Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 107
Filter
1.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 874-879, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007861

ABSTRACT

Leclercia adecarboxylata is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a carbapenem-resistant L. adecarboxylata strain isolated from a healthy newborn. The L. adecarboxylata strain isolated in this study carried four plasmids that may serve as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmids 2 and 4 did not harbor any antimicrobial resistance genes. Plasmid 3 is a novel plasmid containing three resistance genes. The bla IMP gene harbored in the strain was most similar to bla IMP-79 at the nucleotide level, with a similarity of 99.4% (737/741). This case highlights the importance of considering L. adecarboxylata as a potential cause of infections in children.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Child , Humans , Female , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Plasmids
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 96-101, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To systematically assess the risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Data, China Biology Medicine disc were searched to obtain the articles on risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children published up to May 31, 2021. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform the Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 13 articles were included, with 1 501 samples in total. The Meta analysis showed that indwelling gastric tube (OR=4.91), tracheal intubation (OR=5.03), central venous catheterization (OR=3.75), indwelling urinary catheterization (OR=4.11), mechanical ventilation (OR=3.09), history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (OR=2.39), history of surgical operation (OR=3.22), previous use of third-generation cephalosporins (OR=2.62), previous use of carbapenem antibiotics (OR=3.82), previous use of glycopeptide antibiotics (OR=3.48), previous use of β-lactamase inhibitors (OR=2.87), previous use of antifungal drugs (OR=2.48), previous use of aminoglycoside antibiotics (OR=2.54), and Apgar score ≤7 at 1 minute after birth (OR=2.10) were risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Invasive operations, history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit, previous use of antibiotics such as carbapenem antibiotics, and Apgar score ≤7 at 1 minute after birth are risk factors for the colonization or infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Risk Factors
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 433-441, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones causadas por enterobacterias productoras de β-talactamasas de espectro extendido (EP-BLEE) tienen implicaciones sobre la morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de EP-BLEE en sepsis neonatal y los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, desde agosto del 2016 a agosto del 2017. Se incluyeron recién nacidos (RNs) ingresados en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Mediante prueba de difusión de doble disco se indagó la presencia de EP-BLEE y su asociación con características clínicas y demográficas de los RNs. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.501 RNs hospitalizados, con edad gestacional promedio de 36,3 semanas. Se diagnosticaron 196 eventos de sepsis neonatal, la etiología más frecuente fueron enterobacterias (45,5%); 88,8% demostraron resistencia a ampicilina y más de 42% a cefalosporinas de amplio espectro. El 22,9% presentó fenotipo BLEE positivo. Tener Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida (OR 4,6; IC 95% 1,47-14,6) y edad gestacional < 37 semanas (OR 5,4; IC 95%1,04-27,7) incrementaron el riesgo. Conclusión: En las enterobacterias causantes de sepsis neonatal, 22,9% son EP-BLEE; la infección es más probable en pacientes con Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida y en prematuros.


Background: Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases enterobacteria (ESBL-EP) have implications for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To describe the prevalence of ESBL-EP in neonatal sepsis and associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2016 to August 2017; newborn babies (NB) hospitalized in the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" were included. The ESBL-EP were investigated by double-disk synergy test and its association with clinical and demographic characteristics of the NB. Results. A total of 1,501 hospitalized NB were studied, with an average gestational age of 36.3 weeks. They were diagnosed 196 neonatal sepsis events, the most frequent etiologies were enterobacteria (45.5%). Resistance to ampicilin was found in 88.8% and to broad spectrum cephalosporins in more than 42% of the strains; 22.9% of them were ESBL phenotype. Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of life (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.47-14.6) and gestational age < 37 weeks (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.04-27.) increase the risk. Conclusion: In enterobacteria that cause neonatal sepsis, 22.9% were EP-ESBL; infection was more likely in patients with Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of age and in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(2): 265-269, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020777

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de reportar marcadores de resistencia plasmídica a quinolonas qnr en aislamientos clínicos de enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas CTX-M, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con aislamientos del cepario del proyecto TO-06/09 del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Se recuperaron 138 aislamientos. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por el método de disco difusión y la identificación de genes por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. De los 138 aislados, 67 (48,5%) fueron positivos para proteínas qnr por el método genotípico. De los cuales 38 (56,7%) presentaron determinantes qnrB y 48 (71,6%) determinantes qnrS. Ningún aislado presentó determinantes qnrA. Se detectó determinantes qnr en aislamientos que presentaban betalactamasas CTX-M en una población no expuesta.


ABSTRACT Aimed at reporting markers of plasmid resistance to qnr quinolones in clinical isolates of CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria, a descriptive study was conducted with isolates from the strain repository of TO-06/09 project of the National Children´s Health Institute. 138 isolates were recovered. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the diffusion disk method, and gene identification by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 138 isolates, 67 (48.5%) were genotypically positive for qnr proteins; of these, 38 (56.7%) had qnrB determinants and 48 (71.6%) had qnrS determinants. No isolate presented qnrA determinants. qnr determinants were detected in isolates containing CTX-M beta-lactamases in a non-exposed population.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Quinolones/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peru/epidemiology , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 135-149, mayo 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011462

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of antibiotics in humans, animal husbandry and veterinary activities induces selective pressure leading to the colonization and infection by resistant strains. Objective: We evaluated water samples collected from rivers of the Guanabara Bay, which have suffered minor and major environmental degradation, and clinical samples of hospital origin to detect evidence of the presence of resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: For isolation of the water strains we employed culture media containing 32 μg/ml cephalotin and 8 μg/ml gentamicin. The strains from clinical materials were selected using culture media containing 8 μg/ml gentamicin. The strains were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), plasmid DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect genes encoding enzymes modifying aminoglycosides (EMA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid mechanisms of quinolone resistance (PMQR). Results: The AST of the isolates recovered from water samples showed multidrug-resistance profiles similar to those found in isolates recovered from clinical materials. All isolates from water samples and 90% of the isolates from clinical samples showed at least one plasmid band. In the PCR assays, 7.4% of the isolates recovered from water samples and 20% of those from clinical materials showed amplification products for the three antimicrobial classes. Conclusion: We believe that the detection of microorganisms presenting genetic elements in environments such as water is necessary for the prevention and control of their dissemination with potential to infect humans and other animals in eventual contact with these environments.


