to 3 groups (Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species, and Serratia marcescens). Additionally, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of Gram-negative organisms increased from 34.7 to 73.2% between the 1st and 5th periods (p < 0.001). Pseudomonas spp. was the most commonly isolated organism (55 eyes, 32.5%) over the total period, followed by Enterobacter spp. (41 eyes, 24.3%) and Serratia marcescens (33 eyes, 19.5%). The effective antibiotics against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens isolated from culture were cefepime (94.5%), levofloxacin (93.4%), ciprofloxacin (93.0%), and amikacin (92.3%). The incidence was higher in the elderly over 60 years of age and in early adulthood patients in their 20s and 30s. The frequent predisposing factors were contact lens wearing and corneal trauma. S. marcescens had the shortest corneal epithelium healing time (p = 0.012) and the most favorable visual outcome after treatment (p = 0.004) compared with the other species. Risk factors for poor visual outcomes included a best corrected visual acuity less than 0.1 at initial evaluation (p < 0.001) and central corneal lesion (p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Gram-negative bacterial keratitis tended to increase and Pseudomonas spp. was the most common isolate. The clinical prognosis was most favorable in S. marcescens. Early diagnosis of Gram-negative bacterial keratitis and appropriate antibiotic selection including cefepime, quinolone, or amikacin are recommended.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amikacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Causality , Ciprofloxacin , Early Diagnosis , Enterobacter , Epithelium, Corneal , Humans , Incidence , Keratitis , Levofloxacin , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pseudomonas , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Serratia , Serratia marcescens , Visual Acuity
19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 223-226, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128361

ABSTRACT

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that consists of various species. Among these, members of the genus Cedecea has been reported as relatively rare causative pathogens of human infections. Commercially available automated identification systems that use biochemical reactions are known to accurately identify Enterobacteriaceae species. However, the accurate identification of some organisms with diverse biochemical profiles by these automated identification systems may be problematic. In this study, we report two cases of isolate misidentification, from patients with acute cholecystitis and deep vein thrombosis, as Cedecea davisae with VITEK II system. Both the isolates were correctly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei using gyrB gene sequence analysis. We also performed 16S rRNA sequence analyses and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses; however, indeterminate results were obtained from both the assays. Therefore, the sequence analysis of alternative genes, like gyrB, might be useful for accurate identification of species that belong to the family of Enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Cholecystitis, Acute , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Sequence Analysis , Venous Thrombosis
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1309-1315, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741281

ABSTRACT

The present study proposed the isolation of arsenic resistant bacteria from wastewater. Only three bacterial isolates (MNZ1, MNZ4 and MNZ6) were able to grow in high concentrations of arsenic. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic against MNZ1, MNZ4 and MNZ6 were 300 mg/L, 300 mg/L and 370 mg/L respectively. The isolated strains showed maximum growth at 37 ºC and at 7.0 pH in control but in arsenite stress Luria Bertani broth the bacterial growth is lower than control. All strains were arsenite oxidizing. All strains were biochemically characterized and ribotyping (16S rRNA) was done for the purpose of identification which confirmed that MNZ1 was homologous to Enterobacter sp. while MNZ4 and MNZ6 showed their maximum homology with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The protein profiling of these strains showed in arsenic stressed and non stressed conditions, so no bands of induced proteins appeared in stressed conditions. The bacterial isolates can be exploited for bioremediation of arsenic containing wastes, since they seem to have the potential to oxidize the arsenite (more toxic) into arsenate (less toxic) form.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Arsenic/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacter/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Waste Water/microbiology , Arsenites/metabolism , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Enterobacter/classification , Enterobacter/growth & development , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oxidation-Reduction , Proteome/analysis , Ribotyping , /genetics , Temperature
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