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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468862

ABSTRACT

ncreasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These [...].


A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Lythraceae/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid
2.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(4): [456-462], oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424346

ABSTRACT

La colonización fecal en lactantes por bacterias resistentes a los antimicrobianos es un potencial riesgo para futuras terapias antibióticas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia y características sociodemográficas de lactantes portadores fecales de enterobacterias resistentes a ciprofloxacina (PFRC) y sus genes de resistencia asociados. Analizamos muestras fecales de 41 niños lactantes residentes en el distrito de Talara-Piura, Perú, en 2019. Evaluamos la presencia de 3 genes de resistencia a quinolonas: aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB y oqxA y 2 de betalactamasas: bla CTX-M, bla PER-2.El 68% de lactantes fueron PFRC, Escherichia coli (83,3%) fue el más frecuente. El análisis genotípico detectó: oqxA (41,1%), qnrB (26,7%) y aac(6')-Ib-cr (20%) y al gen bla CTX-M en el 93,3% de los aislados con betalactamasas. La elevada frecuencia de PFRC nos alertan sobre el potencial riesgo en la pérdida de utilidad de esta familia antibiótica en el área de estudio.


Fecal colonization by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in infants is a potential risk for future antibiotic therapy. We aimed to determine the sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of infants who were fecal carriers of ciprofloxacin-resistant enterobacteriaceae (FCCRE) and their associated resistance genes. We analyzed fecal samples from 41 infants from the district of Talara, Piura, Peru in 2019. The presence of 3 quinolone resistance genes was evaluated: aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and oqxA as well as of 2 beta-lactamase genes: bla CTX-M,bla PER-2. We found that 68% of infants were FCCRE, Escherichia coli (83.3%) was the most frequent bacteria. The genotypic analysis detected: oqxA (41.1%), qnrB (26.7%), aac(6')-Ib-cr (20%) and the bla CTX-M gene (93.3%) of the isolates with beta-lactamases. The high frequency of FCCRE alerts us of the potential risk of this antibiotic family becoming less useful over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , beta-Lactamases , Drug Resistance , Infant, Newborn , Quinolones , Escherichia coli , Peru , Enterobacteriaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1): 50-54, 20220330.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395668

ABSTRACT

Serratia marcescens pertence à Família Enterobacteriaceae, é Gram-negativa e anaeróbica facultativa, sendo bem distribuída na natureza; pode ser isolada como saprófita do solo e da água. Possui um significado clínico relevante, pois acarreta infecções nosocomiais e pulmonares em determinados setores da saúde, como unidades neonatais, maternidades e UTIs, além de sepse, meningite, choque endotóxico e infecções do trato urinário. O intuito desse estudo foi analisar o mecanismo de heterorresistência em linhagens sensíveis de Serratia marcescens diante das concentrações testadas de meropeném. As linhagens SR1 e SR2 apresentaram perfil heterorresistente, ao passo que a SR6 demonstrou ser não heterorresistente, com CIM elevado (32µg/mL). Os isolados de Serratia marcescens são suscetíveis ao meropenem, por testes de sensibilidade padrão, mas contêm subpopulações resistentes ao mesmo.


Serratia marcescens belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, it is optional anaerobic gram-negative, being well distributed in nature and it might be isolated as saprophytic from soil and water. It has a meaningful clinical significance, because it causes nosocomial and lung infections in certain healthcare sectors, such as neonatal units, maternity units and UTIs; septicemia, meningitis, endotoxin shock and urinary tract infections. The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of heteroresistance in susceptible strains of Serratia marcescens in the presence of the tested concentration of meropenem. The lineages SR1 and SR2 presented heteroresistant profile, while the SR6 showed to be nonheterorresistente, with CIM (32 µg/mL). The Isolates of Serratia marcescens are susceptible to meropenem, by standard sensitivity testing, but there are subpopulations resistant to it.


Subject(s)
Serratia Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Serratia marcescens , Enterobacteriaceae , Meropenem , Gram-Negative Bacteria
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 20-28, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de microorganismos multirresistentes es un problema de salud pública que continúa creciendo a lo largo del mundo. Existe una población principalmente susceptible de ser colonizada y posteriormente infectarse, son los pacientes oncológicos. OBJETIVO: Identificar las características clínicas y patológicas de los pacientes oncológicos y su relación con la infección con microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se condujo un estudio retrospectivo y de carácter analítico entre el primero de enero de 2019 y el 30 de junio de 2020 en tres unidades hemato-oncológicas. RESULTADOS: Incluyó a 3.315 pacientes, de los cuales 217 (6,5%) se encontraban colonizados por microorganismos productores de BLEE y EPC; de éstos, 106/217 (48,8%) presentaron al menos un episodio de infección. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue Klebsiella pneumoniae, en 29/106 (27,4%). De los infectados, 18/106 (17%) presentaron infección por el mismo microorganismo colonizador. La mucositis (p = 0,002), edad mayor a 65 años (p = 0,041), hipoalbuminemia (p < 0,01), neutropenia (p < 0,01) y la presencia dispositivos invasivos (p < 0,01) demostraron una relación con el desarrollo de infección. CONCLUSIÓN: La presencia de hipoalbuminemia (OR 3,3, IC 1,5-7,1, p < 0,01), dispositivos invasivos (OR 5,8, IC 3.0-11,4, p < 0,01) y neutropenia (OR 4,1, IC 1,5-11,4, p < 0,01) predicen el desarrollo de infecciones.