Resumen Introducción. El uso de antibióticos en seres humanos, en la industria pecuaria y en las actividades veterinarias induce una presión selectiva que resulta en la colonización e infección con cepas resistentes. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de genes de resistencia a aminoglucósidos, betalactámicos y fluoroquinolonas en cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae y Escherichia coli, obtenidas de muestras de agua de los ríos que desembocan en la bahía de Guanabara y de muestras clínicas de hospitales de Río de Janeiro. Materiales y métodos. En la selección de las cepas resistentes obtenidas de las muestras de agua de los ríos, se emplearon medios de cultivo que contenían 32 μg/ml de cefalotina y 8 μg/ ml de gentamicina. En el caso de las muestras de especímenes clínicos, se usaron medios de cultivo que contenían 8 μg/ml de gentamicina. Las cepas se identificaron y se sometieron a pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, extracción de ADN plasmídico y pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar los genes que codifican aquellas enzimas que modifican los aminoglucósidos, las betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y los mecanismos de resistencia a las quinolonas mediados por plásmidos. Resultados. Se encontraron perfiles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos similares en los dos grupos. En todas las bacterias obtenidas de las muestras de agua y en 90 % de las muestras clínicas, se evidenciaron bandas de plásmidos asociados con la transferencia de genes de resistencia. En las pruebas de PCR, se obtuvieron productos de amplificación de los genes de resistencia para las tres clases de antimicrobianos analizados, en el 7,4 % de las bacterias recuperadas de las muestras de agua y en el 20 % de aquellas recuperadas de las muestras clínicas. Conclusión. La detección de microorganismos con elementos genéticos que confieren resistencia a los antibióticos en ambientes como el agua, es una estrategia necesaria para prevenir y controlar la diseminación de estos agentes patógenos con potencial para infectar a humanos y a otros animales en dichos ambientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Bays/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Rivers/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Water Pollution , Hospitals, Urban , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Medical Waste
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 102-110, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacteria-producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) play an important role in healthcare infections, increasing hospitalization time, morbidity and mortality rates. Among several ESBLs that emerge from these pathogens, CTX-M-type enzymes had the most successful global spread in different epidemiological settings. Latin America presents high prevalence of CTX-M-2 in ESBL-producing enterobacterial infections with local emergence of the CTX-M-1 group. However, this high prevalence of the CTX-M-1 group has not yet been reported in Chile. The aim of this study was to identify ESBLs among enterobacteria isolated from clinical samples of critically ill patients from southern Chile. One-hundred thirty seven ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from outpatients from all critical patient units from Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital. Phenotype characterization was performed by antibiogram, screening of ESBL, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). PCR was used for genetic confirmation of resistance. Molecular typing was performed by ERIC-PCR. ESBL-producing isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 115), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1), presenting multidrug resistance profiles. PCR amplification showed that the strains were positive for blaSHV (n = 111/81%), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 116/84.7%), blaTEM (n = 100/73%), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 28/20.4%), blaCTX-M-9 (0.7%), blaPER-1 (0.7%), and blaGES-10 (0.7%). The multiple production of ESBL was observed in 93% of isolates, suggesting high genetic mobility independent of the clonal relationship. The high frequency of the CTX-M-1 group and a high rate of ESBL co-production are changing the epidemiology of the ESBL profile in Chilean intensive care units. This epidemiology is a constant and increasing challenge, not only in Chile, but worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genotyping Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180460, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041512

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to characterize genes of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) in colonizing and infecting isolates of E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC from patients at a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 29 E. aerogenes clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides. AMEs genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Colonizing and infecting isolates mainly presented the genetic profiles aac(3)-IIa/aph(3')-VI or ant(2")-IIa/aph(3')-VI. This is the first report of aph(3')-VI in E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance in establishing rigorous methods for the surveillance of resistance genes, especially in colonized patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Aminoglycosides/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 914-918, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The global emergence of carbapenemases led to the need of developing new methods for their rapid detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests for carbapenemase-producing and non-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae from a surveillance study submitted to a multiplex real time PCR for carbapenemase detection were included in this study. The isolates were subjected to the rapid phenotypic tests Carba NP, Blue-Carba and Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM). A total of 83 carbapenemase-producing (43) and non-producing (40) isolates were included in the study. The sensitivity/specificity were 62.7%/97.5%, 95.3%/100%, and 74.4%/97.5% for Carba NP, Blue-Carba and CIM, respectively. Both Carba NP and Blue-Carba presented their final results after 75 min of incubation; the final results for CIM were obtained only after 8 h. Failure to detect OXA-370 carbapenemase was the main problem for Carba NP and CIM assays. As the Blue-Carba presented the highest sensitivity, it can be considered the best screening test. Conversely, CIM might be the easiest to perform, as it does not require special reagents. The early detection of carbapenemases aids to establish infection control measures and prevent carbapenemases to spread reducing the risk of healthcare associated infections and therapeutic failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enzyme Assays/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 744-748, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973689

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica es una inmunodeficiencia primaria infrecuente, debida a un defecto en la actividad microbicida de los fagocitos, originada por mutaciones en los genes que codifican alguna de las subunidades del complejo enzimático nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato oxidasa. La incidencia estimada es 1 en 250 000 recién nacidos vivos. Puede presentarse desde la infancia hasta la adultez, por lo general, en menores de 2 años. Las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas, en conjunto con las lesiones granulomatosas, son las manifestaciones más habituales de la enfermedad. Los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente son Aspergillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia spp. Se reporta el caso clínico de un varón de 1 año de vida en el que se diagnosticó enfermedad granulomatosa crónica a partir de infecciones múltiples que ocurrieron simultáneamente: aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva, osteomielitis por Serratia marcescens y granuloma cervical por Enterobacter cloacae.


