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1.
Infectio ; 25(1): 67-70, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154406

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por enterobacterias desencadena usualmente síntomas gastrointestinales caracterizados por vómito, diarrea y dolor abdominal, de severidad y curso variable. El compromiso extraintestinal esta descrito, inclusive sin las manifestaciones gastrointestinales clásicas lo que favorece diagnósticos y tratamientos tardíos pudiendo llegar a ser incapacitantes y letales. El síndrome de Ekiri, también denominado síndrome de encefalopatía letal tóxico, se caracteriza por una disfunción aguda del sistema nervioso central secundaria a infección por enterobacterias las cuales favorecen el desarrollo de microtrombos a nivel cerebral con inflamación mediada por el factor de necrosis tumoral α e IL- 1β y disfunción de la barrera hematoencefálica con una alta tasa de mortalidad. Dentro de nuestro conocimiento, presentamos el primer caso reportado en Colombia sobre el síndrome de Ekiri.


Abstract Gastrointestinal infection usually manifests with nausea, vomit and abdominal pain, all of them wit course and variable severity. Extrainstestinal compromise is described, even without gastrointestinal symptoms, what causes a delay on diagnosis and treatment, worsening the prognosis. Ekiri syndrome, also known as lethal toxic encephalopathy is characterized by an acute neurological dysfunction secondary to enterobacterial infection which favor thrombi development and local inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1β with blood brain barrier dysfunction and high mortality. As we know, we present the first Ekiri syndrome case reported in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Brain Diseases , Syndrome , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Diarrhea , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Escherichia coli , Nausea
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06696, 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340354

ABSTRACT

The grey-breasted parakeet (Pyrrhura griseipectus) is an endangered psittacine species that have been affected by illegal trade and deforestation. Currently, this endemic species is only found in three areas in Ceará state, in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and diversity of Enterobacteriaceae in wild adult grey-breasted parakeets and determine their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Cloacal swab samples were collected from 27 individuals and environmental swabs (drag swabs) from five nests used by these birds. Twenty-seven strains from nine species of Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from cloacal swabs, and the most prevalent bacteria strains were Hafnia alvei (22%) and Pantoea agglomerans (22%). From environmental nest samples, seven strains from three bacterial species were isolated, being the P. agglomerans the most frequent species (100%). Twenty-two of the 27 isolates (81.4%) exhibited antibiotic resistance, varying from one to eight of the 12 antimicrobials commonly used. Resistance to amoxicillin was the most prevalent (70.4%), followed by azithromycin (22.2%) and ceftriaxone (18.5%). None of the strains were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin or tetracycline. The H. alvei was the main species presenting multidrug resistance, including resistance against meropenem, which is an important finding. These results could provide interesting information on the health of these endangered wild grey-breasted parakeets. They could also indicate that the obtained isolates are part of a group of bacteria that are typical components of the enteric microbiota of birds, which present elevated rates of resistance to amoxicillin.(AU)


O periquito-de-cara-suja (Pyrrhura griseipectus) é uma espécie de psitacídeo considerado pela IUCN como ameaçado de extinção, resultado do comércio ilegal e do desmatamento. Atualmente, essa espécie endêmica é encontrada apenas em três áreas no estado do Ceará, Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a frequência e a diversidade de Enterobacteriaceae em periquitos de peito cinza adultos selvagens e determinar sua suscetibilidade a agentes antimicrobianos. Amostras de suabes cloacais foram coletadas de 27 indivíduos e de suabes ambientais (suabes de arrasto) de cinco ninhos utilizados por essas aves. Vinte e sete cepas de nove espécies de Enterobacteriaceae foram isoladas a partir de suabes cloacais, sendo as cepas bacterianas mais prevalentes Hafnia alvei (22%) e Pantoea agglomerans (22%). Das amostras ambientais de ninhos foram isoladas sete linhagens de três espécies bacterianas, sendo P. agglomerans a espécie mais frequente (100%). Vinte e dois dos 27 isolados (81,4%) exibiram resistência a antibióticos, variando de um a oito dos 12 antimicrobianos comumente usados. A resistência a amoxicilina foi a mais prevalente (70,4%), seguida por azitromicina (22,2%) e ceftriaxona (18,5%). Nenhuma das cepas era resistente à gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina ou tetraciclina. H. alvei foi a principal espécie que apresentou resistência a múltiplas drogas e que também esteve associada a um outro achado relevante desta pesquisa, que foi a detecção de um caso de resistência ao meropenem. Esses dados fornecem informações relevantes sobre a saúde desses periquitos selvagens ameaçados e permite concluir que os isolados obtidos fazem parte de um grupo de bactérias que normalmente compõe a microbiota entérica das aves, sendo a amoxicilina envolvida em elevadas taxas de resistência.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parakeets/microbiology , Parrots/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Animals, Wild , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20190524, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136925

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aac(6')-Ib-cr and bla KPC genes are spreading among Enterobacteriaceae species, including Providencia stuartii, in some countries of world. METHODS: These genes were investigated in 28 P. stuartii isolates from a public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was detected in 16 resistant isolates, and the bla KPC gene was seen in 14. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of these genes in P. stuartii multi- and extensively drug-resistant isolates indicates that the resistance arsenal of this species is increasing, thus limiting the therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Plasmids , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Providencia , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(2): e273, jul.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156599

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Cronobacter sakazakii es una bacteria Gram negativa que pertenece a un grupo emergente de patógenos oportunistas de la familia de los Enterococos, que causa infecciones nosocomiales. Afecta típicamente a los recién nacidos de bajo peso; puede causar graves infecciones como meningitis, sepsis o enterocolitis necrotizante, potencialmente mortales, aunque la gran mayoría de las infecciones se producen en pacientes ancianos, en los que son mucho más leves. Se reporta el primer caso confirmado de infección de herida quirúrgica en España causada por C. sakazakii en un adulto inmunocompetente(AU)


ABSTRACT Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram negative bacterium that belongs to an emerging group of opportunistic pathogens of the Enterococci family, which causes nosocomial infections. It typically affects low birth weight newborns. It can cause serious infections such as meningitis, sepsis, or life-threatening necrotizing enterocolitis, although the vast majority of infections occur in elderly patients, where they are much milder. We report the first confirmed case of surgical wound infection in Spain, caused by C. sakazakii in an immunocompetent adult(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/etiology , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fibula/injuries , Open Fracture Reduction/adverse effects
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e516, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156536

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tratamiento de las infecciones por Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de carbapenemasa tipo KPC es complicado debido a las escasas opciones terapéuticas existentes, lo cual obliga a optimizar los esquemas terapéuticos disponibles. Objetivo: Determinar la concordancia de la tarjeta AST-N272 del Sistema Vitek 2 Compact y las tiras M.I.C.ETM Evaluator con la dilución en agar para la determinación de la concentración mínima inhibitoria del meropenem en Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de carbapenemasa tipo KPC. Métodos: Se estudiaron 53 aislados de K. pneumoniae bla KPC positivas no clonales, provenientes de hisopados rectales recolectados en diferentes unidades hospitalarias de Guayaquil, Ecuador, entre enero a junio de 2016. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria de meropenem por dilución en agar (método de referencia), así como por el sistema Vitek 2 Compact (AST-N272) y las tiras M.I.C.ETM. Se determinó la CMI 50, CMI 90 y la concordancia esencial. Resultados: El rango de la CMI de meropenem de los aislados estudiados fue de 1 a ≥ 32 µg/mL, con una CMI50= 4 µg/mL y una CMI90= ≥ 32 µg/mL. El 86,79 por ciento (n= 46) de los aislados tuvo una CMI≤ 8 µg/mL. Se observó un 94,33 por ciento de concordancia esencial con las tiras M.I.C.ETM, mientras que la tarjeta AST-N272 mostró una concordancia esencial inferior al 50 por ciento. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren posibles implicaciones en el tratataminto del paciente, pues reduce opciones terapéuticas en contextos de difícil manejo. Además, resaltan la necesidad de la confirmación de la resistencia a carbapenémicos mediante el método de Kirby Bawer en aquellos laboratorios que tienen métodos automatizados para estudios de susceptibilidad(AU)


Introduction: The treatment for KPC carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is complicated, due to the scant therapeutic options available, which forces us to optimize the therapies at hand. Objective: Determine the agreement between the AST-N272 card of the Vitek 2 Compact system and the M.I.C.E.TM Evaluator strips, and the agar dilution method for determination of the minimum inhibitory meropenem concentration in KPC carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: A study was conducted of 53 positive non-clonal K. pneumoniae bla KPC isolates from rectal swabs collected at several hospitals in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from January to June 2016. Minimum inhibitory meropenem concentration was determined by agar dilution (reference method), the Vitek 2 Compact system (AST-N272) and M.I.C.E.TM strips. Determination was made of MIC 50, MIC 90 and essential agreement. Results: The meropenem MIC range for the isolates studied was 1 to ≥ 32 µg/ml, with MIC50= 4 µg/ml and MIC90= ≥ 32 µg/ml. In 86.79 percent (n= 46) of the isolates MIC was ≤ 8 µg/ml. Essential agreement was 94.33 percent with the M.I.C.E.TM strips and under 50 percent with the AST-N272 card. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest potential implications for the treatment of patients, since therapeutic options are reduced in difficult management contexts. They also highlight the need for confirmation of carbapenem resistance by the Kirby-Bauer procedure in laboratories equipped with automated methods for susceptibility studies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Ecuador
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1277-1285, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131473

