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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 604-609, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249973

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existe poca información acerca de la efectividad de las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam en cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas en México. Objetivo: Determinar el perfil antimicrobiano de ambos antibióticos en nuestra comunidad. Método: El presente estudio de investigación fue prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Se incluyeron cepas clínicamente relevantes aisladas a partir de cultivos de cepa pura durante el periodo de agosto de 2018 a enero de 2019 en Mexicali, Baja California, México. Resultados: Se analizaron 74 cepas de enterobacterias y 19 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftazidima/avibactam fue de 100 % contra enterobacterias y de 72.7 % contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa; el porcentaje de sensibilidad de ceftolozano/tazobactam fue de 90.5 % para enterobacterias y de 72.7 % para Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusiones: Las combinaciones ceftolozano/tazobactam y ceftazidima/avibactam ofrecen buena sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro, tanto contra enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido como contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Se requieren más datos para valorar la respuesta clínica en pacientes que reciben esas combinaciones de antibióticos.


Abstract Introduction: There is limited information on the effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations on clinically relevant strains isolated in Mexico. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial profile of both antibiotic combinations in our community. Method: The present research study was prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional. Clinically relevant strains isolated from pure-strain cultures were included during the period from August 2018 to January 2019 in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Results: 74 enterobacteriaceae and 19 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were analyzed; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftazidime/avibactam was 100 % for enterobacteriaceae and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; the percentage of sensitivity of ceftolozane/tazobactam for enterobacteriaceae was 90.5 % and 72.7 % for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam combinations offer good antimicrobial sensitivity in vitro, both for ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More data are required to assess clinical response in patients receiving these antibiotic combinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Drug Combinations , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Tazobactam/therapeutic use , Mexico
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 804-813, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143408

ABSTRACT

Bacterial resistance is shown to be an inevitable side effect due to the excessive use of antibiotics, becoming a significant concern worldwide. Knowledge of regional bacterial resistance profiles enables the development of site-specific infection control practices, making conscious and moderate use of commercially available antibiotics. The aim of this study was the retrospective evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from companion animal infections in the region of Umuarama/PR, from 2013 to 2017. This research was performed by analyzing the database belonging to the "Laboratório de Microbiologia Animal" at the "Universidade Estadual de Maringá" (UEM). Staphylococcus spp. represented 45.53% of the bacteria isolated from clinical infections in small animals in the period and place evaluated, followed by enterobacteria (34.04%), non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB, 11.06%) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus (9.36%). A high number of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics used in veterinary medicine was found. The lowest resistances associated with the best impact factor values were found for aminoglycosides, especially amikacin, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin). Intermediate results were found for sulbactam-associated ampicillin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and enrofloxacin. According to the number of resistant antimicrobial drugs, 64.26% (151/235) of the isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant, being 15.32% extensively resistant. Considering the resistance to antimicrobial classes, 68.94% (162/235) of the isolates were classified as multiresistant, being 19.15% extensively resistant. No bacterial strains were characterized as pan-resistant, but ten bacteria were resistant to all classes tested, with isolated susceptibility to certain drugs. Through the evaluation of resistance profiles found in the period and place studied and relevant literature, it is clear that there is a growing increase in the number of multiresistant bacteria among domestic animals which characterizes a serious risk to public health. The therapeutic arsenal is becoming increasingly diminished, and there is more difficulty in empirical drug selection, making antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential for more specific selection in antimicrobial therapy. Educational measures on the conscious use of antibiotics, infection control, and prevention of local specific zoonoses need to be instituted for the knowledge of health professionals and general access of the population.(AU)


A resistência bacteriana, mostra-se como um efeito colateral inevitável pelo excessivo uso de antibióticos, tornando-se alvo de grande preocupação mundial. O conhecimento dos perfis de resistência bacteriana regionais possibilita o desenvolvimento de práticas de controle de infecções específicas para cada localidade, fazendo uso consciente e moderado dos antibióticos disponíveis no mercado. O objetivo deste estudo foi a avaliação retrospectiva do perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de infecções de animais de companhia na região de Umuarama/PR, no período de 2013 a 2017. Esta pesquisa foi realizada por meio da análise do banco de dados pertencente ao Laboratório de Microbiologia Animal da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM). Os Staphylococcus spp. representaram 45,53% das bactérias isoladas de infecções clínicas em pequenos animais no período e local avaliado, seguido por enterobactérias (34,04%), bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentados (BGNNF, 11,06%) e Streptococcus/Enterococcus (9,36%). Um número elevado de resistência antimicrobiana frente aos antibióticos utilizados na medicina veterinária foi encontrado. As menores resistências associadas aos melhores valores do fator de impacto foram encontrados para aminoglicosídeos, em especial amicacina, cloranfenicol, fluoroquinolonas (norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina). Já resultados intermediários foram encontrados para ampicilina associada a sulbactam, ceftriaxona, amoxacilina com ácido clavulônico e enrofloxacina. Conforme o número de drogas antimicrobianas resistentes, foram classificados como multirresistentes 64,26% (151/235) dos isolados, sendo 15.32% extensivamente resistentes. Já considerando a resistência a classes de antimicrobianos, 68,94% (162/235) dos isolados foram classificados como multirresistentes, sendo 19.15% extensivamente resistentes. Nenhum isolado bacteriano foi caracterizado como pan-resistente, porém 10 bactérias foram resistentes a todas as classes testadas, com susceptibilidade isolada a determinadas drogas. Por meio da avaliação dos perfis de resistência encontrados no período e local estudados e de literatura pertinente, percebe-se que há um aumento crescente no número de bactérias multirresistentes entre os animais domésticos o que caracteriza um grave risco à saúde pública. O arsenal terapêutico está se tornando cada vez mais diminuto e há mais dificuldade na seleção empírica de drogas, tornando essencial a realização de testes de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana para uma seleção mais específica na terapêutica antimicrobiana. Medidas educativas sobre o uso consciente dos antibióticos, controle de infecções e prevenção de zoonoses específicas para as localidades precisam ser instituídas para conhecimento dos profissionais do setor da saúde e acesso geral da população.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 433-441, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042659

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones causadas por enterobacterias productoras de β-talactamasas de espectro extendido (EP-BLEE) tienen implicaciones sobre la morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de EP-BLEE en sepsis neonatal y los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo, desde agosto del 2016 a agosto del 2017. Se incluyeron recién nacidos (RNs) ingresados en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Mediante prueba de difusión de doble disco se indagó la presencia de EP-BLEE y su asociación con características clínicas y demográficas de los RNs. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.501 RNs hospitalizados, con edad gestacional promedio de 36,3 semanas. Se diagnosticaron 196 eventos de sepsis neonatal, la etiología más frecuente fueron enterobacterias (45,5%); 88,8% demostraron resistencia a ampicilina y más de 42% a cefalosporinas de amplio espectro. El 22,9% presentó fenotipo BLEE positivo. Tener Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida (OR 4,6; IC 95% 1,47-14,6) y edad gestacional < 37 semanas (OR 5,4; IC 95%1,04-27,7) incrementaron el riesgo. Conclusión: En las enterobacterias causantes de sepsis neonatal, 22,9% son EP-BLEE; la infección es más probable en pacientes con Apgar ≤ 7 a los cinco minutos de vida y en prematuros.


Background: Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases enterobacteria (ESBL-EP) have implications for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To describe the prevalence of ESBL-EP in neonatal sepsis and associated factors. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2016 to August 2017; newborn babies (NB) hospitalized in the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" were included. The ESBL-EP were investigated by double-disk synergy test and its association with clinical and demographic characteristics of the NB. Results. A total of 1,501 hospitalized NB were studied, with an average gestational age of 36.3 weeks. They were diagnosed 196 neonatal sepsis events, the most frequent etiologies were enterobacteria (45.5%). Resistance to ampicilin was found in 88.8% and to broad spectrum cephalosporins in more than 42% of the strains; 22.9% of them were ESBL phenotype. Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of life (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.47-14.6) and gestational age < 37 weeks (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.04-27.) increase the risk. Conclusion: In enterobacteria that cause neonatal sepsis, 22.9% were EP-ESBL; infection was more likely in patients with Apgar ≤ 7 at five minutes of age and in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/classification
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 102-110, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacteria-producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) play an important role in healthcare infections, increasing hospitalization time, morbidity and mortality rates. Among several ESBLs that emerge from these pathogens, CTX-M-type enzymes had the most successful global spread in different epidemiological settings. Latin America presents high prevalence of CTX-M-2 in ESBL-producing enterobacterial infections with local emergence of the CTX-M-1 group. However, this high prevalence of the CTX-M-1 group has not yet been reported in Chile. The aim of this study was to identify ESBLs among enterobacteria isolated from clinical samples of critically ill patients from southern Chile. One-hundred thirty seven ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated from outpatients from all critical patient units from Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital. Phenotype characterization was performed by antibiogram, screening of ESBL, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). PCR was used for genetic confirmation of resistance. Molecular typing was performed by ERIC-PCR. ESBL-producing isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 115), Escherichia coli (n = 18), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 1), presenting multidrug resistance profiles. PCR amplification showed that the strains were positive for blaSHV (n = 111/81%), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 116/84.7%), blaTEM (n = 100/73%), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 28/20.4%), blaCTX-M-9 (0.7%), blaPER-1 (0.7%), and blaGES-10 (0.7%). The multiple production of ESBL was observed in 93% of isolates, suggesting high genetic mobility independent of the clonal relationship. The high frequency of the CTX-M-1 group and a high rate of ESBL co-production are changing the epidemiology of the ESBL profile in Chilean intensive care units. This epidemiology is a constant and increasing challenge, not only in Chile, but worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genotyping Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 914-918, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The global emergence of carbapenemases led to the need of developing new methods for their rapid detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests for carbapenemase-producing and non-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae from a surveillance study submitted to a multiplex real time PCR for carbapenemase detection were included in this study. The isolates were subjected to the rapid phenotypic tests Carba NP, Blue-Carba and Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM). A total of 83 carbapenemase-producing (43) and non-producing (40) isolates were included in the study. The sensitivity/specificity were 62.7%/97.5%, 95.3%/100%, and 74.4%/97.5% for Carba NP, Blue-Carba and CIM, respectively. Both Carba NP and Blue-Carba presented their final results after 75 min of incubation; the final results for CIM were obtained only after 8 h. Failure to detect OXA-370 carbapenemase was the main problem for Carba NP and CIM assays. As the Blue-Carba presented the highest sensitivity, it can be considered the best screening test. Conversely, CIM might be the easiest to perform, as it does not require special reagents. The early detection of carbapenemases aids to establish infection control measures and prevent carbapenemases to spread reducing the risk of healthcare associated infections and therapeutic failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enzyme Assays/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(3): 44-50, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007742

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) en niños con vejiga neurogénica, pueden producir alteraciones tanto morfológicas como funcionales, y desencadenan una respuesta inmune que no siempre es evidente. Las ITU son una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Resulta de suma importancia un correcto diagnóstico de las mismas, para un buen tratamiento y así evitar las complicaciones y secuelas que puedan ocasionar. El objeto del trabajo fue analizar la prevalencia y la etiología de las ITU en pacientes con vejiga neurogénica, y su patrón de resistencia. En un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo se incluyeron 46 muestras de orina para cultivo de niños de 1 a 18 años, de ambos sexos, con vejiga neurogénica, que fueron procesadas en un laboratorio de microbiología. De 46 urocultivos, 19 correspondieron a varones (19/46) 41% y 27 a niñas (27/46) 59%, los niños tenían una edad promedio de 11(2. De estos 21 resultaron positivos (21/46) 46%, aislando en mayor proporción E. coli. La frecuencia de ITU en niños con vejiga neurogénica fue de 21/46, 46%, siendo el porcentaje en este tipo de pacientes mucho más elevado que en niños que no presentan dicha anomalía. Los uropatógenos aislados con mayor frecuencia fueron E coli y K pneumoniae. El uso de sondas y pañales, así como la mala higiene predisponen a estas infecciones. En este estudio se vio buena sensibilidad a la nitrofurantoina y cefixima(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Disabled Children
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 47-50, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, with resistance to all β-lactams including carbapenems, negative Modified Hodge Test and the synergy test with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Phenylboronic Acid and Cloxacillin was positive only with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (difference of >5 mm in the inhibition zone between the disk without and with the inhibitor). Analysis by multiplex PCR for blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaKPC and blaOXA-48 enzymes confirmed the presence of blaNDM gene. This report of two different New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase-producing microorganisms in a different region of Brazil confirms the risk of spreading resistance genes between different species and emphasizes the need for prevention and control of infections caused by these pathogens, which have limited treatment options and have been linked to high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Fatal Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hospitals, Public
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 329-331, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042647

ABSTRACT

Resumen Actualmente se recomienda el uso de cefazolina para determinar la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación en cepas de enterobacterias en ITU no complicada. Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales en cepas urinarias según puntos de corte para cefalotina o cefazolina y la correlación de susceptibilidad entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo. Se estudió la concordancia entre cefalotina y cefazolina en 52 cepas por método de Kirby-Bauer y Vitek XL. En Escherichia coli fue de 0% para VitekXL y 50% para Kirby-Bauer. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo fue 95,6%. En el laboratorio debiera usarse cefazolina para determinar susceptibilidad a cefalosporinas orales de primera generación. La concordancia entre cefazolina y cefadroxilo sugiere que cefazolina podría predecir susceptibilidad para cefadroxilo.


Currently, the use of cefazolin is recommended to determine the susceptibility to first-generation oral cephalosporins in strains of enterobacteria in uncomplicated UTI. We determined susceptibility differences to oral cephalosporins in urinary strains according to cefazolin or cefalotin breakpoints and the correlation of susceptibility between cefazolin and cefadroxil. We studied 52 strains with cefalotin and cefazolin by disk-diffusion and MIC (Kirby-Bauer and Vitek XL) and a subgroup by disk-diffusion for cefadroxil. Agreement among different methods was 100% for K. pneumoniae and Proteus spp. In Escherichia coli, agreement for Vitek and disk-diffusion were 0 and 50% respectively. Susceptibility to first generation cephalosporins in E. coli should be determined with cefazolin. Agreement between cefazolin and cefadroxil suggests that cefazolin could also predict the susceptibility of cefadroxil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus/drug effects , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cefadroxil/pharmacology , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/classification , Cephalothin/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 627-637, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888926

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with health care-associated infections. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor.A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria. Results: Ceftolozane-tazobactam (MIC50/90, 0.25/32 µg/mL; 84.2% susceptible) and meropenem (MIC50/90, ≤0.06/0.12 µg/mL; 92.6% susceptible) were the most active compounds tested against Enterobacteriaceae. Among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 6.6% were carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and 26.4% exhibited an extended-spectrum β-lactamase non-carbapenem-resistant phenotype. Whereas ceftolozane-tazobactam showed good activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, non-carbapenem-resistant phenotype strains of Enterobacteriaceae (MIC50/90, 0.5/>32 µg/mL), it lacked useful activity against strains with a (MIC50/90, >32/>32 µg/mL; 1.6% S) carbapenem-resistant phenotype. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most potent (MIC50//90, 0.5/16 µg/mL) β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa isolates, inhibiting 86.8% at an MIC of ≤4 µg/mL. P. aeruginosa exhibited high rates of resistance to cefepime (16.0%), ceftazidime (23.6%), meropenem (28.3%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (16.4%). Conclusions: Ceftolozane-tazobactam was the most active β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated higher in vitro activity than available cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam when tested against Enterobacteriaceae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Penicillanic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Penicillanic Acid/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Tazobactam , Latin America
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 563-569, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899760