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-resistant microorganisms is a public health problem that continues to grow globally. There is a population that is mainly susceptible to being colonized and subsequently infected, and these are cancer patients. AIM: To identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of cancer patients and their relationship with infection with ESBL and CPE producing microorganisms. METHODS: A retrospective and analytical study was conducted between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020 in three hematooncological units. RESULTS: We included 3315 patients of which 217 (6.5%) were colonized by microorganisms producing ESBL and CPE. Of these, 106/217 (48.8%) had at least one episode of infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae 29/106 (27.4%). Of those infected, 18/106 (17%) presented infection by the same colonizing microorganism. Mucositis (p = 0.002), age over 65 years (p = 0.041), hypoalbuminemia (p < 0.01), neutropenia (p < 0.01) and the presence of invasive devices (p < 0.01) demonstrated a relationship with development of infection. The presence of hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.3, CI 1.5-7.1, P < 0.01), invasive devices (OR 5.8, CI 3.0-11.4, p < 0.01) and neutropenia (OR 4.1, CI 1.5-11.4, p < 0.01) predict the development of infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hypoalbuminemia/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e191724, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380213

ABSTRACT

Due to the strong selective pressure resulting from the misuse of antibiotics, the natural process of bacterial resistance has been accelerated, leading to the increasingly constant appearance of multiresistant isolates. The high number of multi-resistant bacteria is a one health problem. Enterobacteriaceae are usually commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause infections, and the most important resistance characteristic among them is the production of ß-lactamases. This study aimed to identify ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae of types of TEM, SHV, and the CTX-Mgroups. To isolate the enterobacteria, swabs were collected by swiping objects that had contact with the patients and professionals, and the water of the hospital environment. Ten collections were carried out, yielding 306 samples, from which 118 enterobacteria were identified: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Serratiaspp., and Citrobacter spp. Isolates. The genes TEM and CTX-M, for the production of ß-lactamases, were detected in 12.7% of the 118 enterobacterial isolates. It is very important to know the bacterial population circulating in the veterinary hospital environment and its resistance to antimicrobials so that professionals can take appropriate measures to minimize the risks of transmission, especially from cages and consultation tables. In addition, the correct control of the microbiological quality of the supply water, as well as environmental cleaning procedures, are essential to prevent the transmission of these microorganisms.(AU)


Devido à grande pressão seletiva decorrente do uso indevido de antibióticos, tem se acelerado o processo natural de resistência das bactérias, levando ao aparecimento cada vez mais constante de isolados multirresistentes. O elevado número de bactérias multirresistentes identificadas é um problema da saúde única. As enterobactérias são bactérias geralmente comensais do trato gastrointestinal, entretanto podem causar infecções, e a característica de resistência mais importante entre elas é a produção de ß-lactamases. Buscando caracterizar melhor os microrganismos circulantes e potencialmente causadores de infecções em ambiente hospitalar veterinário, este estudo objetivou identificar as enterobactérias produtoras de ESBL do tipo TEM, SHV e os cinco grupos de CTX-M presentes em isolados circulantes em hospital veterinário. Foi realizada coleta de suabes de arrasto de objetos que entram em contato com os pacientes e com os profissionais que ali trabalham, bem como de água, para a identificação das enterobactérias. Foram realizadas 10 coletas, obtendo-se 306 amostras, dessas, 118 enterobactérias foram identificadas: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia e Citrobacter. Dentre as enterobactérias identificadas, alguns isolados possuíam genes para a produção de ß-lactamases, do tipo TEM e CTX-M. É de grande importância conhecer a população bacteriana circulante no ambiente hospitalar veterinário, e a sua resistência aos antimicrobianos, para que os profissionais possam tomar medidas apropriadas para minimizar os riscos de transmissão, principalmente a partir de gaiolas e mesas de atendimento. Além disso, o correto controle da qualidade microbiológica da água de abastecimento, bem como dos procedimentos de higienização do ambiente, são fundamentais para evitar a transmissão destes microrganismos.(AU)


Subject(s)
beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Animal
7.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(5): 899-907, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1418931

ABSTRACT

En investigaciones similares se ha reportado un grado de desconocimiento respecto a las enfermedades diarreicas agudas en los padres de grupos de riesgo. Varias investigaciones han abordado el tema de la educación sanitaria como factor determinante en la prevención de enfermedades. Las políticas de salud, están obligadas a mantener vigentes las estrategias de prevención efectivas y proponer una búsqueda continua y exhaustiva de nuevas políticas que ayuden a desterrar la EDA de las principales causas de morbilidad en grupos vulnerables. El desafío actual es atenuar los determinantes sociales y atender a la población con factores de riesgo. En esta revisión se evaluó y sistematizó publicaciones en busca de pruebas de la efectividad de la educación sanitaria en la prevención de la enfermedad diarreica aguda(AU)


Similar investigations have reported a degree of ignorance regarding acute diarrheal diseases in parents of risk groups. Several investigations have addressed the issue of health education as a determining factor in disease prevention. Health policies are obliged to keep effective prevention strategies in force and propose a continuous and exhaustive search for new policies that help banish ADD from the main causes of morbidity in vulnerable groups. The current challenge is to mitigate the social determinants and care for the population with risk factors. In this review, we evaluated and systematized publications looking for evidence of the effectiveness of health education in the prevention of acute diarrheal disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Health Education , Diarrhea , Disease Prevention , Salmonella , Child Nutrition Disorders , Campylobacter jejuni , Rotavirus Vaccines , Dehydration , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 63 p. tab, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396298

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Meropenem (MER) e Piperacilina/Tazobactana (PTZ) são agentes antimicrobianos largamente prescritos para pacientes grandes queimados internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) com infecções nosocomiais causadas por Gram-negativos sensíveis CIM 2 mg/L, Enterobacteriaceae, EB e Non-enterobacteriaceae, NEB. A síndrome da resposta inflamatória sistêmica (SRIS) que ocorre durante o choque séptico no grande queimado pode causar alteração na farmacocinética do paciente em terapia intensiva, de modo que a dose recomendada pode não atingir o alvo desejado contra Gram-negativos de sensibilidade intermediária CIM >2 mg/L. Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade dos beta-lactâmicos piperacilina e meropenem na infusão estendida comparada à infusão intermitente recomendada, para os pacientes sépticos grandes queimados através da abordagem farmacocinética-farmacodinâmica (PK/PD). Ética, casuística e procedimentos: Autor e co-autores declararam não haver conflito de interesse. O protocolo foi aprovado, registro CAAE 07525118.3.0000.0068. No presente protocolo de estudo investigaram-se 36 pacientes sépticos grandes queimados, ambos os gêneros (12F/24M) em terapia intensiva do choque séptico com piperacilina-tazobactana 4,5g q6h ou meropenem 1g q8h. Os pacientes incluídos foram estratificados em dois grupos com base na administração através da infusão intermitente, 0,5 h (G1) ou da infusão estendida, 3 h (G2), ambos com 16 pacientes cada. Duas amostras sanguíneas (1,5mL/cada) foram coletadas no estado de equilíbrio (Steady State), 3ª e 5ª hora do início da infusão. Os níveis séricos de PTZ e MER foram mensurados através de cromatografia líquida, e a farmacocinética (PK) dos dois grupos de pacientes foi comparada aos dados reportados em voluntários sadios. A abordagem PK/PD foi aplicada para avaliação da cobertura do antimicrobiano a partir da estimativa do índice de predição de efetividade (% fΔT>CIM) e da probabilidade de alcançar o alvo terapêutico (PTA) com base no alvo PK/PD recomendado, 100%fΔT>CIM. Resultados e discussão: As características de admissão dos pacientes G1/G2 foram expressas através de mediana e interquartil: Clcr 115 (90-148) / 127 (90-170) ml/min; 30 (24-31) / 27 (24- 33,5) anos, 70 (61-75) / 71 (65-75) kg, 30 (20-42) / 33,9 (18-38,4)% área total de superfície queimada, SAPS3 53 (45-57) / 48 (37,8-59,5). Na admissão dos pacientes na UTI registrou-se G1/G2: trauma térmico (17/16), trauma elétrico (1/2), lesão inalatória (11/11), ventilação mecânica (16/9) e vasopressores foram necessários em 15/8 pacientes, G1/G2. Ocorreram diferentes alterações na farmacocinética dos dois beta-lactâmicos após a infusão estendida versus a infusão intermitente quando comparadas com dados relatados em voluntários sadios. Evidenciou-se prolongamento da meia vida decorrente do aumento do volume de distribuição. Estes resultados impactaram diferentemente a cobertura. O monitoramento de biomarcadores inflamatórios expressos em medianas (G1/G2) evidenciou aumento do PCR: 232/183mg/L e leucocitose (leucócitos 11/14 mil cel/mm3, neutrófilos 9/10 mil cel/mm3) na fase precoce do choque séptico. Relativamente à microbiologia dos isolados, a erradicação dos patógenos ocorreu para todos os pacientes após a infusão estendida contra Gram-negativos sensíveis (CIM: 2 mg/L), e de sensibilidade intermediária (CIM 4mg/L) como a K. pneumoniae e P. aeruginosa, enquanto a infusão intermitente garantiu erradicação de patógenos apenas até CIM 2 mg/L. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a superioridade da infusão estendida frente à infusão intermitente na cobertura dos dois antimicrobianos, no alvo terapêutico considerado 100%fΔT>CIM. Registraram-se alterações na farmacocinética destes agentes nos pacientes frente aos dados reportados para voluntários sadios. Diferença significativa entre grupos (G1/G2) foi encontrada com relação meia vida biológica, e ao volume de distribuição tanto pata a piperacilina quanto para o meropenem


Background: Meropenem (MER) and Piperacillin/Tazobactam (PTZ), antimicrobial betalactam agents are widely prescribed to burn patients from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with nosocomial infections caused by Gram-negative strains. Change in the pharmacokinetics of critically ill patient occurs during the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at the course of septic shock. Then, the recommended dose administered by intermittent infusion, 0.5 hr cannot reach the target against gram-negative strains MIC > 2 mg/L. Subject: To investigate drug effectiveness of the beta-lactams piperacilin and meropenem in extended infusion compared to the recommended intermittent infusion in critically ill septic burn patients using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approach. Ethics, Casuistry and Methods: All authors declared there is no conflict of interests. Ethical approval CAAE, register 07525118.3.0000.0068. It was investigated in the study protocol 36 septic burn patients of both genders (12M / 24F), undergoing antimicrobial therapy with PTZ 4.5 g q6h or MER 1g q8h. Based on the chosen antimicrobial therapy and drug infusion prescribed by the physician, patients were stratified in groups with intermittent 0.5h infusion (G1) or with the extended 3h infusion (G2), both groups with 16 patients each. Two blood samples were collected at the steady state (1.5mL / each), at the 3rd and 5th hrs of starting the infusion. Serum levels were measured by liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics (PK) of MER or PTZ was compared to data reported in healthy volunteers for both groups of patients. PK/PD approach was applied to estimate the drug effectiveness index (fΔT> MIC) and to assess the probability of target attained (PTA) based on the recommended PK/PD target, 100% fΔT> MIC. Results and discussion: Characteristics of patients admission G1/G2 were: Clcr 115(90- 148)/127(90-170) ml/min; 30(24-31)/27(24-34) yrs, 70(61-75)/71(65-75) kg, 30(20- 42)/33.9(18-38.4)% total burn surface area, SAPS3 53(45-57)/48(37.8-59.5), medians (interquartile): thermal trauma occurred (17/16), electric trauma (1/2), inhalation injury (11/11), mechanical ventilation (9/16) and vasopressors required in 15/8 patients. It was demonstrated that different PK changes occurred for both beta-lactam agents after the extended or intermittent infusion by comparison with data reported in healthy volunteers. PK changes were related to the prolongation of biological half-life and increases on volume of distribution with impact on pharmacodynamics. On the other hand, meropenem total body clearance reduced by 50% at the earlier period of septic shock could be explained by the reduction of MER-transporters expression in the tubular renal secretion, once only patients with renal function preserved were included in the study protocol. Inflammatory biomarkers increased at the earlier period of septic shock: C-rp 232/183mg/L; leukocytes 11/14*103cel/mm3, neutrophils 9/10*103cel/mm3, medians, G1/G2. Clinical and microbiological cure was obtained for all patients of G1 against MIC < 2mg/L after intermittent 0.5 h infusion; while PK/PD target was attained for G2 patients undergoing antimicrobial therapy with MER or PTZ by extended infusion against gram negative strains K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa up to MIC 4mg L. Conclusion: Superiority of the extended infusion over intermitent infusion was obtained for the two antimicrobials was evidenced, in the therapeutic target considered 100%fΔT>CIM. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of these agents were recorded in patients compared to data reported for healthy volunteers. A significant difference between groups (G1/G2) was found in relation to biological half-life and volume of distribution for both piperacillin and meropenem


Subject(s)
Piperacillin/analysis , Burns/diagnosis , Meropenem/analysis , Patients/classification , Shock, Septic/complications , Pharmacokinetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cross Infection/complications , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Critical Illness/classification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Pharmacologic Actions , Enterobacteriaceae , Dosage , Intensive Care Units/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233523, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153470

ABSTRACT

Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.


Estudos microbiológicos da sanidade de psitacídeos que serão reintroduzidos são importantes para avaliar se esses animais atuam como portadores de agentes patogênicos para outros animais e humanos. A espectrometria de massa por ionização/dessorção de matriz assistida por laser/tempo de vôo (MALDI-TOF MS) é um método mais rápido e preciso para identificar bactérias na comparação com métodos convencionais de microbiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado de saúde de psitacídeos cativos, identificando bactérias Gram-negativas da microbiota fecal por MALDI -TOF MS. Os resultados indicaram alta frequência de bactérias Gram-negativas nas fezes (96,5%), principalmente da família Enterobacteriaceae (88,7%). As mais prevalentes foram Escherichia coli (39,0%), Proteus vulgaris (12,2%), Klebsiella spp. (12,1%) e Raoultella ornithinolytica (8,7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. e Escherichia hermannii foram isolados com menor frequência. Todos esses agentes são potencialmente patogênicos para os papagaios e podem causar infecções sistêmicas em outros animais e seres humanos. Esses achados reforçam que o MALDI- TOF MS é um método rápido e preciso de identificação do microrganismo e avaliação do estado de saúde dos psitacídeos, fornecendo dados relevantes para auxiliar na tomada de decisões sobre os protocolos sanitários em centros de triagem de animais selvagens e sobre a possibilidade de reintrodução futura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Psittaciformes , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Proteus , Providencia , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Enterobacteriaceae
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237098, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153483

ABSTRACT

Endosymbiont bacteria can affect biological parameters and reduce the effectiveness of natural enemies in controlling the target insect. The objective of this work was to identify endosymbiont bacteria in Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), the main natural enemy used to manage Gonipterus platensis (Marelli, 1926) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Genomic DNA from six A. nitens populations was extracted and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed with the primers to detect endosymbiont bacteria in this insect. The PCR products were amplified, sequenced, and compared with sequences deposited in the GenBank for the bacteria identification. All A. nitens populations had the bacterium Yersinia massiliensis (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). This bacterium was originally described as free-living, and it is associated with and composes part of the A. nitens microbiota. This is the first report of Y. massiliensis in an insect host.


As bactérias endossimbiontes podem afetar os parâmetros biológicos e reduzirem a eficácia de inimigos naturais no controle do inseto alvo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar bactérias endossimbiontes em Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), o principal inimigo natural usado no manejo de Gonipterus platensis (Marelli, 1926) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). O DNA genômico de seis populações de A. nitens foi extraído e as reações em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) realizadas com os primers para detectar bactérias endossimbiontes neste inseto. Os produtos de PCR foram amplificados, sequenciados e comparados com as sequências depositadas no GenBank para identificação das bactérias. Todas as populações de A. nitens tinham a bactéria Yersinia massiliensis (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). Esta bactéria foi originalmente descrita como de vida livre e está associada e compõe parte da microbiota de A. nitens. Este é o primeiro relato de Y. massiliensis em um hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Weevils , Hymenoptera/genetics , Yersinia/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977452

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study evaluated in vitro resistance and susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca strains) and Staphylococci strains, isolated from sheep’s milk, against antibiotics and essential oils from Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium.@*Methodology and results@#Antibiotic resistance tests were done using disc diffusion while essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and yields were calculated relative to plant dry matter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze each oil's chemical composition. Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid (AMC), Cefotaxime (CTX), Cefoxitine (FOX), Nalidixic acid (NA), Gentamicin (CN), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Ofloxacin (OFX) were very effective against the E. coli strains tested. Half of the strains were resistant to AMC, 60% to Ticarcillin (TIC) and 80% to Tetracycline (TE). Klebsiella oxytoca was resistant against AMC, FOX and TIC (100%). Antibiotic-resistant testing on Staphylococci strains indicated Staphylococcus capitis and S. chromogenes as the most sensitive. Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus and S. cohnii ureal exhibited less resistance to Oxacilin (OX), TE, Pristinamycin (PT), Erythromycin (E) and Penicillin (P). Mentha pulegium resulted in a higher yield of essential oil of 3.2% oil compared to T. satureioides with only 1.85% yield. The monoterpene oxygenated derivatives, monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenols are found in essential oil extracts. Thymus satureioides essential oil had high antibacterial activity even at low concentrations (0.2; 0.55 g/mL). The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values indicate that the essential oils from the plants analyzed had bactericidal effects on all strains tested and are similar to the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#The high antibacterial properties of these medicinal plants, against bacteria isolated from sheep’s milk, provide an opportunity to use these medicinal plants in the breeding sector, as additives and preservatives in the dairy industry.


Subject(s)
Enterobacteriaceae , Staphylococcus , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Sheep
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. map, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468416

ABSTRACT

Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity , Enterobacteriaceae/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Feces/microbiology , Water Pollutants/analysis
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468437

ABSTRACT

Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.


Estudos microbiológicos da sanidade de psitacídeos que serão reintroduzidos são importantes para avaliar se esses animais atuam como portadores de agentes patogênicos para outros animais e humanos. A espectrometria de massa por ionização/dessorção de matriz assistida por laser/tempo de vôo (MALDI-TOF MS) é um método mais rápido e preciso para identificar bactérias na comparação com métodos convencionais de microbiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado de saúde de psitacídeos cativos, identificando bactérias Gram-negativas da microbiota fecal por MALDI -TOF MS. Os resultados indicaram alta frequência de bactérias Gram-negativas nas fezes (96,5%), principalmente da família Enterobacteriaceae (88,7%). As mais prevalentes foram Escherichia coli (39,0%), Proteus vulgaris (12,2%), Klebsiella spp. (12,1%) e Raoultella ornithinolytica (8,7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. e Escherichia hermannii foram isolados com menor frequência. Todos esses agentes são potencialmente patogênicos para os papagaios e podem causar infecções sistêmicas em outros animais e seres humanos. Esses achados reforçam que o MALDI- TOF MS é um método rápido e preciso de identificação do microrganismo e avaliação do estado de saúde dos psitacídeos, fornecendo dados relevantes para auxiliar na tomada de decisões sobre os protocolos sanitários em centros de triagem de animais selvagens e sobre a possibilidade de reintrodução futura.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity , Enterobacteriaceae/pathogenicity , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Parrots/microbiology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1915-1928, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927827

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria Klebsiella michiganensis TS8 and Lelliottia Jeotgali MR2 on the growth and cadmium (Cd) uptake of Arabidopsis thaliana under Cd stress were explored. A wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as the experimental plant and was planted at different Cd concentrations. MR2 and TS8 bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the rhizospheric soil during the planting process. The initial Cd concentration of the bought soil was 14.17 mg/kg, which was used as the pot soil of the low-concentration Cd treatment group (LC). The concentration of soil Cd at high-concentration Cd treatment group (HC) were 200 mg/kg higher than that at LC group. Compared with the control group, MR2 suspension significantly promoted the growth of A. thaliana at both low and high concentrations, while TS8 strain and MR2_TS8 mixture only exhibited growth-promoting effect at high concentration. However, it was noteworthy that, TS8 suspension significantly reduced the Cd content in the underground parts of A. thaliana (60% and 59%), and significantly improved the Cd content in the aboveground parts of A. thaliana (234% and 35%) at both low and high concentrations. In addition, at low concentration, both single strain and mixed strains significantly improved the transformation from reducible Cd to acid-extractable Cd in soil, promoted Cd intake, and thereby reduced the total Cd content in soil. Therefore, the rational application of plant growth-promoting bacteria may improve crop yield and remediate Cd contamination in soil.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil , Soil Pollutants
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 180-187, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355769

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La aparición de enterobacterias multirresistentes y productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en pacientes de consulta externa con infecciones urinarias, representa un problema de salud pública en Perú. Objetivos. Caracterizar molecularmente enterobacterias multirresistentes aisladas de pacientes con diagnóstico de infección urinaria y procedentes de dos departamentos de la selva peruana. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo de 61 aislamientos de urocultivo procedentes de la selva peruana durante 2017 y 2018. Los perfiles de resistencia se identificaron utilizando el sistema automatizado MicroScan™ y para la detección de los genes blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV se empleó una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional. Resultados. Las enterobacterias positivas para BLEE más frecuentes por departamento fueron Escherichia coli en Madre de Dios (25 %, 10/40) y Ucayali (76,2 %, 16/21). En ambos departamentos, el gen blaCTX-Mfue el más frecuente (25/61; 41 %), seguido por blaTEM(15/61; 24,6 %) y blaSHV (10/61; 16,4 %). En el perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, se detectó 72,6 % de resistencia contra ampicilina, 82,3 % contra cefalotina y 88,7 % contra nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones. El porcentaje de cepas de enterobacterias multirresistentes productoras de BLEE en ambos departamentos fue del 57,4 % y el gen bla CTX-M fue el más frecuente.


Abstract | Introduction. The emergence of multiresistant enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in outpatients with urinary tract infections represents a public health problem in Perú. Objectives. To characterize multiresistant enterobacteria isolated from patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection in two Peruvian jungle departments using molecular techniques. Materials and methods. We conducted a descriptive, observational, and retrospective study of 61 urine culture isolates from two departments in the Peruvian jungle during 2017-2018. Resistance profiles were identified using the MicroScan™ automated system and a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEMand blaSHV genes. Results. The most common positive ESBL enterobacteria for each department were Escherichia coli in Madre de Dios (10/40; 25%) and Ucayali (16/21; 76.2%). Gene blaCTX-Mwas the most prevalent in both departments (25/61; 41%), followed by blaTEM (15/61; 24.6%), and blaSHV (10/61; 16.4%). As for the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, we detected resistance levels of 72.6% for ampicillin, 82.3% for cephalothin, and 88.7% for nitrofurantoin. Conclusions. BLEE-producing multi-resistant enterobacteria strains in both departments were 57.4% and blaCTX-M was the most common gene.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterobacteriaceae , beta-Lactam Resistance , Genes
16.
Infectio ; 25(3): 193-196, jul.-set. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250092