Chronic granulomatous disease is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency due to a defect of the killing activity of phagocytes, caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding subunits of the superoxide-generating phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. The incidence is 1 in 250 000 live births. It can occur from infancy to adulthood, usually in children under 2 years. Bacterial and fungal infections in association with granuloma lesions are the most common manifestations of the disease. Aspergillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia species are the most common microorganisms isolated. We describe here a case of a 1-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Serratia marcescens osteomyelitis and Enterobacter cloacae cervical granuloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Serratia Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/metabolism , Serratia marcescens/isolation & purification , Serratia Infections/microbiology , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/microbiology
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 147-154, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia de enterobacterias a quinolonas se ha difundido por el mundo, fenómeno presente también en Venezuela. El mecanismo de esta resistencia pudiera estar mediado por genes incluidos en el cromosoma bacteriano o transmitirse en el interior de plásmidos. Objetivo: Evaluar la resistencia a quino-lonas, codificada por genes qnr, presentes en cepas de enterobacterias, aisladas en el Hospital Universitario de Cumaná, Venezuela. Métodos: A las cepas obtenidas se les realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a quinolonas, β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos. La presencia del gen qnr se determinó por RPC. Las enterobacterias portadoras del gen qnr fueron sometidas al proceso de conjugación bacteriana para comprobar su capacidad de transferencia. A las transconjugantes obtenidas se les realizó pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y RPC para comprobar la transferencia de los genes. Resultados: Se encontraron elevados porcentajes de resistencia antimicrobiana a quinolonas y betalactámicos. El 33,6% de las cepas eran portadoras del gen qnrB, y 0,9% del gen qnrA. Se obtuvieron 23 cepas transconjugantes; de éstas, 20 portaban el gen qnrB, no se observó la presencia de qnrA. Discusión: En conclusión, el elevado porcentaje de genes qnr encontrado en las enterobacterias aisladas, y comprobada la presencia de éstos en plásmidos transferibles, complica la aplicación de tratamientos basados en quinolonas y fluoroquinolonas, por lo que es recomendable el uso racional de estos antimicrobianos, y proponer la rotación de la terapia antimicrobiana, a fin de evitar la selección de cepas resistentes.


Background: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. Aim: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates. The presence of qnr genes were determined by PCR. The isolates carrying the qnr genes were used for bacterial conjugation tests to determine the presence of transferable plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PCR were carried out in the transconjugants to verify the transfer of the genes. Results: High levels of antimicrobial resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams were found among the isolates. We found that 33.6% of the isolates carry the qnrB gene and 0.9% qnr A gene. Of the 23 transconjugants, 20 showed to have qnrB gene, but none qnrA. Discussion: We concluded that the high frequency of qnr genes found in the enterobacteria isolates and their presence on transferable plasmids, complicate the use of quinolones for the treatment of bacterial infections, thus, a treatment plan should be designed with the rational use and the rotation of different types of antimicrobials, in order to avoid the selection of increasingly resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Plasmids , Quinolones/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Escherichia coli Proteins , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Hospitals, University
12.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(1): 62-67, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961855

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia y factores de riesgo para bacteriemia por enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes internados en un hospital público de Lima se realizó un estudio transversal. Fueron incluidos pacientes mayores de 14 años, con hemocultivos positivos durante su hospitalización en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia el 2016. Se clasificó a los pacientes según la bacteria aislada (productora o no de BLEE). El 50,6 % de las bacteriemias fueron causadas por enterobacterias productoras de BLEE, 55,8 % y 32,6 % por E. Coli y K. pneumoniae, respectivamente. No hallándose diferencias con relación a comorbilidades, ni uso previo de antibióticos (62,8 % de las bacteriemias por cepas productoras de BLEE y en 57 % en las no productoras (p=0,595)). La mitad de las bacteriemias por enterobacterias en pacientes hospitalizados son producidas por enterobacterias productoras de BLEE, y de estas, el 40 % son adquiridas en la comunidad.


ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted aimed at determining the frequency and the risk factors for bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients hospitalized in a public hospital in Lima. The study included patients over 14 years of age, with positive blood cultures during their hospitalization in Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in 2016. Patients were classified according to the isolated bacterium (ESBL-producing or not). Bacteremia was caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacea in 50.6% of the cases; 55.8% and 32.6% by E. Coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. No differences were found regarding co-morbidity, or prior antibiotic use (62.8% of bacteremia due to ESBLproducing strains and 57% in the non-producing strains [p=0.595]). Half of the bacteremia cases due to Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized patients are produced by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and, of these, 40% are acquired in the community.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Peru , Urban Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hospitals, Public
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 16-17, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Kosakonia cowanii type strain 888-76T is a human pathogen which was originally isolated from blood as NIH group 42. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of K. cowanii 888-76T. 888-76T has 1 chromosome and 2 plasmids with a total genome size of 4,857,567 bp and C+G 56.15%. This genome sequence will not only help us to understand the virulence features of K. cowanii 888-76T but also provide us the useful information for the study of evolution of Kosakonia genus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genome, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Phylogeny , Plasmids/genetics , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Base Sequence , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 47-50, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, with resistance to all β-lactams including carbapenems, negative Modified Hodge Test and the synergy test with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Phenylboronic Acid and Cloxacillin was positive only with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (difference of >5 mm in the inhibition zone between the disk without and with the inhibitor). Analysis by multiplex PCR for blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaKPC and blaOXA-48 enzymes confirmed the presence of blaNDM gene. This report of two different New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase-producing microorganisms in a different region of Brazil confirms the risk of spreading resistance genes between different species and emphasizes the need for prevention and control of infections caused by these pathogens, which have limited treatment options and have been linked to high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Fatal Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hospitals, Public
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 253-261, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959439

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las Enterobacteriaceae productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) han tomado gran importancia en salud pública a una escala global, haciendo necesario implementar test rápidos para su detección oportuna. Objetivo: Evaluar tres metodologías para el tamizaje de EPC en hisopados rectales. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo transversal. Se evaluaron 73 hisopados rectales por tres metodologías. Se realizó identificación y evaluación de susceptibilidad por sistemas automatizados y la producción de carbapenemasas se confirmó por test de Hodge modificado, sinergia con ácido borónico y EDTA. Resultados: Método 1 (ChromID CARBA®): detectó 20 muestras positivas (27,4%), 5 falsos positivos (6,9%), con índice de concordancia de 93,2%, sensibilidad 100% y especificidad de 90%. Método 2 (HB&L Carbapenemase®): detectó 17 muestras positivas (23,3%) y 3 falsos negativos (4,1%). La sensibilidad y especificidad fue 85 y 100% respectivamente, con concordancia de 95,9%. Método 3 (Xpert Carba-R®): detectó 19 muestras positivas (57,5 %) y 1 falso negativo (3,1%), sensibilidad 95%, especificidad 100% e índice de concordancia de 97%. Discusión: Existe amplia variedad de metodologías para búsqueda y detección rápida de microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas. La elección del método debe tener como requisito una buena sensibilidad y especificidad, rapidez y costo efectividad.


Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have taken great importance on public health at global scale, which makes it necessary to implement rapid test for its prompt detection. Aim: To evaluate three screening methods to detect CPE in rectal swabs. Material and Methods: Transverse study, prospective. Seventy three rectal swabs were evaluated by three methodologies. Microorganism identification and susceptibility testing were made using automated systems. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by modified Hodge test and synergy tests using boronic acid and EDTA. Results: The method 1 (ChromID CARBA®) detected 20 positive samples (27.4%), 5 false positives (6.9 %), with concordance index of 93.2%, sensitivity 100% and specificity of 90%. Method 2 (HB&L Carbapenemase®) detected 17 positive samples (23.3%) and 3 false negatives (4.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 85% and 100%, with concordance index of 95.9%. Method 3 (Xpert Carba-R®) detected 19 positive samples (57.5%) and 1 false negatives (3.1%), sensitivity 95%, specificity 100% and concordance index of 97%. Discussion: There is a wide variety of methodologies for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing microorganisms. Choosing the best method must have as requirement a good sensitivity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/microbiology , Mass Screening/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 329-331, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042647

ABSTRACT

Resumen Actualmente se recomienda el uso de cefazolina para determinar la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación en cepas de enterobacterias en ITU no complicada. Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales en cepas urinarias según puntos de corte para cefalotina o cefazolina y la correlación de susceptibilidad entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo. Se estudió la concordancia entre cefalotina y cefazolina en 52 cepas por método de Kirby-Bauer y Vitek XL. En Escherichia coli fue de 0% para VitekXL y 50% para Kirby-Bauer. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo fue 95,6%. En el laboratorio debiera usarse cefazolina para determinar susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo sugiere que cefazolina podría predecir susceptibilidad para cefadroxilo.


Currently, the use of cefazolin is recommended to determine the susceptibility to first-generation oral cephalosporins in strains of enterobacteria in uncomplicated UTI. We determined susceptibility differences to oral cephalosporins in urinary strains according to cefazolin or cefalotin breakpoints and the correlation of susceptibility between cefazolin and cefadroxil. We studied 52 strains with cefalotin and cefazolin by disk-diffusion and MIC (Kirby-Bauer and Vitek XL) and a subgroup by disk-diffusion for cefadroxil. Agreement among different methods was 100% for K. pneumoniae and Proteus spp. In Escherichia coli, agreement for Vitek and disk-diffusion were 0 and 50% respectively. Susceptibility to first generation cephalosporins in E. coli should be determined with cefazolin. Agreement between cefazolin and cefadroxil suggests that cefazolin could also predict the susceptibility of cefadroxil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus/drug effects , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cefadroxil/pharmacology , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/classification , Cephalothin/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 224-228, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039272

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes have been increasingly reported as important opportunistic pathogens. In this study, a high prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates from Brazil, harboring several β-lactamase encoding genes was found. Several virulence genes were observed in E. aerogenes, contrasting with the E. cloacae isolates which presented none.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Phylogeny , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterobacter cloacae/classification , Enterobacter cloacae/enzymology , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Enterobacter aerogenes/classification , Enterobacter aerogenes/enzymology , Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 80-82, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899779

ABSTRACT

Resumen Escherichia vulneris es un bacilo gramnegativo, perteneciente a la familia Enterobacteriaceae, cuyo rol patógeno ha sido cuestionado. Sin embargo, se ha confirmado principalmente como causante de infecciones de heridas. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 12 años, previamente sana, con diagnóstico de una artritis séptica de rodilla derecha secundaria a una lesión con espina vegetal. En el estudio del líquido articular se aisló E. vulneris, una etiología poco habitual de artritis séptica en niños. Es uno de los primeros casos de artritis séptica por E. vulneris, secundaria a un cuerpo extraño vegetal en un niño, descritos en la literatura médica. Se enfatiza la importancia de realizar el estudio microbiológico del líquido articular en pacientes con artritis séptica originada por un cuerpo extraño de origen vegetal.


Escherichia vulneris is a gram-negative bacillus that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, with a questioned pathogenic role. However, it has been confirmed as the cause of wound infections. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl, previously healthy, with a diagnosis of septic arthritis of the right knee, secondary to a spinal lesion. Escherichia vulneris, an unusual etiology of septic arthritis in children, was isolated in the joint fluid. This case is one of the first cases of septic arthritis due to E. vulneris, secondary to a plant-derived foreign body in a child, described in the medical literature. The importance of performing the microbiological study of joint fluid in patients with septic arthritis caused by a foreign body of plant-derived origin is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia/isolation & purification , Knee Joint/microbiology , Biopsy, Needle , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia/pathogenicity , Foreign Bodies/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(4): 473-485, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888492

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. En el tercer trimestre de 2012, comenzó a operar el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Resistencia Antimicrobiana en las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, con el fin de recabar y analizar la información referente al problema en Colombia. Objetivo. Describir los perfiles de resistencia y los resultados de la vigilancia por el laboratorio con base en los datos recolectados en el Sistema. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo con base en la información del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, Sivigila, 1 de septiembre de 2012 a 31 de diciembre de 2014, así como de las bases de datos Whonet con los datos notificados por las unidades primarias generadoras de datos y los resultados de la confirmación por el laboratorio de la caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de la resistencia a carbapenemasas en 1.642 aislamientos (927 de enterobacterias, 614 de Pseudomonas spp. y 101 de Acinetobacter spp.). Resultados. La resistencia de Escherichia coli a las cefalosporinas de tercera generación presentó un incremento significativo, alcanzando 26,3 % en unidades de cuidados intensivos y 22,5 % en otras áreas de hospitalización. La resistencia a ertapenem de Klebsiella pneumoniae registró un incremento y alcanzó 14,6 % en unidades de cuidados intensivos. La resistencia de Acinetobacter baumannii a los carbapenémicos superó el 50 % en dichas unidades, en tanto que en Pseudomonas aeruginosa se presentaron porcentajes más bajos (38,8 %). Las carbapenemasas más frecuentes en enterobacterias fueron la KPC (n=574), seguida de la NDM (n=57); en P. aeruginosa, la VIM (n=229) y la KPC (n=114), y en A. baumannii, la OXA-23 (n=87). Se detectaron varias combinaciones de carbapenemasas, siendo la de KPC y VIM la más frecuente en Pseudomonas spp., y en enterobacterias. Conclusión. La información obtenida a partir del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia ha permitido conocer los perfiles y los mecanismos de resistencia a carbapenémicos de las cepas que están circulando en las instituciones de salud del país.


Abstract Introduction: The Colombian National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections was set up to meet this problem in the third quarter of 2012. Objective: To describe resistance profiles and laboratory-based surveillance based on the information collected by the System. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of the information notified to the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System (Sivigila), and in the Whonet databases covering the period from July 2012 to December 2014 provided by the primary data-generating units in the country, as well as laboratory surveillance results from 1,642 phenotypic and genotypic tests on carbapenemase isolates (927 from Enterobacteriaceae, 614 from Pseudomonas spp. and 101 from Acinetobacter spp.). Results: There was a significant increase in Escherichia coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (reaching 26.3% in ICUs and 22.5% in other hospital wards), and Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to ertapenem also increased (reaching 14.6% in ICUs). Acinetobacter baumannii carbapenem resistance exceeded 50% in ICUs whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa had lower carbapenem resistance (38.8%). KPC (n = 574) and NDM (n=57) were the most frequently occurring carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae, VIM (n=229) and KPC (n=114) in P. aeruginosa, and OXA-23 in A. baumannii (n=87); several carbapenemase combinations were identified, KPC + VIM being the most common in Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion: The data from the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections revealed significant carbapenem resistance profiles and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms circulating in Colombian healthcare institutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Public Health Surveillance , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/analysis , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Factual , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Genes, Bacterial , Genotype , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 685-688, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041426

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The rapid global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a threat to the health system. METHODS: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 70 CRE isolated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil between August and December 2015, and determined their resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: The most prevalent microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (95.7%); it showed high-level resistance to carbapenems (>98%), with sensitivity to colistin (91.4%) and amikacin (98.6%). The bla KPC gene was detected in 80% of the CRE isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of bacterial resistance contributes to an appropriate treatment, and the reduction of morbimortality and dissemination of resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Citrobacter freundii/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Middle Aged
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL