Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 96
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 433-441, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones causadas por enterobacterias productoras de β-talactamasas de espectro extendido (EP-BLEE) tienen implicaciones sobre la morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de EP-BLEE en sepsis neonatal y los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, desde agosto del 2016 a agosto del 2017. Se incluyeron recién nacidos (RNs) ingresados en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Mediante prueba de difusión de doble disco se indagó la presencia de EP-BLEE y su asociación con características clínicas y demográficas de los RNs. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.501 RNs hospitalizados, con edad gestacional promedio de 36,3 semanas. Se diagnosticaron 196 eventos de sepsis neonatal, la etiología más frecuente fueron enterobacterias (45,5%); 88,8% demostraron resistencia a ampicilina y más de 42% a cefalosporinas de amplio espectro. El 22,9% presentó fenotipo BLEE positivo. Tener Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida (OR 4,6; IC 95% 1,47-14,6) y edad gestacional < 37 semanas (OR 5,4; IC 95%1,04-27,7) incrementaron el riesgo. Conclusión: En las enterobacterias causantes de sepsis neonatal, 22,9% son EP-BLEE; la infección es más probable en pacientes con Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida y en prematuros.


Background: Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases enterobacteria (ESBL-EP) have implications for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To describe the prevalence of ESBL-EP in neonatal sepsis and associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2016 to August 2017; newborn babies (NB) hospitalized in the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" were included. The ESBL-EP were investigated by double-disk synergy test and its association with clinical and demographic characteristics of the NB. Results. A total of 1,501 hospitalized NB were studied, with an average gestational age of 36.3 weeks. They were diagnosed 196 neonatal sepsis events, the most frequent etiologies were enterobacteria (45.5%). Resistance to ampicilin was found in 88.8% and to broad spectrum cephalosporins in more than 42% of the strains; 22.9% of them were ESBL phenotype. Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of life (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.47-14.6) and gestational age < 37 weeks (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.04-27.) increase the risk. Conclusion: In enterobacteria that cause neonatal sepsis, 22.9% were EP-ESBL; infection was more likely in patients with Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of age and in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 102-110, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacteria-producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) play an important role in healthcare infections, increasing hospitalization time, morbidity and mortality rates. Among several ESBLs that emerge from these pathogens, CTX-M-type enzymes had the most successful global spread in different epidemiological settings. Latin America presents high prevalence of CTX-M-2 in ESBL-producing enterobacterial infections with local emergence of the CTX-M-1 group. However, this high prevalence of the CTX-M-1 group has not yet been reported in Chile. The aim of this study was to identify ESBLs among enterobacteria isolated from clinical samples of critically ill patients from southern Chile. One-hundred thirty seven ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from outpatients from all critical patient units from Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital. Phenotype characterization was performed by antibiogram, screening of ESBL, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). PCR was used for genetic confirmation of resistance. Molecular typing was performed by ERIC-PCR. ESBL-producing isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 115), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1), presenting multidrug resistance profiles. PCR amplification showed that the strains were positive for blaSHV (n = 111/81%), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 116/84.7%), blaTEM (n = 100/73%), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 28/20.4%), blaCTX-M-9 (0.7%), blaPER-1 (0.7%), and blaGES-10 (0.7%). The multiple production of ESBL was observed in 93% of isolates, suggesting high genetic mobility independent of the clonal relationship. The high frequency of the CTX-M-1 group and a high rate of ESBL co-production are changing the epidemiology of the ESBL profile in Chilean intensive care units. This epidemiology is a constant and increasing challenge, not only in Chile, but worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genotyping Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180460, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041512