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las enterobacterias son bacilos gram-negativos responsables de infecciones graves en el ser humano. Se reporta una susceptibilidad en Klebsiella pneumoniae de 79,4% a piperacilina/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) en hospitales pediátricos de Chile, pero según nuestro conocimiento, no existen datos publicados a la fecha respecto a la susceptibilidad de otras enterobacterias a PIP/TAZO en la población pediátrica chilena. Objetivo: Determinar la susceptibilidad in vitro a PIP/TAZO en cepas obtenidas de infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae en un hospital pediátrico de Chile. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo y prospectivo de cepas de Enterobacteriaceae en Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río (HRRIO) entre 1 de enero de 2013 y el 27 de agosto de 2014. Se definió la susceptibilidad a PIP/TAZO por método de gradiente (E-test®) según puntos de corte CLSI 2014. Resultados: Se incluyeron 163 casos. El promedio de edad fue de 4 años 15 días. 70,6% de sexo femenino. El 79,7% de las cepas fueron aisladas en urocultivos. La susceptibilidad de Enterobacteriaceae a PIP/TAZO fue 95,1% (n = 155). La susceptibilidad intermedia fue 1,8% (n = 3). Discusión: Los aislados estudiados presentan alta susceptibilidad a PIP/TAZO. Este hallazgo puede explicarse por la baja circulación de microrganismos productores de BLEE y el limitado uso de PIP/TAZO en esta población pediátrica.


Introduction: Enterobacteriaceae are a group of gram-negative rods that can cause serious infections in humans. A susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumoniae of 79.4% to piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) is reported in pediatric hospitals in Chile. There is no published data published to date regarding PIP/TAZO susceptibility to other Enterobacteriaceae species in this population. Aim: To measure the in vitro PIP/TAZO susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from patients in a pediatric hospital in Chile. Methods: Descriptive and prospective study of Enterobacteriaceae positive cultures from patients assisting to the "Hospital de niños Roberto del Río" (HRRIO) between January 2013 and August 2014. PIP/TAZO susceptibility was established by gradient diffusion method (E-test®) according to the 2014 CLSI standards. Results: 163 cases were included. The average age was 4 years and 15 days. 70.6% were female. 79.7% of samples were urine cultures. PIP/TAZO susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae was 95.1% (n = 155). The intermediate susceptibility was 1.8% (n = 3). Discussion: The isolates studied present high susceptibility to PIP/TAZO. This finding could be explained by the fact that this population has not been exposed to this antimicrobial therapy and also the low rates for ESBL in pediatric infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Penicillanic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Piperacillin/pharmacology , Reference Values , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Prospective Studies , Penicillanic Acid/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 423-427, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888675

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to isolate Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas from the oral cavity of hospitalized newborns (NB) and determine their prevalence and the sensitivity profile to most commonly used antibiotics for this age group. Samples from the oral cavity of NB from 24 to 48 h age were collected using swabs. The samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar, incubated and the colonies counted and identified. For each strain, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using agar dilution test. Tests for enterobacteria producing extended spectrumβ-lactamases (ESBL) were performed using agar diffusion. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Two of the isolated strains were submitted to the susceptibility test in biofilm. Of the collected samples, 8% presented Enterobacteria (mean of 6,141 CFU/mL) and no Pseudomona species was isolated. Positive samples were from NB in accommodation set or in the NB nursery. Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and some strains were resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin and cephalothin. No ESBL strain was detected. Microorganisms in biofilms were resistant to all antibiotics, with concentrations four times higher than MIC. The presence of enterobacteria in the oral cavity of newborns, especially some strains resistant to normally used antibiotics, warns to the need for care to avoid the early colonization of this niche and the occurrence of a possible hospital infection in this age group.


Resumo O objetivo foi isolar enterobactérias e Pseudomonas da cavidade oral de recém-nascidos hospitalizados (RN) e determinar a prevalência e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos mais comumente utilizados para este grupo etário. Foram coletadas amostras da cavidade oral de NB com idade de 24-48 horas, usando swab. As amostras foram inoculadas em ágar MacConkey, incubadas e, as colônias contadas e identificadas. Para cada cepa, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada utilizando teste de ágar diluição. Testes para enterobactérias produtoras de b-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL) foram realizados utilizando difusão em ágar. Estatística descritiva foi utilizada para análise dos resultados. Duas das cepas isoladas foram submetidas ao teste de susceptibilidade em biofilme. Das amostras coletadas, 8% apresentaram enterobactérias (média de 6,141 UFC / ml) e nenhuma espécie de Pseudomonas foi isolada. As amostras positivas foram de RN de alojamento conjunto ou RN de berçário. Enterobacter foi o gênero mais prevalente e algumas cepas foram resistentes à ampicilina gentamicina e cefalotina. Não foi detectada cepa ESBL. Micro-organismos em biofilme foram resistentes a todos os antibióticos, em concentrações quatro vezes superiores ao MIC. A presença de enterobactérias em cavidade oral de recém-nascidos, especialmente algumas cepas resistentes aos antibióticos normalmente utilizados, alerta para a necessidade de cuidados, evitando a colonização precoce deste nicho e a ocorrência de possível infecção nosocomial neste grupo etário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Mouth/microbiology , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Biofilms , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 49(1): 50-54, mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041776

ABSTRACT

A molecular survey was conducted in Cochabamba, Bolivia, to characterize the mechanism involved in the resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Extended Spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) markers were investigated in a total of 101 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria recovered from different health centers during four months (2012-2013). CTX-M enzymes were detected in all isolates, being the CTX-M-1 group the most prevalent (88.1%). The presence of blaOXA-1 was detected in 76.4% of these isolates. A high quinolone resistance rate was observed among the included isolates. The aac(6′)-Ib-cr gene was the most frequent PMQR identified (83.0%). Furthermore, 6 isolates harbored the qnrB gene. Interestingly, qepA1 (6) and oqxAB (1), were detected in 7 Escherichia coli, being the latter the first to be reported in Bolivia. This study constitutes the first molecular survey on resistance markers in clinical enterobacterial isolates in Cochabamba, Bolivia, contributing to the regional knowledge of the epidemiological situation. The molecular epidemiology observed herein resembles the scene reported in South America.


Se llevó a cabo un relevamiento molecular de la resistencia a antibióticos de importancia clínica en aislamientos recuperados en Cochabamba, Bolivia. Se estudiaron los genes codificantes de β-lactamasas de espectro extendido y de resistencia a quinolonas de localización plasmídica (PMQR) en un total de 101 aislamientos de enterobacterias resistentes a oximinocefalosporinas recuperados en distintos centros de salud, durante 4 meses (2012-2013). En todos ellos se detectó la presencia de cefotaximasas, las CTX-M grupo 1 fueron las más prevalentes (88,1%). La presencia de blaOXA-1 se detectó en el 76,4% de estos aislamientos. Se observó una elevada proporción de aislamientos resistentes a quinolonas. El gen aac(6′)-Ib-cr fue el determinante PMQR más frecuentemente identificado (83%). Además, 6 aislamientos resultaron ser portadores de qnrB. Por otro lado, cabe remarcar que 7 Escherichia coli presentaron qepA1 (6) y oqxAB (1); se documenta así por primera vez la presencia de oqxAB en Bolivia. Este estudio constituye el primer relevamiento de marcadores de resistencia en aislamientos clínicos de enterobacterias en Cochabamba, Bolivia; de este modo se contribuye al conocimiento regional de la situación epidemiológica, la cual presenta un escenario similar al observado en el resto de Latinoamérica.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Quinolones/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Bolivia/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 173-178, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842833

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we used phenotypic methods to screen carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs) and evaluated their antimicrobial sensitivity profile. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-eight CREs were isolated at a university hospital in south Brazil in a one-year period. Samples were assessed using disk diffusion tests with inhibitors of β-lactamases such as phenylboronic acid (AFB), cloxacillin (CLOXA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Strains with differences in zone diameters ≥ 5mm for disks supplemented or not were considered producers of carbapenemases. RESULTS: Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent CRE, which appeared in 80.3% cases (n = 143). Among clinical materials, the rectal swab was responsible for 43.4% of the isolations (n = 62), followed by urine (18.9%; n = 27). Among the CREs identified in this study, the growth of 56.7% (n = 101) isolates, which were putative producers of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), were inhibited by AFB, whereas 7.3% (n = 13) isolates were inhibited by both AFB and CLOXA and were considered as putative producers of plasmid-mediated AmpC; approximately 3.4% (n = 6) were inhibited by EDTA, which possibly produced metallo-β-lactamase. Lastly, 32.6% (n = 58) cases showed negative results for AFB, CLOXA, and EDTA sensitivity, and represented another class of β-lactamases and/or mechanism of resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic screening of CREs is important for clinical laboratories that monitor outbreaks of resistant microbes. Phenotypic tests that use carbapenemase inhibitors and enhancers such as AFB, CLOXA, and EDTA are necessary since they are good screening methods for the detection of carbapenemases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Hospitals, University
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 98-101, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039180

ABSTRACT

Abstract Colistin resistance involving Gram-negative bacilli infections is a challenge for health institutions around of the world. Carbapenem-resistance among these isolates makes colistin the last therapeutic option for this treatment. Colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp., and Pseudomonas spp. was evaluated between 2010 and 2014 years, at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Over five years 1346 (4.0%) colistin resistant Gram-negative bacilli were evaluated. Enterobacteriaceae was the most frequent (86.1%) pathogen isolated, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (7.6%), and Pseudomonas spp. (6.3%). By temporal analysis there was a trend for an increase of colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, but not among non-fermentative isolates. Among 1346 colistin resistant isolates, carbapenem susceptibility was observed in 21.5%. Colistin resistance in our hospital has been alarmingly increased among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in both KPC positive and negative, thus becoming a therapeutic problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Colistin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Acinetobacter/isolation & purification , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Hospitals, University
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 320-324, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041768

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se evalúa una prueba rápida in house para la detección de enterobacterias sensibles a cefotaxima, basada en el cambio de pH del rojo fenol debido a la hidrólisis de este antibiótico. Las cepas de enterobacterias procedentes de 1.947 urocultivos se evaluaron mediante los paneles MicroScan y esta prueba in house. Mediante los paneles de MicroScan se estudiaron 499 aislados de enterobacterias, entre los cuales había 27 aislados de Escherichia coli productora de β-lactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), 16 de Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE y una de Klebsiella oxytoca BLEE. La prueba in house mostró una sensibilidad del 98% y una especificidad del 97%, con un valor predictivo negativo del 100% y un valor predictivo positivo del 78%. La prueba in house basada en el cambio de pH es útil en nuestro medio para detectar presuntivamente de forma rápida cepas de enterobacterias con cierta resistencia a cefotaxima.


In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cefotaxime/therapeutic use , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Phenolsulfonphthalein/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Cefotaxime/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 31-37, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the last 30 years there has been a dissemination of plasmid-mediated β-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are widely disseminated in the hospital setting and are detected in a lower frequency in the community setting. Cefotaximases are the most frequently detected ESBL type and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant species among ESBL producers. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae became widely disseminated in Brazil during the last decade and KPC production is currently the most frequent resistance mechanism (96.2%) in carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae. To date KPC-2 is the only variant reported in Brazil. Polymyxin B resistance in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae has come to an alarming rate of 27.1% in 2015 in São Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase was detected in Brazil in 2013, has been reported in different Brazilian states but are not widely disseminated. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil is a very serious problem that needs urgent actions which includes both more strict adherence to infection control measures and more judicious use of antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymyxins/therapeutic use , Polymyxins/pharmacology , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(5): 462-471, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797971

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4%) harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%), Escherichia coli (23.5%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5%) were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL) and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL). Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Dental Prosthesis/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 444-451, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780833

ABSTRACT

Abstract Presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria is a growing health concern of global significance. The local, regional, national, and international epidemiological studies for extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their encoding genes in foods are still incomplete. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and the characteristics of their encoding genes from a total of 250 samples of various foods of animal-origin (100 raw chicken meat, 100 raw cow milk, and 50 raw cow milk cheese) sold in Turkey. Overall, 55 isolates were positive as extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The most prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strain were identified as Escherichia coli (80%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (9.1%), Citrobacter braakii (5.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%), and Citrobacter werkmanii (1.8%) by Vitek® MS. The simultaneous production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC was detected in five isolates (9.1%) in E. coli (80%) and E. cloacae (20%). The frequency rates of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were 96.4%, 53.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The co-existence of bla -genes was observed in 82% of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producers with a distribution of blaTEM & blaCTX-M (52.7%), blaTEM & blaSHV (20%), blaTEM & blaCTX-M & blaSHV (12.7%), and blaSHV & blaCTX-M (1.8%). The most prevalent variant of blaCTX-M clusters was defined as blaCTX-M-1 (97.2%), followed by blaCTX-M-8 (2.8%). In summary, the analysed foods were found to be posing a health risk for Turkish consumers due to contamination by Enterobacteriaceae with a diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases encoding genes.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Cheese/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae , Meat/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Turkey , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Cattle , Chickens , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Food Microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151581

ABSTRACT

Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) are rapidly disseminating worldwide, and their presence in tertiary care hospitals poses a significant threat to the management of nosocomial infections. There is a need to control CPO, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, because these organisms are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics and are easily transmitted. At present, the identification of CPO is time-consuming; hence, this study focused on the use of the Xpert CARBA-R assay (Cepheid, USA) to determine intestinal colonization rates of CPO in patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Korea. Forty clinical stool samples were collected and inoculated both in a CARBA-R cartridge and in conventional culture plates. The CARBA-R assay required only ~one hour to screen CPO, while the time required for conventional culture was over three days. We also found that the prevalences of intestinal colonization by carbapenem-resistant organisms and Enterobacteriaceae were 17.5% (7 out of 40) and 7.5% (3 out of 40), respectively. Among the colonizing strains, three that contained carbapenemase, including Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase (KPC), and imipenem (IMP) and Verona integron-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM) were found. With its convenience, the Xpert CARBA-R assay can be included in CPO surveillance strategies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Humans , Imipenem/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Tertiary Healthcare , beta-Lactamases/genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed. Production of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase was determined by genotypic tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by using an Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing and oxacillinase (OXA)-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Of the 393 isolates tested, 79 (20.1%) were CPE. Of these 79 isolates, 47 (59.5%) harbored the bla(OXA-232) gene while the remaining isolates carried genes bla(KPC-2) (n=27), bla(IMP-1) (n=4), and bla(NDM-1) (n=1). Among the 24 KPC-2 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital B, 100% were resistant to carbapenems, 8% to colistin, and 0% to tigecycline. Among the 45 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae at hospital C, 95% were resistant to ertapenem, 68% to imipenem, 95% to meropenem, 10% to colistin, and 24% to tigecycline. PFGE analysis revealed a unique pattern for KPC-2 K. pneumoniae and identified 30 isolates belonging to the dominant pulsotypes (PT)1 and PT2 among 41 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: CPE strains are present in Korea, with the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-232 and KPC-2. The prevalence and predominant genotypes of CPE show hospital-specific differences.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Female , Genotype , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics
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