ABSTRACT

Resumen El constante aumento de Enterobacterales productores de carbapenemasas (CPE) se constituye en un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, por el impacto generado en la mortalidad de los pacientes. El tracto gastrointestinal es el principal reservorio de este tipo de microorganismos, por lo cual, la colonización rectal se convierte en un importante factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de posteriores infecciones. Una de las estrategias de vigilancia epidemiológica activa, es la búsqueda de pacientes colonizados, a través de cultivos de tamización para detectar estos microrganismos multirresistentes. Reportamos el caso de un paciente, con historia de sepsis de origen pulmonar, colonizado por Klebsiella pneumoniae con coproducción de carbapenemasas NDM + KPC y Escherichia coli con carbapenemasa NDM. Este hallazgo es cada vez más frecuente, lo cual implica un reto en su detección y diagnóstico. Se describen características del paciente, procedimientos realizados y hallazgos microbiológicos.


Abstract The constant increase in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) constitutes a public health problem worldwide, due to the impact generated on the mortality of patients. The gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for this microorganism, which is why, rectal colonization becomes an important risk factor for the development of subsequent infections. One of the active epidemiological surveillance strategies is the search for colonized patients through screening cultures, to detect these multi-resistant microorganisms. We report the case of a patient, with a history of sepsis of pulmonary origin, colonized by Klebsiella pneumoniae with co-production of NDM + KPC carbapenemases and NDM carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli. This finding is more and more frequent, which implies a challenge in its detection and diagnosis. Patient characteristics, procedures performed and microbiological findings are described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Sepsis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Escherichia coli , Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae
17.
Med. UIS ; 34(2): 83-88, mayo-ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375822

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El síndrome de la bolsa de orina púrpura es una entidad poco frecuente, con una prevalencia hasta de un 8% en pacientes con catéteres permanentes crónicos por más de 2 años. Esta condición se presenta en portadores de sonda vesical, siendo su principal signo clínico la aparición de orina de color púrpura, debida a la producción de sulfatasas y fosfatasas por enterobacterias. Se presenta un caso de una mujer de 63 años con diagnóstico de vejiga neurogénica, antecedente de enfermedad cerebrovascular y secuelas motoras debidas a neoplasia cerebral, quien consultó por presentar el color característico, con síntomas de infección del tracto urinario inferior. Se trató con nitrofurantoína y tuvo normalización del color urinario al quinto día de tratamiento. El diagnóstico de este síndrome implica un reto para el médico, y deben detectarse los factores de riesgo para proveer un adecuado manejo antimicrobiano y evitar el uso de recursos diagnósticos innecesarios. MÉD.UIS.2021;34(2): 83-8.


ABSTRACT Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity, with a prevalence of up to 8% in patients with chronic indwelling catheters for more than 2 years. This condition occurs in bladder catheter carriers, being the main clinical sign the appearance of purple urine, due to the production of sulphatases and phosphatases by Enterobacteriaceae. We present a clinical case of a 63-year-old woman with a diagnosis of neurogenic bladder and a history of cerebrovascular disease and motor sequelae due to brain neoplasia, who consulted for presenting that urine characteristic color, with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection. She was treated with nitrofurantoin and she had normalization of urinary color on the fifth day of treatment. The diagnosis of this syndrome implies a challenge for the physician, and risk factors must be detected to provide adequate antimicrobial management and avoid the use of unnecessary diagnostic resources. MÉD.UIS.2021;34(2): 83-8.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Catheterization , Urinary Tract Infections , Urine , Enterobacteriaceae
18.
Infectio ; 25(2): 89-93, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250073

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Detectar la presencia de Enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas en hisopados rectales de neonatos mediante técnica de nefelometría láser y caracterización del tipo de carbapenemasa mediante test inmunocromatográfico. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Fueron incluidos 57 neonatos, tamizados al ingreso a UCI, mediante hisopado rectal, procesado por nefelometría laser HB&L Carbapenemase (Alifax®) y caracterización del tipo de carbapenemasa por inmunocromatografía rápida RESIST-3 (Coris BioConcept®). Resultados: Encontramos un alto porcentaje de colonización rectal (22.9%) correspondiente a 13 hisopados positivos y 44 (77.1%) fueron negativos por nefelometría láser. Por VITEK 2® se obtuvo identificación de Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos en los 13 aislamientos y el test inmunocromatográfico reveló la presencia de carbapenemasas blaKPC en estos aislamientos. Discusión: Estudios evidencian el aumento de la colonización por microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas en neonatos. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que un porcentaje significativo de neonatos que ingresan a las Unidades de Cuidado Neonatal se encuentran colonizados con Enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas en tracto intestinal. Lo anterior constituye un riesgo potencial para su diseminación y posterior desarrollo de brotes, en donde surge la importancia de implementar estrategias de vigilancia activa como la tamización rectal para la detección oportuna de neonatos colonizados.


Abstract Objective: To detect the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rectal swabs of neonates by means of laser nephelometry technique and characterization of the type of carbapenemase by immunochromatographic test. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. 57 neonatal patients were included; They underwent rectal screening upon admission to the ICU, using swabs which were processed by HB&L Carbapenemase laser nephelometry (Alifax®) and characterization of the type of carbapenemase by RESIST-3 rapid immu nochromatography (Coris BioConcept®). Results: We found a high percentage of rectal colonization (22.9%) corresponding to 13 positive swabs and 44 samples (77.1%) were negative by laser nephelome try. Identification of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae was obtained by VITEK 2® in the 13 isolates and the immunochromatographic test revealed the presence of blaKPC carbapenemases in these isolates. Discussion: Studies show increased colonization by carbapenemase-producing microorganisms in neonates. The results of this study demonstrate that a significant percentage of neonates who enter Neonatal Care Units are colonized with Enterobacteriaceae that produce carbapenemases in the intestinal tract. This constitu tes a potential risk for its spread and subsequent development of outbreaks, where the importance of implementing active surveillance strategies such as rectal screening for the timely detection of colonized neonates arises.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Carbapenems , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Enterobacteriaceae , Mass Screening , Cross-Sectional Studies , Watchful Waiting , Intensive Care Units , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 197-203, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388237

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La producción de beta-lactamasas capaces de hidrolizar a los carbapenémicos es uno de los mecanismos de resistencia más preocupantes porque eliminan la última opción terapéutica frente a los microorganismos multi-resistentes. OBJETIVO: Determinar la producción de carbapenemasas tipo KPC y NDM-1, empleando métodos fenotípicos y genotípicos, en enterobacterias aisladas en un laboratorio clínico de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. MÉTODOS: Se determinó la producción de carbapenemasas mediante métodos fenotípicos (según algoritmo de Malbrán) y genotípicos (amplificación de los genes blaNDM-1 y blaKPC por RPC) en enterobacterias aisladas en un laboratorio clínico durante el período marzo-agosto 2018. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 605 enterobacterias de diferentes especies, siendo Escherichia coli la cepa con mayor porcentaje de aislamiento (61,3%), seguida por Klebsiella pneumoniae (14,9%). Diez y seis enterobacterias (2,64%) fueron positivas para la producción de carbapenemasas: 13 cepas de K. pneumoniae y tres del complejo Enterobacter cloacae. La RPC demostró que 14 cepas (87,5%) contienen el gen blaNDM-1 y dos (12,5%) el gen blaKPC; se observó 100% de concordancia entre la determinación fenotípica y la RPC para ambos grupos de enzimas. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados mostraron mayor incidencia de la metalo-beta-lactamasa tipo NDM-1, reconocida como una alarma epidemiológica debido a que su rápida diseminación dificulta su control, por lo que la identificación del tipo de enzima permitiría establecer estrategias de manejo y control más certeras con la finalidad de erradicar a dichos patógenos.


BACKGROUND: The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases is one of the most concerning resistance mechanisms since it eliminates the last therapeutic option against multidrug resistant microorganisms. AIM: To determine the production of KPC and NDM-1 type carbapenemases, using phenotypic and genotypic methods, in isolated enterobacteria in a clinical laboratory in the city of Maracay, Venezuela. METHODS: The production of carbapenemases was determined by phenotypic (according to the Malbrán algorithm) and genotypic methods (amplification of the blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes by PCR) in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae during the period March-August 2018. RESULTS: 605 Enterobacteriaceae of different species were identified, being Escherichia coli the strain with the highest percentage of isolation (61.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.9%). Sixteen strains (2.64%) were positive for carbapenemases production: 13 strains of K. pneumoniae and three of the Enterobacter cloacae complex. PCR showed that 14 strains (87.5%) carry the blaNDM-1 gene and two strains (12.5%) the blaKPC gene; 100% agreement was observed between phenotypic determination and PCR for both groups of enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed a higher incidence of metallo-beta-lactamase type NDM-1, which rapid dissemination and consequently difficult control has been cause of epidemiological alert. The identification of the type of enzyme would allow establishing more accurate management and control strategies in order to eradicate these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Laboratories , Anti-Bacterial Agents
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