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to characterize genes of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) in colonizing and infecting isolates of E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC from patients at a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 29 E. aerogenes clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides. AMEs genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Colonizing and infecting isolates mainly presented the genetic profiles aac(3)-IIa/aph(3')-VI or ant(2")-IIa/aph(3')-VI. This is the first report of aph(3')-VI in E. aerogenes harboring bla KPC in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance in establishing rigorous methods for the surveillance of resistance genes, especially in colonized patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Aminoglycosides/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 914-918, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The global emergence of carbapenemases led to the need of developing new methods for their rapid detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests for carbapenemase-producing and non-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae from a surveillance study submitted to a multiplex real time PCR for carbapenemase detection were included in this study. The isolates were subjected to the rapid phenotypic tests Carba NP, Blue-Carba and Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM). A total of 83 carbapenemase-producing (43) and non-producing (40) isolates were included in the study. The sensitivity/specificity were 62.7%/97.5%, 95.3%/100%, and 74.4%/97.5% for Carba NP, Blue-Carba and CIM, respectively. Both Carba NP and Blue-Carba presented their final results after 75 min of incubation; the final results for CIM were obtained only after 8 h. Failure to detect OXA-370 carbapenemase was the main problem for Carba NP and CIM assays. As the Blue-Carba presented the highest sensitivity, it can be considered the best screening test. Conversely, CIM might be the easiest to perform, as it does not require special reagents. The early detection of carbapenemases aids to establish infection control measures and prevent carbapenemases to spread reducing the risk of healthcare associated infections and therapeutic failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enzyme Assays/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 744-748, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973689

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad granulomatosa crónica es una inmunodeficiencia primaria infrecuente, debida a un defecto en la actividad microbicida de los fagocitos, originada por mutaciones en los genes que codifican alguna de las subunidades del complejo enzimático nicotinamida adenina dinucleótido fosfato oxidasa. La incidencia estimada es 1 en 250 000 recién nacidos vivos. Puede presentarse desde la infancia hasta la adultez, por lo general, en menores de 2 años. Las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas, en conjunto con las lesiones granulomatosas, son las manifestaciones más habituales de la enfermedad. Los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente son Aspergillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia spp. Se reporta el caso clínico de un varón de 1 año de vida en el que se diagnosticó enfermedad granulomatosa crónica a partir de infecciones múltiples que ocurrieron simultáneamente: aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva, osteomielitis por Serratia marcescens y granuloma cervical por Enterobacter cloacae.


Chronic granulomatous disease is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency due to a defect of the killing activity of phagocytes, caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding subunits of the superoxide-generating phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. The incidence is 1 in 250 000 live births. It can occur from infancy to adulthood, usually in children under 2 years. Bacterial and fungal infections in association with granuloma lesions are the most common manifestations of the disease. Aspergillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Nocardia species are the most common microorganisms isolated. We describe here a case of a 1-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Serratia marcescens osteomyelitis and Enterobacter cloacae cervical granuloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Serratia Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/metabolism , Serratia marcescens/isolation & purification , Serratia Infections/microbiology , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/microbiology
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 147-154, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia de enterobacterias a quinolonas se ha difundido por el mundo, fenómeno presente también en Venezuela. El mecanismo de esta resistencia pudiera estar mediado por genes incluidos en el cromosoma bacteriano o transmitirse en el interior de plásmidos. Objetivo: Evaluar la resistencia a quino-lonas, codificada por genes qnr, presentes en cepas de enterobacterias, aisladas en el Hospital Universitario de Cumaná, Venezuela. Métodos: A las cepas obtenidas se les realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a quinolonas, β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos. La presencia del gen qnr se determinó por RPC. Las enterobacterias portadoras del gen qnr fueron sometidas al proceso de conjugación bacteriana para comprobar su capacidad de transferencia. A las transconjugantes obtenidas se les realizó pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y RPC para comprobar la transferencia de los genes. Resultados: Se encontraron elevados porcentajes de resistencia antimicrobiana a quinolonas y betalactámicos. El 33,6% de las cepas eran portadoras del gen qnrB, y 0,9% del gen qnrA. Se obtuvieron 23 cepas transconjugantes; de éstas, 20 portaban el gen qnrB, no se observó la presencia de qnrA. Discusión: En conclusión, el elevado porcentaje de genes qnr encontrado en las enterobacterias aisladas, y comprobada la presencia de éstos en plásmidos transferibles, complica la aplicación de tratamientos basados en quinolonas y fluoroquinolonas, por lo que es recomendable el uso racional de estos antimicrobianos, y proponer la rotación de la terapia antimicrobiana, a fin de evitar la selección de cepas resistentes.


Background: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. Aim: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates. The presence of qnr genes were determined by PCR. The isolates carrying the qnr genes were used for bacterial conjugation tests to determine the presence of transferable plasmids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PCR were carried out in the transconjugants to verify the transfer of the genes. Results: High levels of antimicrobial resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams were found among the isolates. We found that 33.6% of the isolates carry the qnrB gene and 0.9% qnr A gene. Of the 23 transconjugants, 20 showed to have qnrB gene, but none qnrA. Discussion: We concluded that the high frequency of qnr genes found in the enterobacteria isolates and their presence on transferable plasmids, complicate the use of quinolones for the treatment of bacterial infections, thus, a treatment plan should be designed with the rational use and the rotation of different types of antimicrobials, in order to avoid the selection of increasingly resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Plasmids , Quinolones/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Escherichia coli Proteins , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Hospitals, University
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 16-17, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Kosakonia cowanii type strain 888-76T is a human pathogen which was originally isolated from blood as NIH group 42. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of K. cowanii 888-76T. 888-76T has 1 chromosome and 2 plasmids with a total genome size of 4,857,567 bp and C+G 56.15%. This genome sequence will not only help us to understand the virulence features of K. cowanii 888-76T but also provide us the useful information for the study of evolution of Kosakonia genus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genome, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Phylogeny , Plasmids/genetics , Base Composition , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Base Sequence , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 47-50, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, with resistance to all β-lactams including carbapenems, negative Modified Hodge Test and the synergy test with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Phenylboronic Acid and Cloxacillin was positive only with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (difference of >5 mm in the inhibition zone between the disk without and with the inhibitor). Analysis by multiplex PCR for blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaKPC and blaOXA-48 enzymes confirmed the presence of blaNDM gene. This report of two different New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase-producing microorganisms in a different region of Brazil confirms the risk of spreading resistance genes between different species and emphasizes the need for prevention and control of infections caused by these pathogens, which have limited treatment options and have been linked to high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Fatal Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hospitals, Public
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 224-228, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039272

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes have been increasingly reported as important opportunistic pathogens. In this study, a high prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates from Brazil, harboring several β-lactamase encoding genes was found. Several virulence genes were observed in E. aerogenes, contrasting with the E. cloacae isolates which presented none.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Phylogeny , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterobacter cloacae/classification , Enterobacter cloacae/enzymology , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Enterobacter aerogenes/classification , Enterobacter aerogenes/enzymology , Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 253-261, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959439

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las Enterobacteriaceae productoras de carbapenemasas (EPC) han tomado gran importancia en salud pública a una escala global, haciendo necesario implementar test rápidos para su detección oportuna. Objetivo: Evaluar tres metodologías para el tamizaje de EPC en hisopados rectales. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo transversal. Se evaluaron 73 hisopados rectales por tres metodologías. Se realizó identificación y evaluación de susceptibilidad por sistemas automatizados y la producción de carbapenemasas se confirmó por test de Hodge modificado, sinergia con ácido borónico y EDTA. Resultados: Método 1 (ChromID CARBA®): detectó 20 muestras positivas (27,4%), 5 falsos positivos (6,9%), con índice de concordancia de 93,2%, sensibilidad 100% y especificidad de 90%. Método 2 (HB&L Carbapenemase®): detectó 17 muestras positivas (23,3%) y 3 falsos negativos (4,1%). La sensibilidad y especificidad fue 85 y 100% respectivamente, con concordancia de 95,9%. Método 3 (Xpert Carba-R®): detectó 19 muestras positivas (57,5 %) y 1 falso negativo (3,1%), sensibilidad 95%, especificidad 100% e índice de concordancia de 97%. Discusión: Existe amplia variedad de metodologías para búsqueda y detección rápida de microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas. La elección del método debe tener como requisito una buena sensibilidad y especificidad, rapidez y costo efectividad.


Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have taken great importance on public health at global scale, which makes it necessary to implement rapid test for its prompt detection. Aim: To evaluate three screening methods to detect CPE in rectal swabs. Material and Methods: Transverse study, prospective. Seventy three rectal swabs were evaluated by three methodologies. Microorganism identification and susceptibility testing were made using automated systems. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by modified Hodge test and synergy tests using boronic acid and EDTA. Results: The method 1 (ChromID CARBA®) detected 20 positive samples (27.4%), 5 false positives (6.9 %), with concordance index of 93.2%, sensitivity 100% and specificity of 90%. Method 2 (HB&L Carbapenemase®) detected 17 positive samples (23.3%) and 3 false negatives (4.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 85% and 100%, with concordance index of 95.9%. Method 3 (Xpert Carba-R®) detected 19 positive samples (57.5%) and 1 false negatives (3.1%), sensitivity 95%, specificity 100% and concordance index of 97%. Discussion: There is a wide variety of methodologies for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing microorganisms. Choosing the best method must have as requirement a good sensitivity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/microbiology , Mass Screening/methods , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 329-331, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042647

ABSTRACT

Resumen Actualmente se recomienda el uso de cefazolina para determinar la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación en cepas de enterobacterias en ITU no complicada. Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales en cepas urinarias según puntos de corte para cefalotina o cefazolina y la correlación de susceptibilidad entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo. Se estudió la concordancia entre cefalotina y cefazolina en 52 cepas por método de Kirby-Bauer y Vitek XL. En Escherichia coli fue de 0% para VitekXL y 50% para Kirby-Bauer. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo fue 95,6%. En el laboratorio debiera usarse cefazolina para determinar susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo sugiere que cefazolina podría predecir susceptibilidad para cefadroxilo.


Currently, the use of cefazolin is recommended to determine the susceptibility to first-generation oral cephalosporins in strains of enterobacteria in uncomplicated UTI. We determined susceptibility differences to oral cephalosporins in urinary strains according to cefazolin or cefalotin breakpoints and the correlation of susceptibility between cefazolin and cefadroxil. We studied 52 strains with cefalotin and cefazolin by disk-diffusion and MIC (Kirby-Bauer and Vitek XL) and a subgroup by disk-diffusion for cefadroxil. Agreement among different methods was 100% for K. pneumoniae and Proteus spp. In Escherichia coli, agreement for Vitek and disk-diffusion were 0 and 50% respectively. Susceptibility to first generation cephalosporins in E. coli should be determined with cefazolin. Agreement between cefazolin and cefadroxil suggests that cefazolin could also predict the susceptibility of cefadroxil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus/drug effects , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cefadroxil/pharmacology , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/classification , Cephalothin/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 80-82, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899779

ABSTRACT

Resumen Escherichia vulneris es un bacilo gramnegativo, perteneciente a la familia Enterobacteriaceae, cuyo rol patógeno ha sido cuestionado. Sin embargo, se ha confirmado principalmente como causante de infecciones de heridas. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 12 años, previamente sana, con diagnóstico de una artritis séptica de rodilla derecha secundaria a una lesión con espina vegetal. En el estudio del líquido articular se aisló E. vulneris, una etiología poco habitual de artritis séptica en niños. Es uno de los primeros casos de artritis séptica por E. vulneris, secundaria a un cuerpo extraño vegetal en un niño, descritos en la literatura médica. Se enfatiza la importancia de realizar el estudio microbiológico del líquido articular en pacientes con artritis séptica originada por un cuerpo extraño de origen vegetal.


Escherichia vulneris is a gram-negative bacillus that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, with a questioned pathogenic role. However, it has been confirmed as the cause of wound infections. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl, previously healthy, with a diagnosis of septic arthritis of the right knee, secondary to a spinal lesion. Escherichia vulneris, an unusual etiology of septic arthritis in children, was isolated in the joint fluid. This case is one of the first cases of septic arthritis due to E. vulneris, secondary to a plant-derived foreign body in a child, described in the medical literature. The importance of performing the microbiological study of joint fluid in patients with septic arthritis caused by a foreign body of plant-derived origin is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia/isolation & purification , Knee Joint/microbiology , Biopsy, Needle , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia/pathogenicity , Foreign Bodies/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 685-688, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041426

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The rapid global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a threat to the health system. METHODS: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 70 CRE isolated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil between August and December 2015, and determined their resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: The most prevalent microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (95.7%); it showed high-level resistance to carbapenems (>98%), with sensitivity to colistin (91.4%) and amikacin (98.6%). The bla KPC gene was detected in 80% of the CRE isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of bacterial resistance contributes to an appropriate treatment, and the reduction of morbimortality and dissemination of resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Citrobacter freundii/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Middle Aged
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 509-514, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889143