ABSTRACT

Foram padronizados os graus de lesões dos sacos aéreos em perus com aerossaculite, associadas com a presença de isolados de enterobactérias nesses órgãos. Um total de 110 amostras de sacos aéreos de perus machos com aerossaculite foi coletado para o estudo. Durante o processo de abate, as amostras foram coletadas por meio de swabs e submetidas a três métodos de armazenamento (imediato, congelado ou pré-incubado após congelamento) para posterior comparação das suas eficiências de isolamento. Os gêneros da família Enterobacteriaceae foram identificados pelas séries bioquímicas EPM, MILi e citrato de Simmons. O crescimento bacteriano ocorreu em 43,64% das amostras. Neste estudo, quatro padrões de lesões de aerossaculite foram identificados de acordo com as características patológicas dos sacos aéreos. Os principais gêneros de enterobactérias identificadas foram: Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Proteus, Edwardsiella, Morganella, Kluyvera, Salmonella e Klebsiella. Foi observado que os graus padronizados como 3 e 4 apresentaram maior variedade de gêneros bacterianos. O armazenamento imediato apresentou maior porcentagem de positividade, 41,82%, no entanto o pré-incubado após congelamento se apresentou mais eficaz em relação à quantidade de colônias.(AU)


The degrees of air sac lesions in turkeys with airsacculitis were standardized, associated with the presence of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from these organs. A total of 110 samples of air sacs from male turkeys with airsacculitis were collected and analyzed. During the slaughtering process, the sample collection was done using swabs and submitted to three storage methods (immediate, frozen, or pre incubated after freezing) for further comparison of their isolated efficiency. The bacterial genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were identified biochemical series EPM, MILi and Simmons citrate. Bacterial growth occurred in 43.64% of samples. In this study, four patterns of aerossaculitis lesions were identified according to the pathological characteristics of air sacs. The frequencies of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated identified in the samples were: Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Proteus, Edwardsiella, Morganell, Kluyvera, Salmonella and Klebsiella. Otherwise, it was observed that the levels already standardized as level three and four showed higher variety of genus. The immediate storage showed higher percentage of positivity at 41.82%, however, the pre incubated after freezing showed more efficiency in relation to the quantity of colonies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Turkeys , Air Sacs/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/veterinary , Proteus , Salmonella , Citrobacter , Edwardsiella , Morganella , Kluyvera , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(3): 295-303, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126122

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) suponen un reto para la salud pública y la práctica clínica. Objetivo: Analizar la epidemiología, el tratamiento y la mortalidad en pacientes infectados por EPC. Material y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de 163 pacientes infectados por EPC en un hospital universitario desde julio de 2013 a octubre de 2015. Resultados: Klebsiella pneumoniae fue aislada en 95,1% de los casos, y la mayoría de las carbapenemasas pertenecían al grupo OXA-48 (93%). La adquisición fue nosocomial en 124 casos (77%), asociada a cuidados sanitarios en 30 (18,6%), y 7 (4,3%) fueron de adquisición comunitaria. Las infecciones más frecuentes fueron las del tracto urinario (48,4%) y las respiratorias (19,5%). Aproximadamente, la mitad de los pacientes recibieron monoterapia antimicrobiana. La tasa de mortalidad a los 30 días fue de 23,3%. El análisis multivariante identificó que la presencia de shock séptico al diagnóstico (OR 4,2; IC 95% 1,5-11) estaba asociada de manera independiente con mayor mortalidad en el primer mes, sin lograr identificar asociación con el tratamiento antimicrobiano inapropiado. Discusión: Son necesarios más estudios para aclarar si el tratamiento antimicrobiano de las infecciones por EPC debe ser combinado o si podría ser suficiente la monoterapia en infecciones leves.


Abstract Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has become a significant problem in terms of public health and clinical outcome. Objective: To assess the epidemiology, treatment and mortality in patients with infection due to CPE. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 163 patients with CPE infection was carried out in a university hospital from July 2013 to October 2015. Results: A total of 163 patients were included over the study period. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in 95.1% of cases, and most of carbapenemases belonged to the OXA-48 group (93.0%). Acquisition was nosocomial in 124 cases (77.0%), healthcare-associated in 30 (18.6%), and 7 cases (4.3%) were community-acquired. The most frequent infections identified in this study were urinary tract (48.4%) and respiratory (19.5%) infections. Approximately half of the patients received antibiotic monotherapy. The 30-day mortality rate was 23.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of septic shock at diagnosis (OR 4.2; IC 95% 1.5-11) was independently associated with an increase in death during the first month, unable to identify association with inappropriate antibiotic treatment. Discussion: Further studies are needed to clarify whether antibiotic treatment of EPC infections should be combined or if monotherapy might be sufficient in mild infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Bacterial Proteins , beta-Lactamases , Retrospective Studies , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Infectio ; 23(4): 358-368, Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1019866

ABSTRACT

Abstract The global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has become a public health problem. Not all CPE are resistant to carbapenems creating a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Furthermore, as resistance to carbapenems can also be mediated by other β-lactamases combined with defects in membrane permeability, their detection can be difficult by microbiology laboratories that lack molecular tools, which may limit and often delay the correct antibiotic selection. There is only limited evidence regarding infection control measures to contain the spread of CPE. However, recomendations have been published from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Prevention Center and Disease Control (ECDC). Because of the lack of randomized control trials, treatment regimens are mostly based on observational clinical studies. Several of those studies have reported that combination therapy with two or more in vitro-active agents including a carbapenem is superior to monotherapy. On the other hand, a new β-lactamase inhibitor in combination with ceftazidime has shown clinical efficacy Against KPC and some OXA-type producing Enterobacteriaceae


Resumen La diseminación global de las Enterobacteriaceae productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública. No todas las EPC son resistentes a los carbapenémicos, por lo que representan un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. Adicionalmente, como la resistencia a los carbapenémicos puede ser mediada por otras β-lactamasas en combinación con cambios de la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática, su detección puede ser difícil en laboratorios de microbiología que no cuentan con técnicas de diagnóstico molecular, lo que puede restringir y frecuentemente retrasar el inicio de la terapia antimicrobiana adecuada. La evidencia respecto a las medidas para la contención de las EPC es escasa. Sin embargo, existen recomendaciones por parte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y del European Prevention Center and Disease Control (ECDC). Debido a la ausencia de estudios controlados y aleatorizados, los esquemas terapéuticos se basan en estudios clínicos observacionales. Varios de estos estudios han reportado mejores resultados con la terapia combinada de dos o más agentes activos in vitro, incluyendo a los carbapenémicos, en comparación con la monoterapia. Por otra parte, un nuevo inhibidor de β-lactamasas en combinación con ceftazidime, ha mostrado eficacia clínica contra infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae productoras de KPC y algunas carbapenemasas de tipo OXA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Enterobacteriaceae , Laboratories , Therapeutics , Carbapenems , Ceftazidime , Treatment Outcome , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 433-441, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones causadas por enterobacterias productoras de β-talactamasas de espectro extendido (EP-BLEE) tienen implicaciones sobre la morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de EP-BLEE en sepsis neonatal y los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, desde agosto del 2016 a agosto del 2017. Se incluyeron recién nacidos (RNs) ingresados en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Mediante prueba de difusión de doble disco se indagó la presencia de EP-BLEE y su asociación con características clínicas y demográficas de los RNs. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.501 RNs hospitalizados, con edad gestacional promedio de 36,3 semanas. Se diagnosticaron 196 eventos de sepsis neonatal, la etiología más frecuente fueron enterobacterias (45,5%); 88,8% demostraron resistencia a ampicilina y más de 42% a cefalosporinas de amplio espectro. El 22,9% presentó fenotipo BLEE positivo. Tener Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida (OR 4,6; IC 95% 1,47-14,6) y edad gestacional < 37 semanas (OR 5,4; IC 95%1,04-27,7) incrementaron el riesgo. Conclusión: En las enterobacterias causantes de sepsis neonatal, 22,9% son EP-BLEE; la infección es más probable en pacientes con Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida y en prematuros.


Background: Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases enterobacteria (ESBL-EP) have implications for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To describe the prevalence of ESBL-EP in neonatal sepsis and associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2016 to August 2017; newborn babies (NB) hospitalized in the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" were included. The ESBL-EP were investigated by double-disk synergy test and its association with clinical and demographic characteristics of the NB. Results. A total of 1,501 hospitalized NB were studied, with an average gestational age of 36.3 weeks. They were diagnosed 196 neonatal sepsis events, the most frequent etiologies were enterobacteria (45.5%). Resistance to ampicilin was found in 88.8% and to broad spectrum cephalosporins in more than 42% of the strains; 22.9% of them were ESBL phenotype. Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of life (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.47-14.6) and gestational age < 37 weeks (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.04-27.) increase the risk. Conclusion: In enterobacteria that cause neonatal sepsis, 22.9% were EP-ESBL; infection was more likely in patients with Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of age and in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 201-208, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1002799

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the presence of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family and determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates in canaries bred in northeastern Brazil; in addition, the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) was also verified in these birds. Samples were collected during an exhibition organized by the Brazilian Ornithological Federation in July 2015 in Fortaleza, Brazil. A total of 88 fecal samples were collected and submitted to pre-enrichment step using buffered peptone water, followed by enrichment with the following broths: brain-heart infusion, Rappaport-Vassiliadis, and Selenite-Cystine. Subsequently, aliquots were streaked on MacConkey, brilliant green and salmonella-shigella agar plates. Colonies were selected according to morphological characteristics and submitted to biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests with disk-diffusion technique. E. coli strains were evaluated for the presence of eight DEC genes and five APEC genes through conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. The most frequent species observed were Pantoea agglomerans (25%), Serratia liquefaciens (12.5%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (9.1%). A single rough strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica was identified in one sample (1.1%). High resistance rates to amoxicillin (78.7%) and ampicillin (75.4%) were identified. Polymyxin B (9.8%), gentamycin (6.6%), and enrofloxacin (6.6%) were the most efficient antibiotics. The total number of multidrug-resistant strains (isolates resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes) was 23 (37.7%). Four E. coli strains were tested for the virulence genes, and two were positive for APEC virulence genes: one strain was positive for iutA and the other for hlyF. In conclusion, canaries in northeastern Brazil participating in exhibitions may present Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria in the intestinal microbiota with antimicrobial resistance. These results indicate that, although the E. coli strains recovered from canaries in this study have some virulence genes, they still do not fulfill all the requirements to be considered APEC.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de enterobactérias e determinar o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados oriundos de canários belgas criados em cativeiro do Nordeste do Brasil, adicionalmente verificou-se a presença de Escherichia coli diarreiogênicas (DEC) e E. coli patogênica aviária (APEC) nesses animais. A colheita das amostras ocorreu durante uma exposição de canários belgas organizada pela Federação Ornitológica do Brasil (FOB), em julho de 2015, na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Um total de 88 amostras de fezes foram coletadas e submetidas a pré-enriquecimento utilizando água peptonada, caldo de enriquecimento Brain Heart Infusion, Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Selenito-Cistina. Fez-se triagem em placas de ágar MacConkey, Verde Brilhante e ágar Salmonella Shigella. As colônias foram selecionadas e submetidas à identificação bioquímica e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana. Estirpes de Escherichia coli foram avaliadas quanto a presença de 8 genes de virulência de DEC e cinco de APEC por reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional (PCR). As enterobactérias encontradas com maior frequência foram Pantoea agglomerans (25%), Serratia liquefaciens (12,5%) e Enterobacter aerogenes (9,1%). Uma única estirpe de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (rugosa) esteve presente em um dos isolados (1,1%). Altos percentuais de resistência foram encontrados para dois antibióticos: amoxicilina (78,7%) e ampicilina (75,4%). Polimixina B (9,8%), gentamicina (6,8%) e enrofloxacina (6,5%) foram os antibióticos com melhor eficiência. O total de estirpes multirresistentes (a mais de três classes de antimicrobianos) foi de 23 (37,7%). Das quatro estirpes de E. coli isoladas, duas foram positivas para os genes de APEC, sendo uma estipe para o gene iss e outra para os genes iutA e hlyF. Portanto, canários belgas criados em cativeiro no Brasil que participam de exposições podem apresentar Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli e outras enterobactérias em sua microbiota intestinal com resistência antimicrobiana. Estes resultados indicam que as estirpes de E. coli isoladas de canário belga no presente estudo apresentam alguns, mas não todos, genes de virulência para serem caracterizadas como E. coli patogênica para aves (APEC).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Canaries/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Pantoea/isolation & purification , Serratia liquefaciens/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Virulence , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 102-110, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacteria-producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) play an important role in healthcare infections, increasing hospitalization time, morbidity and mortality rates. Among several ESBLs that emerge from these pathogens, CTX-M-type enzymes had the most successful global spread in different epidemiological settings. Latin America presents high prevalence of CTX-M-2 in ESBL-producing enterobacterial infections with local emergence of the CTX-M-1 group. However, this high prevalence of the CTX-M-1 group has not yet been reported in Chile. The aim of this study was to identify ESBLs among enterobacteria isolated from clinical samples of critically ill patients from southern Chile. One-hundred thirty seven ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from outpatients from all critical patient units from Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital. Phenotype characterization was performed by antibiogram, screening of ESBL, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). PCR was used for genetic confirmation of resistance. Molecular typing was performed by ERIC-PCR. ESBL-producing isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 115), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1), presenting multidrug resistance profiles. PCR amplification showed that the strains were positive for blaSHV (n = 111/81%), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 116/84.7%), blaTEM (n = 100/73%), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 28/20.4%), blaCTX-M-9 (0.7%), blaPER-1 (0.7%), and blaGES-10 (0.7%). The multiple production of ESBL was observed in 93% of isolates, suggesting high genetic mobility independent of the clonal relationship. The high frequency of the CTX-M-1 group and a high rate of ESBL co-production are changing the epidemiology of the ESBL profile in Chilean intensive care units. This epidemiology is a constant and increasing challenge, not only in Chile, but worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genotyping Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 9-15, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003651

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Ertapenem ha demostrado eficacia frente a Enterobacteriaceae productoras de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido, pero carece de actividad contra bacterias no fermentadoras; el desescalamiento a este antimicrobiano cuando no existe la presencia de P. aeruginosa podría reducir la presión selectiva contra esta bacteria y mejorar los resultados clínicos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto clínico del desescalamiento de antimicrobianos con cobertura anti-pseudomonas a ertapenem, un agente sin este espectro, en pacientes críticos con infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo en adultos admitidos a Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo (UCI) con infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae, que habían sido desescalados de una cobertura anti-pseudomonas, a un antimicrobiano sin la misma (ertapenem). Se realizó un modelo de riesgo proporcional de Cox comparando mortalidad por cualquier causa y duración de estancia hospitalaria entre aquellos pacientes que permanecieron con cobertura anti-pseudomonas versus aquellos que fueron desescalados a ertapenem. Resultados: 105 pacientes en el grupo anti-pseudomonas fueron comparados con 148 pacientes del grupo de desescalamiento a ertapenem. El desescalamiento estuvo asociado con una menor mortalidad por cualquier causa comparado con los pacientes que permanecieron con cobertura anti-pseudomonas (hazard ratio ajustado 0,24; IC 95%: 0,12-0,46). La estancia hospitalaria en UCI fue similar en ambos grupos. Discusión: Los pacientes de UCI con infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae desescalados a terapia con ertapenem, tuvieron mejores resultados clínicos comparados con aquellos que permanecieron en terapia anti-pseudomonas, sugiriendo que el desescalamiento es una práctica segura en esta población.


Background: Ertapenem has proven to be effective for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae but lacks activity against non-fermenters; de-escalation to this antibiotic may reduce the selection of resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and improve clinical outcomes. Aim: To evaluate the clinical impact of de-escalation from broad-spectrum anti-pseudomonal agents to ertapenem, a non-pseudomonal antibiotics for Enterobacteriaceae infections in critically-ill patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) who had Enterobacteriaceae infections and were de-escalated from empiric anti-pseudomonal coverage to non-pseudomonal antibiotics. Cox proportional hazards models were performed comparing all-cause mortality and length of hospital stay between patients who remained on anti-pseudomonal coverage versus those who were de-escalated to ertapenem. Results: 105 patients in the anti-pseudomonal group were compared to 148 patients in the ertapenem de-escalation group. De-escalation was associated with lower all-cause mortality compared to patients who remained on anti-pseudomonal coverage (adjusted Hazard Ratio 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12-0.46). The length of ICU stay was similar between the groups. Discussion: ICU patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections de-escalated to ertapenem therapy had better outcomes compared to patients who remained on broad-spectrum, anti-pseudomonal therapy, suggesting that de-escalation is a safe approach amongst ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Ertapenem/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Time Factors , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Critical Illness , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180460, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041512

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to characterize genes of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) in colonizing and infecting isolates of E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC from patients at a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 29 E. aerogenes clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides. AMEs genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Colonizing and infecting isolates mainly presented the genetic profiles aac(3)-IIa/aph(3')-VI or ant(2")-IIa/aph(3')-VI. This is the first report of aph(3')-VI in E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance in establishing rigorous methods for the surveillance of resistance genes, especially in colonized patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Aminoglycosides/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification
14.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1271855

ABSTRACT

Le contexte africain est marqué par l'absence de réseau de surveillance de la résistance bactérienne aux antibiotiques. Des études indiquent pourtant des niveaux élevés de prévalence de Staphylococcus aureus résistant à la méticiline (SARM) et des Entérobactéries productrices de ß lactamases à spectre étendu (E-BLSE) dans les prélèvements provenant de patients hospitalisés ou en communauté. Le but de la présente étude est de décrire les phénotypes de résistances de Staphyloccocus aureus et des entérobactéries afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des maladies bactériennes. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale réalisée du 10 Septembre 2014 au 10 Mars 2015, à partir des isolats de S. aureus et d'entérobactéries provenant de prélèvements biologiques reçus au Laboratoire National de Santé Publique (LNSP). La sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches bactériennes a été réalisée selon les recommandations du Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA.SFM) 2014. La recherche de la résistance de S. aureus à la meticilline a été réalisée par l'oxacilline 5µg ; la sécrétion de ß Lactamase à Spectre Elargie (BLSE) a été confirmée après observation d'une image en « bouchon de champagne ». Au total, 665 échantillons ont été traités et 197 souches pathogènes, ont été identifiées dont 160 entérobactéries et 37 Staphylococcus aureus. Globalement, 32 % des Staphylococcus aureus étaient résistants à la méticiline. Toutes les souches étaient sensibles aux aminosides. Parmi les entérobactéries, 98,3 % des E. coli et 94,7 % de K. pneumoniae étaient résistantes à l'amoxicilline + acide clavulanique et 36,4 % de E. coli et 26,3 % K. pneumoniae présentaient une résistance aux céphalosporines de 3e génération. Les entérobactéries productrices de BLSE étaient de 35 %. L'imipenème restait actif sur 100 % des entérobactéries. Cette étude interpelle les autorités sanitaires à l'instauration d'un système de surveillance des pharmaco résistances et les agents de santé sur la promotion du bon usage des antibiotiques et les bonnes pratiques d'hygiène hospitalière


Subject(s)
Burkina Faso , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264223

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Les entérobactéries constituent les principales causes d'infections bactériennes.Ce sont des Bactéries Multi- résistantes (BMR)fréquentes par production de BLSE(Bêtalactamases à spectre élargi).Ceci constitue un problème de santé publique majeur car cette résistance est à l'origine d'une impasse thérapeutique et conduit à une prescriptiond'antibiotiques à large spectre (carbapénèmes). Notre étude prospective allant du 01 janvier au 31 décembre 2017 a porté sur 50 souches d'entérobactéries isolées au laboratoire et a pour but de caractériser les types de bêtalactamases.Méthodologie : Les souches ont été ré-isolées d'abord sur milieu Mueller Hinton, ensuite identifiées par la morphologie et les caractères biochimiques des entérobactéries. Les méthodes suivantes ont été réalisées pour la mise en évidence des classes de BLSE. - Méthode de rapprochement des disques (synergie entre un disque Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique (AMC) et les disques de Céphalosporine de 3ieme (C3G) : BLSE de classe A. - Méthode de Dongeun Yong et al. utilisant l'EDTA (Ethylène Diamine Tétra-acétique) 0,5 M, PH 7 (Inhibition du zinc présent sur le site actif de l'enzyme par l'EDTA): BLSE de classe B. Résultat : Les souches d'entérobactéries étaient réparties ainsi : Enterobacter spp : 40%, Escherichia coli : 32%, Klebsiella pneumoniae : 24% et Klebsiella oxytoca : 4%. Cinquante-six pour cent 56% des souches produisaient une BLSE de classe A (image « bouchon de champagne ») et 14% une BLSE de classe B avec restauration de l'activité de l'imipenème après association de l'EDTA. Enterobacter spp était la souche la plus représentée avec 12 souches sécrétrices d'une BLSE de classe A et 5 souches de classe B, suivie d'E. coli avec 08 souches sécrétrices d'une BLSE de classe A et 01 souche de classe B. K. pneumoniae et K. oxytoca comptaient respectivement 06 et 02 souches sécrétrices de BLSE de classe A. Conclusion : L'acquisition par les entérobactéries et la transmission de résistance, par production de BLSE de classe A ou B est un problème majeur de santé publique causant une véritable impasse thérapeutique. Aujourd'hui, la prévalence de la résistance par production de Métallo-bêtalactamase (MBL) est faible comparée à celle de BLSE de classe A. Ainsi, des stratégies de diagnostic et de maîtrise de la diffusion doivent être appliquées rigoureusement


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/prevention & control , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Senegal
16.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264230

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Les entérobactéries constituent les principales causes d'infections bactériennes. Ce sont des Bactéries Multirésistantes (BMR) fréquentes par production de BLSE (Bêtalactamases à spectre élargi). Ceci constitue un problème de santé publique majeur car cette résistance est à l'origine d'une impasse thérapeutique et conduit à une prescription d'antibiotiques à large spectre (carbapénèmes).Notre étude prospective allant du 01 janvier au 31 décembre 2017 a porté sur 50 souches d'entérobactériesisolées au laboratoire et a pour but de caractériser les types de bêtalactamases. Méthodologie : Les souches ont été ré-isolées d'abord sur milieu Mueller Hinton, ensuite identifiées par la morphologie et les caractères biochimiques des entérobactéries. Les méthodes suivantes ont été réalisées pour la mise en évidence des classes de BLSE. - Méthode de rapprochement des disques (synergie entre un disque Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique (AMC) et les disques de Céphalosporine de 3ieme (C3G) : BLSE de classe A. - Méthode de Dongeun Yong et al. utilisant l'EDTA (Ethylène Diamine Tétra-acétique) 0,5 M, PH 7 (Inhibition du zinc présent sur le site actif de l'enzyme par l'EDTA): BLSE de classe B. Résultat : Les souches d'entérobactéries étaient réparties ainsi : Enterobacter spp : 40%, Escherichia coli : 32%, Klebsiella pneumoniae : 24% et Klebsiella oxytoca : 4%. Cinquante-six pour cent 56% des souches produisaient une BLSE de classe A (image « bouchon de champagne ») et 14% une BLSE de classe B avec restauration de l'activité de l'imipenème après association de l'EDTA. Enterobacter spp était la souche la plus représentée avec 12 souches sécrétrices d'une BLSE de classe A et 5 souches de classe B, suivie d'E. coli avec 08 souches sécrétrices d'une BLSE de classe A et 01 souche de classe B. K. pneumoniae et K. oxytoca comptaient respectivement 06 et 02 souches sécrétrices de BLSE de classe A. Conclusion : L'acquisition par les entérobactéries et la transmission de résistance, par production de BLSE de classe A ou B est un problème majeur de santé publique causant une véritable impasse thérapeutique. Aujourd'hui, la prévalence de la résistance par production de Métallo-bêtalactamase (MBL) est faible comparée à celle de BLSE de classe A. Ainsi, des stratégies de diagnostic et de maîtrise de la diffusion doivent être appliquées rigoureusement


Subject(s)
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Senegal
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 914-918, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The global emergence of carbapenemases led to the need of developing new methods for their rapid detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests for carbapenemase-producing and non-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae from a surveillance study submitted to a multiplex real time PCR for carbapenemase detection were included in this study. The isolates were subjected to the rapid phenotypic tests Carba NP, Blue-Carba and Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM). A total of 83 carbapenemase-producing (43) and non-producing (40) isolates were included in the study. The sensitivity/specificity were 62.7%/97.5%, 95.3%/100%, and 74.4%/97.5% for Carba NP, Blue-Carba and CIM, respectively. Both Carba NP and Blue-Carba presented their final results after 75 min of incubation; the final results for CIM were obtained only after 8 h. Failure to detect OXA-370 carbapenemase was the main problem for Carba NP and CIM assays. As the Blue-Carba presented the highest sensitivity, it can be considered the best screening test. Conversely, CIM might be the easiest to perform, as it does not require special reagents. The early detection of carbapenemases aids to establish infection control measures and prevent carbapenemases to spread reducing the risk of healthcare associated infections and therapeutic failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enzyme Assays/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 744-748, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973689

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica es una inmunodeficiencia primaria infrecuente, debida a un defecto en la actividad microbicida de los fagocitos, originada por mutaciones en los genes que codifican alguna de las subunidades del complejo enzimático nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato oxidasa. La incidencia estimada es 1 en 250 000 recién nacidos vivos. Puede presentarse desde la infancia hasta la adultez, por lo general, en menores de 2 años. Las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas, en conjunto con las lesiones granulomatosas, son las manifestaciones más habituales de la enfermedad. Los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente son Aspergillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia spp. Se reporta el caso clínico de un varón de 1 año de vida en el que se diagnosticó enfermedad granulomatosa crónica a partir de infecciones múltiples que ocurrieron simultáneamente: aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva, osteomielitis por Serratia marcescens y granuloma cervical por Enterobacter cloacae.


Chronic granulomatous disease is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency due to a defect of the killing activity of phagocytes, caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding subunits of the superoxide-generating phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. The incidence is 1 in 250 000 live births. It can occur from infancy to adulthood, usually in children under 2 years. Bacterial and fungal infections in association with granuloma lesions are the most common manifestations of the disease. Aspergillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia species are the most common microorganisms isolated. We describe here a case of a 1-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Serratia marcescens osteomyelitis and Enterobacter cloacae cervical granuloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Serratia Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/metabolism , Serratia marcescens/isolation & purification , Serratia Infections/microbiology , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/microbiology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 147-154, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia de enterobacterias a quinolonas se ha difundido por el mundo, fenómeno presente también en Venezuela. El mecanismo de esta resistencia pudiera estar mediado por genes incluidos en el cromosoma bacteriano o transmitirse en el interior de plásmidos. Objetivo: Evaluar la resistencia a quino-lonas, codificada por genes qnr, presentes en cepas de enterobacterias, aisladas en el Hospital Universitario de Cumaná, Venezuela. Métodos: A las cepas obtenidas se les realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a quinolonas, β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos. La presencia del gen qnr se determinó por RPC. Las enterobacterias portadoras del gen qnr fueron sometidas al proceso de conjugación bacteriana para comprobar su capacidad de transferencia. A las transconjugantes obtenidas se les realizó pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y RPC para comprobar la transferencia de los genes. Resultados: Se encontraron elevados porcentajes de resistencia antimicrobiana a quinolonas y betalactámicos. El 33,6% de las cepas eran portadoras del gen qnrB, y 0,9% del gen qnrA. Se obtuvieron 23 cepas transconjugantes; de éstas, 20 portaban el gen qnrB, no se observó la presencia de qnrA. Discusión: En conclusión, el elevado porcentaje de genes qnr encontrado en las enterobacterias aisladas, y comprobada la presencia de éstos en plásmidos transferibles, complica la aplicación de tratamientos basados en quinolonas y fluoroquinolonas, por lo que es recomendable el uso racional de estos antimicrobianos, y proponer la rotación de la terapia antimicrobiana, a fin de evitar la selección de cepas resistentes.


Background: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. Aim: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates. The presence of qnr genes were determined by PCR. The isolates carrying the qnr genes were used for bacterial conjugation tests to determine the presence of transferable plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PCR were carried out in the transconjugants to verify the transfer of the genes. Results: High levels of antimicrobial resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams were found among the isolates. We found that 33.6% of the isolates carry the qnrB gene and 0.9% qnr A gene. Of the 23 transconjugants, 20 showed to have qnrB gene, but none qnrA. Discussion: We concluded that the high frequency of qnr genes found in the enterobacteria isolates and their presence on transferable plasmids, complicate the use of quinolones for the treatment of bacterial infections, thus, a treatment plan should be designed with the rational use and the rotation of different types of antimicrobials, in order to avoid the selection of increasingly resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Plasmids , Quinolones/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Escherichia coli Proteins , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Hospitals, University
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 16-17, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Kosakonia cowanii type strain 888-76T is a human pathogen which was originally isolated from blood as NIH group 42. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of K. cowanii 888-76T. 888-76T has 1 chromosome and 2 plasmids with a total genome size of 4,857,567 bp and C+G 56.15%. This genome sequence will not only help us to understand the virulence features of K. cowanii 888-76T but also provide us the useful information for the study of evolution of Kosakonia genus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genome, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Phylogeny , Plasmids/genetics , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Base Sequence , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
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