ABSTRACT

Abstract The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest® (bioMérieux), Vitek 2® automated system (bioMérieux) and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/genetics , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Polymyxin B/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(2): 196-198, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Here we report the case of a patient who developed urinary tract infection after a urodynamic study. The causative agent was Raoultella planticola, a rare opportunistic pathogen that usually invades immunocompromised patients. While a urinary tract infection with R. planticola has been previously described, this is the first report in which an R. planticola infection developed after a urodynamic study. We postulate that the mechanism of infection was direct invasion of the urinary tract from contaminated urodynamic study equipment. Here, we discuss the role played by isotonic solutions in facilitating bacterial reproduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Equipment Contamination , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/etiology , Urodynamics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 25: e2935, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-961127

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify possible risk factors for acquisition of Enterobacterial strains with a marker for resistance to carbapenems. Methods: exploratory case-control study performed in hospital settings. The study sample consisted of patients with biological specimens that tested positive for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (cases), with the disk diffusion test and Etest, and controls with biological samples testing negative for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In all, 65 patients were included: 13 (20%) cases and 52 (80%) controls. Results: the microorganisms isolated were Serratia marcescens (6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4), and Enterobacter cloacae (3). Univariate analysis revealed that length of hospitalization prior to sample collection (p=0.002) and having a surgical procedure (p=0.006) were statistically significant. In the multivariable logistic regression model, both were still significant, with odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.009; 95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98) for length of hospitalization prior to sample collection, and 9.28 (p = 0.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 85.14) for having a surgical procedure. Conclusion: shorter hospitalization times and increased surveillance of patients undergoing surgery could play a decisive role in reducing the spread of carbapenem-resistant microorganisms in hospital settings.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar possíveis fatores de risco para a aquisição de cepas de Enterobactérias com marcador de resistência a carbapenem. Métodos: estudo caso-controle exploratório realizado em instituições hospitalares. A amostra do estudo consistiu de pacientes com espécimes biológicos positivos para Enterobactérias resistentes aos carbapenêmicos (casos) por teste de difusão em disco e Etest e controles com amostras biológicas negativas para Enterobactérias resistentes aos carbapenêmicos. No total, foram incluídos 65 pacientes: 13 (20%) casos e 52 (80%) controles. Resultados: os microrganismos isolados foram Serratia marcescens (6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4) e Enterobacter cloacae (3). A análise univariada revelou que o tempo de internação antes da coleta da amostra (p=0,002) e o procedimento cirúrgico (p=0,006) foram estatisticamente significantes. No modelo de regressão logística multivariável, ambos foram ainda significativos, com odds ratios de 0,93 (p=0,009; IC 95%: 0,89 a 0,98) para o período de hospitalização antes da coleta da amostra e 9,28 (p=0,05; IC 95%: 1,01 a 85,14) para o procedimento cirúrgico. Conclusão: tempo de internação mais curto e maior vigilância de pacientes submetidos a cirurgia podem desempenhar um papel decisivo na redução da disseminação de microrganismos resistentes aos carbapenêmicos em instituições hospitalares.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar posibles factores de riesgo para la contracción de cepas de enterobacterias con marcador de resistencia a carbapenem. Métodos: estudio exploratorio de casos y controles realizado en entornos hospitalarios. La muestra del estudio consistió en pacientes con muestras biológicas que dieron positivo para enterobacterias resistentes a carbapenem (casos) con prueba de difusión en disco y Etest y controles con muestras biológicas negativas para enterobacterias resistentes a carbapenem. En total, se incluyeron 65 pacientes: 13 (20%) casos y 52 (80%) controles. Resultados: los microorganismos aislados fueron Serratia marcescens(6), Klebsiella pneumoniae(4) y Enterobacter cloacae(3). El análisis univariado reveló que la duración de la hospitalización antes de la recolección de la muestra (p = 0.002) y el Intervención quirúrgica (p = 0.006) fueron estadísticamente significativas. En el modelo de regresión logística multi variable, ambos fueron significativos, con razón de momios de 0.93 (p = 0.009; IC del 95%: 0.89 a 0.98) para la duración de la hospitalización antes de la recolección de la muestra y 9.28 (p = 0.05; IC del 95%: 1.01 a 85.14) por haberse sometido a un Intervención quirúrgica. Conclusión: tiempos de hospitalización más cortos y una mayor vigilancia de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía podrían desempeñar un papel decisivo en la reducción de la propagación de los microorganismos resistentes a los carbapenem en los hospitales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 31-37, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the last 30 years there has been a dissemination of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are widely disseminated in the hospital setting and are detected in a lower frequency in the community setting. Cefotaximases are the most frequently detected ESBL type and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant species among ESBL producers. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae became widely disseminated in Brazil during the last decade and KPC production is currently the most frequent resistance mechanism (96.2%) in carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae. To date KPC-2 is the only variant reported in Brazil. Polymyxin B resistance in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae has come to an alarming rate of 27.1% in 2015 in São Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase was detected in Brazil in 2013, has been reported in different Brazilian states but are not widely disseminated. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil is a very serious problem that needs urgent actions which includes both more strict adherence to infection control measures and more judicious use of antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymyxins/therapeutic use , Polymyxins/pharmacology , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 706-711, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788959

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for bla CTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Salmonella/enzymology , Shigella/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Cross Infection , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Klebsiella/enzymology , Salmonella/drug effects , Shigella/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Iran/epidemiology , Klebsiella/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(3): 286-291, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785795

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is a growing clinical concern worldwide. The main aims of this study were to detect qnr-encoding genes and to evaluate the clonal relatedness of qnr-positive Enterobacter cloacae isolates. METHODS: A total of 116 E. cloacae isolates that were not susceptible to quinolone were obtained from seven hospitals in Tehran, five hospitals in Qazvin, and two hospitals in Karaj (Iran). Bacterial identification was performed using standard laboratory methods and API 20E strips. Quinolone resistance was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. PCR and sequencing were employed to detect qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes, and clonal relatedness was assessed using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR method. RESULTS: In total, 45 (38.8%) and 71 (61.2%) of isolates showed high- and low-level quinolone resistance, respectively, and qnr-encoding genes were detected in 70 (60.3%) of them. qnrB1 [45 (38.8%) isolates] was the most commonly detected gene, followed by qnrS1 [28 (24.1%) isolates] and qnrB4 [18 (15.5%) isolates] either alone or in combination with other genes. The results of the ERIC-PCR revealed that 53 (75.7%) qnr-positive isolates were genetically unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes, for the first time, the high prevalence of the qnrB1, qnrS1, and qnrB4 genes among E. cloacae isolates in Iran. The detection of qnr genes emphasizes the need for establishing tactful policies associated with infection control measures in hospital settings in Iran.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Enterobacter cloacae/drug effects , Quinolones/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Iran , Middle Aged
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1155-1159, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769667

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antibiotic susceptibility profile was evaluated in 71 Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from outpatient urine cultures in July 2010 from two health institutions in Santa Fe, Argentina. The highest rates of antibiotic resistance were observed for ampicillin (AMP) (69%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMS) (33%), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (25%). Meanwhile, 21% of the isolates were resistant to three or more tested antibiotics families. Thirty integron-containing bacteria (42.3%) were detected, and a strong association with TMS resistance was found. Third generation cephalosporin resistance was detected in only one Escherichia coli isolate, and it was characterized as a blaCMY-2 carrier. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was found. Resistance to fluoroquinolone in the isolates was due to alterations in QRDR regions. Two mutations in GyrA (S83L, D87N) and one in ParC (S80I) were observed in all CIP-resistant E. coli. It was determined to be the main phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against nalidixic acid (NAL), levofloxacin (LEV), and CIP were determined for 63 uropathogenic E. coli isolates as MIC50 of 4 μg/mL, 0.03125 μg/mL, and 0.03125 μg/mL, respectively, while the MIC90 values of the antibiotics were determined as 1024 μg/mL, 64 μg/mL, and 16 μg/mL, respectively. An association between the phylogenetic groups, A and B1 with fluoroquinolone resistance was observed. These results point to the importance of awareness of the potential risk associated with empirical treatment with both the families of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Quinolones/pharmacology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Argentina , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Outpatients , Phylogeny , Plasmids/analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL