Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 180
Filter
1.
Infectio ; 24(3): 169-172, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114861

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Tigeciclina es un fármaco de uso restringido en pediatría. El uso de este antibiótico por vía intraventricular es una decisión de uso compasivo en casos de bacterias altamente resistentes, y para los casos en que no exista otra alternativa. Caso clínico: Se presenta seis casos de pacientes con diagnóstico de ventriculitis a Enterococcus faecium que recibieron tigeciclina intraventricular con evolución bacteriológica exitosa. Se discute las dosis utilizadas por vía endovenosa e intraventricular. Conclusiones: el uso de este antibiótico por vía intraventricular puede ser una alternativa exitosa en casos de gérmenes altamente resistentes y cuando no exista otra alternativa terapéutica.


Abstract Introduction: Tigecycline is a drug of restricted use in pediatrics. The use of this antibiotic intraventricularly is a decision of compassive use in cases of highly resistant bacteria, and in cases where there is no other alternative. Clinical case: We present six cases of patients with a diagnosis of ventriculitis caused by Enterococcus faecium, who received intraventricular tigecycline with successful microbiological evolution. The doses used intravenously and intraventricularly are discussed. Conclusions: the use of this antibiotic intraventricularly can be a successful alternative in cases of highly resistant germs, when there are not alternative options. Key words: ventriculitis, Enterococcus faecium, tigecycline, intraventricula


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Enterococcus faecium , Cerebral Ventriculitis , Infusions, Intraventricular , Tigecycline , Therapeutics , Bacteria , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 217-223, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115545

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Es importante mantener programas de vigilancia bacteriana para disminuir resistencia y definir esquemas farmacológicos adecuados. Los pacientes con abdomen agudo representan un grupo microbiológico especial. Objetivos: Hacer una revisión de agentes patógenos en pacientes adultos operados en nuestro Servicio de Urgencia por patología abdominal con líquido libre y analizar los resultados obtenidos de cultivos respecto a las cepas y la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva con estadística descriptiva. Se incluyen pacientes consecutivos, mayores de 18 años, operados por abdomen agudo que presentan líquido libre intraperitoneal entre noviembre de 2017 y abril de 2018. Se excluyen casos con terapia antimicrobiana, hospitalización y/o cirugía en los 3 meses previos. Se registran los cultivos positivos, cepas aisladas, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, datos demográficos y evolución clínica. Resultados: De 63 pacientes 55% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,2 años. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron de origen apendicular (62%) y de causa entérica (30%). En un 44% el cultivo fue positivo y en 36% con más de un germen. Escherichia coli fue el patógeno más frecuente (64,2%) seguidos de Enterococcus faecium y Streptococcus anginosus (7,1%). De los otros patógenos cultivados sólo se observó resistencia múltiple en un caso aislado de Morganella Morganii. Conclusiones: Estos datos constituyen la realidad microbiológica local en abdomen agudo. La Escherichia Coli sigue siendo el germen más frecuente, debe enfrentarse con profilaxis y tratamiento antibiótico adecuado. Es necesario mantener vigilancia microbiología local para un manejo acorde.


Introduction: It is important to maintain bacterial surveillance programs to decrease resistance and define adequate pharmacological schemes. Patients with abdomen represent a special microbiological group. Objetives: Make a review of pathogens in adult patients operated in our Emergency Service for abdominal pathology with free fluid and analyze the results obtained from cultures with respect to the strains and susceptibility to antibiotics. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study with descriptive statistics. We include consecutive patients, older than 18 years old, operated on by abdomen who present free intraperitoneal fluid between November 2017 and April 2018. Cases with antimicrobial therapy, hospitalization and/or surgery 3 months prior are excluded. Positive cultures, isolated strains, antimicrobial susceptibility, demographic data and clinical evolution are recorded. Results: Of 63 patients, 55% were men and the average age was 52.2 years. The most frequent pathologies were of appendicular origin (62%) and of enteric origin (30%). In 44% the crop was positive and in 36% with more than one germ. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen (64.2%) followed by Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus anginosus (7.1%). Of the others, cultivated pathogens have only observed multiple resistance in an isolated case of Morganella Morganii. Conclusions: These data include the local microbiological reality in acute abdomen. Escherichia coli is still the most frequent germ that must be faced with the profile and the appropriate treatment. It is necessary to maintain local microbiology surveillance for a proper management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Ascitic Fluid , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Streptococcus anginosus , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Abdomen, Acute/pathology , Metronidazole
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180568, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Glycolipids/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Glycolipids/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 460-465, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001467

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fidelity of the genomes is defended by mechanism known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) systems. Three Type II CRISPR systems (CRISPR1- cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas) have been identified in enterococci isolates from clinical and environmental samples. The aim of this study was to observe the distribution of CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas in non-clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from food and fecal samples, including wild marine animals. The presence of CRISPRs was evaluated by PCR in 120 enterococci strains, 67 E. faecalis and 53 E. faecium. It is the first report of the presence of the CRISPRs system in E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from wild marine animal fecal samples. The results showed that in non-clinical strains, the CRISPRs were more frequently detected in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. And the frequencies of CRISPR1-cas and CRISPR2 were higher (60%) in E. faecalis strains isolated from animal feces, compared to food samples. Both strains showed low frequencies of CRISPR3-cas (8.95% and 1.88%). In conclusion, the differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may be related with the results observe in distribution of CRISPRs systems.


Resumo A fidelidade dos genomas ​​é defendida por mecanismos conhecidos como sistemas de repetições palindrômicas curtas agrupadas e regularmente interespaçadas (CRISPRs). Três tipos de sistemas CRISPR II (CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas) têm sido identificados em cepas de enterococos isolados de amostras clínicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi observar a distribuição dos CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas em cepas não-clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isoladas de amostras alimentícias e fecais, incluindo animais marinhos selvagens. A presenca dos CRISPRs foi determinada por PCR em 120 cepas de enterococos, sendo 67 E. faecalis e 53 E. faecium. É o primeiro relato da presença do sistema CRISPRs nas estirpes E. faecalis e E. faecium isoladas de amostras fecais de animais marinhos selvagens. Os resultados mostraram que em cepas não-clínicas, os CRISPRs foram mais frequentemente detectados em E. faecalis do que em E. faecium. E as frequências de CRISPR1-cas e CRISPR2 foram maiores (60%) em cepas de E. faecalis isoladas de fezes de animais, quando comparadas à amostras de alimentos. Ambas as cepas apresentaram baixas freqüências de CRISPR3-cas (8,95% e 1,88%). Em conclusão, as diferenças nos habitats das espécies de enterococos podem estar relacionadas com os resultados observados na distribuição dos sistemas CRISPRs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Food Microbiology , Turtles/microbiology , Vegetables/microbiology , Chickens/microbiology , Dairy Products/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Spheniscidae/microbiology , Fur Seals/microbiology , Meat/microbiology
5.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 179-183, jun. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013370

ABSTRACT

Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to several antimicrobial classes and show a great ability to acquire new mechanisms of resistance. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is a major concern because these drugs either alone or in combination are commonly used for the treatment of enterococcal infections. Ampicillin resistance, which is rare in Enterococcus faecium occurs in most of the hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium isolates. High-level resistance to ampicillin in E. faecium is mainly due to the enhanced production of PBP5 and/or by polymorphisms in the beta subunit of this protein. The dissemination of high-level ampicillin resistance can be the result of both clonal spread of strains with mutated pbp5 genes and resistance horizontal gene transfer.


Los enterococos son intrínsecamente resistentes a varias clases de antimicrobianos y presentan una gran capacidad para adquirir mecanismos de resistencia. La resistencia a los antibióticos p-lactámicos es preocupante porque estos fármacos solos o combinados se usan comúnmente para el tratamiento de las infecciones enterocócicas. La mayoría de los aislamientos hospitalarios de Enterococcus faecium presentan resistencia a la ampicilina, la cual es rara en Enterococcus faecalis. El alto nivel de resistencia a la ampicilina en E. faecium se debe principalmente a la hiperproducción de PBP5 y/o a polimorfismos en la subunidad beta de esta proteína. La propagación de esta resistencia puede deberse tanto a la diseminación clonal de cepas con genes pbp5 mutados como a la transferencia horizontal de genes.


Subject(s)
Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Ampicillin/antagonists & inhibitors , Ampicillin Resistance/genetics
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an issue not only with regard to public health, but also in terms of economic impact. AMR surveillance has mainly been carried out in general hospitals, and not in nursing hospitals. This study was conducted to investigate the AMR rate for bacterial strains isolated from nursing hospital samples.METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results from a total of 23,518 bacterial isolates recovered from clinical specimens taken in 61 nursing hosals were analyzed. AST was conducted using Vitek 2 with AST cards specific for the bacterial strains.RESULTS: A total of 19,357 Gram-negative and 4,161 Gram-positive bacterial strains were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6,384) and Escherichia coli (n=5,468) were the most prevalent bacterial species and, among Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (n=1,565) was common. The AMR rate was high for the following strains: cefotaxime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, 77.4%; cefotaxime-resistant E. coli, 70.6%; imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, 90.3%; imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, 49.3%; oxacillin-resistant S. aureus, 81.1%, penicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, 44.8%, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 53.5%. AMR rate change varied by bacterial species and antimicrobial drug.CONCLUSION: AMR rates of major pathogens from nursing hospitals were higher than those from general hospitals with the exception of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. Continuous monitoring and infection control strategies are needed.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Hospitals, General , Infection Control , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Nursing , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Public Health , Staphylococcus aureus
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 69-74, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Propofol and Ephedrine are commonly used during anesthesia maintenance, the former as a hypnotic agent and the later as a vasopressor. The addition of propofol to ephedrine or administration of ephedrine before propofol injection is useful for decreasing or preventing propofol related hemodynamic changes and vascular pain. This in vitro study evaluated the antibacterial effect on common hospital-acquired infection pathogens of ephedrine alone or combined with propofol. Material and method The study was performed in two stages. In the first, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of propofol and ephedrine alone and combined was calculated for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter spp. at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h, using the microdilution method. In the second stage, the same drugs and combination were used to determine their effect on bacterial growth. Bacterial solutions were prepared at 0.5 MacFarland in sterile 0.9% physiological saline and diluted at 1/100 concentration. Colony numbers were measured as colony forming units.mL-1 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th hours. Results Ephedrine either alone or combined with propofol did not have an antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and this was similar to propofol. However, ephedrine alone and combined with propofol was found to have an antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species at 512 mcg.mL-1 concentration and significantly decreased bacterial growth rate. Conclusion Ephedrine has an antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species which were frequently encountered pathogens as a cause of nosocomial infections.


Resumo Introdução Propofol e efedrina são fármacos comumente usados durante a manutenção da anestesia, o primeiro como agente hipnótico e o segundo como vasopressor. A adição de propofol à efedrina ou a administração de efedrina antes da injeção de propofol é útil para diminuir ou prevenir alterações hemodinâmicas e dor vascular relacionadas ao propofol. Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito antibacteriano de efedrina, isolada ou em combinação com propofol, em patógenos comuns implicados em infecção hospitalar. Material e método O estudo foi feito em duas etapas. Na primeira, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de propofol e de efedrina isolada e em combinação foi calculada para Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e um isolado clínico de Acinetobacter spp às 0, 6, 12 e 24 horas, com o método de microdiluição. Na segunda etapa, o mesmo fármaco e sua combinação foram usados para determinar seus efeitos no crescimento bacteriano. As soluções bacterianas foram preparadas em soro fisiológico a 0,9% em 0,5 McFarland e diluídas a uma concentração de 1/100. Os números das colônias foram medidos como ufc.mL-1 às 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 horas. Resultados Efedrina isolada ou em combinação com propofol não apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre E. coli, E. faecium ou P. aeruginosa, um resultado semelhante ao de propofol. Porém, efedrina isolada e em combinação com propofol apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Acinetobacter spp, em concentração de 512 mcg.mL-1, e redução significativa da taxa de crescimento bacteriano. Conclusão Efedrina tem atividade antimicrobiana em S. aureus e Acinetobacter spp, patógenos frequentemente identificados como causa de infecções nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Ephedrine/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propofol/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium, especially vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm), is a major concern for patients with hematologic diseases. Exposure to antibiotics including fluoroquinolone, which is used as a routine prophylaxis for patients with hematologic (MH) diseases, has been reported to be a risk factor for infection with vancomycin-resistant eneterocci. We compared the characteristics of E. faecium isolates according to their vancomycin susceptibility and patient group (MH vs non-MH patients). METHODS: A total of 120 E. faecium bacteremic isolates (84 from MH and 36 from non-MH patients) were collected consecutively, and their characteristics (susceptibility, multilocus sequence type [MLST], Tn1546 type, and the presence of virulence genes and plasmids) were determined. RESULTS: Among the vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) isolates, resistance to ampicillin (97.6% vs 61.1%) and high-level gentamicin (71.4% vs 38.9%) was significantly higher in isolates from MH patients than in those from non-MH patients. Notably, hyl, esp, and pEF1071 were present only in isolates with ampicillin resistance. Among the VREfm isolates, ST230 (33.3%) and ST17 (26.2%) were predominant in MH patients, while ST17 (61.1%) was predominant in non-MH patients. Plasmid pLG1 was more prevalent in E. faecium isolates from MH patients than in those from non-MH patients, regardless of vancomycin resistance. Transposon analysis revealed five types across all VREfm isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The antimicrobial resistance profiles and molecular characteristics of E. faecium isolates differed according to the underlying diseases of patients within the same hospital. We hypothesize that the prophylactic use of fluoroquinolone might have an effect on these differences.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Ampicillin Resistance , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus , Gentamicins , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Plasmids , Risk Factors , Vancomycin , Vancomycin Resistance , Virulence
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bactericidal effects of copper, brass (copper 78%, tin 22%), and stainless steel against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREFM), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA). METHODS: The isolates (MRSA, VREFM, MRPA) used in this study were mixed wild type 3 strains isolated from patients treated at Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital in 2017. These strains showed patterns of multidrug resistance. The lyophilized strains were inoculated into and incubated for 24 hr in tryptic soy broth at 35℃. The initial bacterial inoculum concentration was adjusted to 105 CFU/mL. A 100-mL bacterial suspension was incubated in containers made of brass (copper 78%, tin 22%), copper (above 99% purity), and stainless steel at 35℃. Viable counts of bacteria strains were measured for 9 days. RESULTS: In this study, the bactericidal effects of copper and brass on MRSA, VREFM, and MRPA were verified. The bactericidal effect of stainless steel was much weaker than those of copper and brass. The bactericidal effect was stronger on MRPA than on MRSA or VREFM. CONCLUSION: To prevent cross infection of multidrug resistant bacteria in hospitals, further studies of longer duration are needed for testing of copper materials on objects such as door knobs, faucets, and bed rails.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Copper , Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Enterococcus faecium , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Stainless Steel , Tin
10.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 225-228, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741638

ABSTRACT

By activity-guided fractionation, gliotoxin was isolated as an antibacterial metabolite of the fungus Penicillium decumbens which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Gliotoxin was further evaluated for antibacterial activity against several piscine and human MDR (multidrug resistance) pathogens. Gliotoxin showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive piscine pathogens such as Streptococcus iniae FP5228, Streptococcus iniae FP3187, Streptococcus parauberis FP3287, Streptococcus parauberis SPOF3K, S. parauberis KSP28, and Lactococcus garvieae FP5245. Gliotoxin showed strong activity especially against S. parauberis SPOF3K and S. iniae FP5228, which are resistant to oxytetracycline. It is noteworthy that gliotoxin effectively suppressed streptococci which are the major pathogens for piscine infection and mortality in aquaculture industry. Gliotoxin also showed strong antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant human pathogens (MDR) including Enterococcus faecium 5270 and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) 3089.


Subject(s)
Aquaculture , Enterococcus faecium , Fungi , Gliotoxin , Humans , Lactococcus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Mortality , Oxytetracycline , Penicillium , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus
11.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2018. 49 p. il., tab, graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905990

ABSTRACT

E. faecalis e E. faecium possuem grande relevância nas infecções hospitalares por apresentarem facilidade em adquirir resistência aos antibióticos. E. faecalis também apresentam alta prevalência nas infecções endodônticas, entretanto a importância de E. faecium para a odontologia ainda precisa ser esclarecida. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi comparar cepas clínicas de E. faecium com as cepas de E. faecalis em relação a capacidade de formação de biofilme na dentina radicular e penetração nos túbulos dentinários. Além disso, foi avaliada a interação dessas espécies em biofilmes mistos. Para a realização desse estudo, foram utilizadas cepas clínicas, previamante, isoladas de canais radiculares com infecções endodõnticas e identificadas pelo PCR multiplex. Entre as cepas isoladas, foram selecionadas 4 cepas de E. faecalis e 2 cepas de E. faecium. Primeiramente, foi realizado a formação dos biofilmes monotípicos das cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium sobre dentinas radiculares de dentes bovinos. Os biofilmes foram formados em placas de microtitulação por diferentes tempos: 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. Os biofilmes formados foram, então, analisados pela contagem de células viáveis (UFC/mL) e quantificação da biomassa total (método do cristal violeta). Além disso, os biofilmes foram analisados por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV) procurando-se observar a penetração das células de E. faecalis e E. faecium nos túbulos dentinários. A seguir foram formados biofilmes heterotípicos de E. faecalis e E. faecium para estudo das interações ecológicas estabelecidas entre as espécies. A análise dos biofilmes heterotípicos foi feita pela quantificação da biomassa total (cristal violeta) procurando-se detectar a presença de relações sinérgicas ou antagônicas. Os resultados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA) e teste de Tukey, considerando-se nível de 5%. Os resultados obtidos na contagem de UFC/mL dos biofilmes monotípicos, revelaram que as 6 cepas testadas apresentam grande capacidade para formar biofilmes na dentina radicular, alcançando valores de UFC/mL entre 8 a 12 log de acordo com o tempo de observação. Em relação a análise das imagens de MEV, as cepas clínicas de E. faecalis e E. faecium demonstraram capacidade semelhante para formar biofilmes e penetrar nos túbulos dentinários. Na comparação da quantificação da biomassa dos biofilmes monotípicos e heterotípicos, observamos que a interação das cepas clínicas E. faecalis e E. faecium favoreceu a adesão e crescimento do biofilme. Assim, concluiuse que as cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium apresentam a mesma capacidade de formar biofilmes sobre a superfície radicular. Além disso, em biofilmes mistos, essas duas espécies estabelecem relações ecológicas sinérgicas, aumentando significativamente a formação de biofilmes(AU)


E. faecalis and E. faecium have a high relevance in hospital infections because they are easy to acquire resistance to antibiotics. E. faecalis also present high prevalence in endodontic infections, however the importance of E. faecium for dentistry still needs to be clarified. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare clinical strains of E. faecium with strains of E. faecalis in relation to the capacity of biofilm formation in root dentin and penetration into the dentin tubules. In addition, the interaction of these species in mixed biofilms was evaluated. In order to perform this study, clinical strains were used, pre-determined, isolated from root canals with endodontic infections and identified by multiplex PCR. Among the isolated strains, 4 strains of E. faecalis and 2 strains of E. faecium were selected. Firstly, the formation of the monotypic biofilms of the strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium on root dentin of bovine teeth was carried out. The biofilms were formed in microtiter plates at different times: 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The biofilms formed were then analyzed by counting viable cells (CFU / mL) and quantification of total biomass (violet crystal method). In addition, the biofilms were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), aiming to observe the penetration of E. faecalis and E. faecium cells into the dentin tubules. Then, heterophilic biofilms of E. faecalis and E. faecium were formed to study the ecological interactions established between the species. The analysis of the heterotypic biofilms was made by quantifying the total biomass (violet crystal) in order to detect the presence of synergistic or antagonistic relationships The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test, considering a level of 5%. The results obtained in the CFU / mL count of the monotypic biofilms revealed that the six strains tested had a great capacity to form biofilms in the root dentin, reaching values of CFU / mL between 8 and 12 log according to the time of observation. In relation to SEM images, the clinical strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium demonstrated similar capacity to form biofilms and to penetrate the dentinal tubules. In the comparison of the biomass quantification of the monotypic and heterotypic biofilms, we observed that the interaction of the clinical strains E. faecalis and E. faecium favored the adhesion and growth of the biofilm. Thus, it was concluded that strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium have the same ability to form biofilms on the root surface. In addition, in mixed biofilms, these two species establish synergistic ecological relationships, significantly increasing the formation of biofilms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/virology , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Dentin/injuries , Enterococcus faecium/virology , Microbial Interactions/immunology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300364

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To summarize the clinical features of Enterococcus faecium meningitis in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of nine children with Enterococcus faecium meningitis were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In all the nine children, Enterococcus faecium was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or peripherally inserted central catheters; 6 (67%) patients were neonates, 2 (22%) patients were younger than 6 months, and 1 (11%) patient was three years and four months of age. In those patients, 56% had high-risk factors before onset, which included intestinal infection, resettlement of drainage tube after surgery for hydrocephalus, skull fracture, perinatal maternal infection history, and catheter-related infection. The main symptoms were fever and poor response. In those patients, 22% had seizures; no child had meningeal irritation sign or disturbance of consciousness. The white blood cell count and level of C-reactive protein were normal or increased; the nucleated cell count in cerebrospinal fluid was normal or mildly elevated; the protein level was substantially elevated; the glucose level was decreased. The drug sensitivity test showed that bacteria were all sensitive to vancomycin and the vancomycin treatment was effective. Only one child had the complication of hydrocephalus.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Enterococcus faecium meningitis occurs mainly in neonates and infants. The patients have atypical clinical features. A high proportion of patients with Enterococcus faecium meningitis have high-risk factors. Enterococcus faecium is sensitive to vancomycin.</p>


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Enterococcus faecium , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Blood , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Meningitis, Bacterial , Blood , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Vancomycin , Pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 656-659, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Only 6 (6.5%) of the VREfm isolates showed the ability to form biofilm. The 93 isolates analyzed belong to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis lineage and presented six subtypes. MLST genotyping showed that all VREfm belonged to ST412 (the high-risk clone, hospital-adapted). The present study describes the dissemination of ST412 clone in the local hospitals. The clonal spread of these ST412 isolates in the area we analyzed as well as other hospitals in southeastern Brazil supports the importance of identifying and controlling the presence of these microorganisms in health care-related services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
14.
Infectio ; 21(2): 88-95, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892711

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud representan un problema de salud pública y la transmisión horizontal supone un incremento en la morbimortalidad y los costos en la atención. La vigilancia activa es costosa y tiene alto riesgo de omitir la detección de brotes, mientras que la virtual (modelos matemáticos) permite la búsqueda sistemática de alertas de brotes. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la relación costo-efectividad del uso de la herramienta SaTScan-Whonet para la detección temprana de infecciones bacterianas, comparada con la vigilancia tradicional en una institución de alta complejidad de Colombia. Metodología: En un hospital universitario de alta complejidad se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, se identificó un brote bacteriano, se caracterizó clínicamente y por biología molecular. Se extrajeron las bases de datos de los sistemas automatizados de identificación y susceptibilidad microbiológica. Se realizaron análisis retrospectivos de SaTScan-Whonet, así como simulaciones diarias para el primer semestre de 2011 de manera prospectiva; también se identificó la fecha para la alerta de detección de brote, tanto en la vigilancia activa como en la virtual. Resultados: Se aislaron 4.584 microorganismos en los servicios de hospitalización tanto UCI como no UCI entre 2010 y 2011 (2.288 y 2.296 respectivamente). Por vigilancia activa se notificó un brote por Enterococcus faecium el 28 de marzo de 2011, que fue caracterizado por biología molecular con la presencia del gen Van A, que confiere resistencia a glucopéptidos. Se identificó de manera retrospectiva una alerta de brote para E. faecium entre el 14 de marzo y el 10 de mayo de 2011 con un intervalo de recurrencia de 609.384. En los análisis prospectivos simulados se identificó la primera alerta de brote de esta bacteria el 13 de abril de 2011 con un intervalo de recurrencia de 3.897 (p = 0,0002655). Conclusión: La utilización de dicha herramienta de manera prospectiva no fue superior a la vigilancia activa en cuanto a oportunidad en la detección. Los análisis retrospectivos tuvieron un alto rendimiento diagnóstico y podrían ser de utilidad para los sistemas de vigilancia y control de los entes reguladores.


Abstract Background: Healthcare-associated infections represent a public health problem, and horizontal transmission has led to an increase in morbidity and mortality as well as higher health care costs. Active surveillance is expensive and carries high risk of failing to detect outbreaks. Virtual surveillance (mathematical models) allows a systematic search for alerts to outbreaks. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the SaTScan-Whonet tool for the early detection of outbreaks of bacterial infection, compared with traditional surveillance, in an institution of high complexity in Colombia. Methodology: In a university hospital of high complexity a retrospective study was performed, identifying a bacterial outbreak that was characterised clinically and by molecular biology techniques. Databases of automated systems of identification and microbiological susceptibility were extracted. Retrospective analyses were performed using SaTScan-Whonet and daily simulations during the first semester of 2011 in a prospective manner. The date for the alert to the detection of the outbreak for both active and virtual surveillance was also identified. Results: A total of 4,584 microorganisms were isolated both inside and outside the ICU bet-ween 2010 and 2011 (2,288 and 2,296, respectively). An outbreak of Enterococcus faecium was identified by active surveillance on March 28, 2011. Using molecular biology techniques, the outbreak was characterised, showing the presence of the vanA gene, which confers resistance to glycopeptides. An alert to an Enterococcus faecium outbreak was retrospectively identified between March 14 and May 10, 2011 with a recurrence interval of 609,384. The first alert to outbreak for this bacterium was identified in a prospective simulated analysis on April 13, 2011 with a recurrence interval of 3,897 (P=.0002655). Conclusion: The use of such a tool prospectively is not superior to active surveillance in regard to timely detection of bacterial outbreaks. Retrospective analyses have high diagnostic ability and could be very helpful in systems of surveillance and control of regulatory entities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Laboratory Equipment , Disease Outbreaks , Recovery Room , Cross Infection , Enterococcus faecium , Intensive Care Units
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194949

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria related to agricultural herb products that are sold on the market in South Korea. A survey was conducted on the microbial contamination levels and antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) among 194 agricultural herb products on sale in Seoul. Distributions of those isolates were 252 coliforms, 148 Bacillus spp., 75 Enterococcus spp., 10 Staphylococcus spp., and 6 Listeria spp., respectively. The number of B. cereus isolates was 34, Escherichia coli isolates was three, Enterococcus faecium isolate was one, and Enterococcus faecalis isolate was one. Antibiotic susceptibility of B. cereus isolates was tested against 36 kinds of antibiotic susceptibility discs by disc diffusion method. B. cereus isolates were resistant to 20 kinds of antibiotics and semi-resistant to 11 kinds of antibiotics. On the basis of these results, any agricultural herb product can be assumed to be resistant or semi-resistant to the antibiotics used in human. In conclusion, we suggest sanitary control and special management regarding B. cereus contamination in agricultural herb products.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacillus cereus , Bacillus , Bacteria , Commerce , Diffusion , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Humans , Korea , Listeria , Methods , Seoul , Staphylococcus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224340

ABSTRACT

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, with its accuracy and speed, is widely used for bacterial identification. The ASTA MicroIDSys system (ASTA, Korea) was recently developed for species identification. We compared its performance with that of Bruker Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). Microbes were recovered from sputum, urine, and pus samples from patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Korea from January to April 2016. Matrix solution (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) was used, and the peptide profiles acquired from the Microflex LT (Bruker Daltonics) and Tinkerbell LT (ASTA) were analyzed by using their respective software. From 5,322 isolates, Bruker Biotyper identified 163 species; fifty species from 4,919 isolates were identified more than 10 times, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=571), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=436), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=358), Escherichia coli (n=372), Staphylococcus aureus (n=511), S. epidermidis (n=444), Enterococcus faecium (n=262), E. faecalis (n=220), and Candida albicans (n=248). Identical results, confidence scores (≥ 2.0 for Bruker Biotyper), and acceptable scores (≥140 for ASTA MicroIDSys) were obtained for 86.1% of isolates. Of 4,267 isolates, 99.2% showed acceptable scores in both systems. Results from the ASTA MicroIDSys showed good agreement with those from the Bruker Biotyper. The ASTA MicroIDSys could reliably identify clinically important microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Candida albicans , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Mass Spectrometry , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sputum , Staphylococcus aureus , Suppuration , Tertiary Healthcare
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109775

ABSTRACT

Enterococcus spp. are normally present in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans, but can cause opportunistic infections that can be transmitted to other animals or humans with integrated antibiotic resistance. To investigate if this is a potential risk in military working dogs (MWDs), we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus spp. isolated from fecal samples of MWDs of four different age groups. Isolation rates of Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, and E. faecium, were 87.7% (57/65), 59.6% (34/57), and 56.1% (32/57), respectively, as determined by bacterial culture and multiplex PCR. The isolation rate of E. faecalis gradually decreased with age (puppy, 100%; adolescent, 91.7%; adult, 36.4%; and senior, 14.3%). Rates of resistance to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, imipenem, and kanamycin among Enterococcus spp. increased in adolescents and adults and decreased in senior dogs, with some isolates having three different antibiotic resistance patterns. There were indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns among the age groups. The results suggest that Enterococcus is horizontally transferred, regardless of age. As such, periodic surveillance studies should be undertaken to monitor changes in antibiotic resistance, which may necessitate modification of antibiotic regimens to manage antibiotic resistance transmission.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ciprofloxacin , Dogs , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Enterococcus , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gentamicins , Humans , Imipenem , Kanamycin , Korea , Military Personnel , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Opportunistic Infections , Streptomycin
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100910

ABSTRACT

Blood culture is important to detecting bacteremia and fungemia in patients with suspected sepsis. We observed a four-year trend of blood culture isolates in the frequency by age group and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns obtained at VHS Medical Center, the largest veterans hospital in Korea. Blood cultures collected between 2012 and 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Of 68,352 blood specimens, 7,901 isolates were identified during the study period. Seventy-two percent of the isolates were gram-positive cocci, 18% were gram-negative rods, and 6% were fungi. The frequency of bacteremia/fungemia in patients who were 80–89 years old was 43.8%, the highest rate among all age groups, and the mean age of patients diagnosed by blood culture was 77 years old. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (52.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.3%), enterococci (7.5%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.9%) were the bacteria most commonly isolated. The percentage of methicillin-resistant S . aureus increased in 2015 (76%) relative to that in 2012–2014 (63%–65%), and that of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was 17%–22% with no significant changes through time. Among the gram-negative isolates, the ciprofloxacin resistance rate increased to 51.4% (E. coli ) and 31.1% (K. pneumoniae ) in 2015, but imipenem or ertapenem resistance was still very rare, with resistance rates of less than 0.5%. Acinetobacter baumannii showed a high rate of resistance (over 70%) to imipenem and ciprofloxacin throughout the study. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the resistance rates of imipenem and ciprofloxacin increased dramatically over time. This analysis confirmed a decrease in antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative rods isolated by blood culture.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteremia , Bacteria , Ciprofloxacin , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , Fungemia , Fungi , Gram-Positive Cocci , Hospitals, Veterans , Humans , Imipenem , In Vitro Techniques , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Methicillin Resistance , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus aureus , Veterans
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 56-63, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67654

ABSTRACT

The present study was done to scrutinize the possible relation between infective genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Considering the fact that the presence of recognized infective determinants among clinical isolates may promote the emergence of infections and persistence of Enterococci in hospital settings, which can lead to an increase in antimicrobial resistance. 175 E. faecalis and 67 E. faecium isolated from clinical specimens were used. The isolates were identified, and then antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. The MIC of vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined by broth microdilution method. The presence of infective genes esp, hyl and asa₁ was scrutinized using PCR. Of the 280 enterococcal isolates, 175 (62.5%) isolates were identified as E. faecalis, 67 (24%) as E. faecium and 38 (13.5%) as Enterococcus spp. The results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing showed resistance rates of 5% and 73% to vancomycin and teicoplanin in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that the esp infective gene has significant associations with ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline in E. faecium and with chloramphenicol in E. faecalis strains; the hyl with teicoplanin and vancomycin in E. faecium strains; and also asa₁ with vancomycin in E. faecium and with ampicillin and chloramphenicol in E. faecalis strains. Regarding the relationships between virulence genes and antibiotic resistance in strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium, detection of infective factors associated with invasive diseases has become a major issue of concern.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Erythromycin , Iran , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Teicoplanin , Tetracycline , Vancomycin , Virulence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. We analyzed Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (KARMS) data collected from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: Of the KARMS participants, 16 secondary or tertiary hospitals consecutively reported antimicrobial resistance rates from 2013 to 2015. Data from duplicate isolates and institutions with fewer than 20 isolates were excluded. To determine the long-term trends, previous KARMS data from 2004 to 2012 were also considered. RESULTS: The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from 2013 to 2015 was 66–72% and 29–31%, respectively. The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to cefotaxime and cefepime gradually increased to 35% and 31%, respectively, and fluoroquinolone resistance reached 48% in 2015. The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to cefotaxime, cefepime, and carbapenem were 38–41%, 33–41%, and <0.1–2%, respectively, from 2013 to 2015. The carbapenem susceptibility rates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae decreased from 100% and 99.3% in 2011 to 99.0% and 97.0% in 2015, respectively. The resistance rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to carbapenem increased to 35% and the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii increased from 77% in 2013 to 85% in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2013 and 2015, the resistance rates of E. coli to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins increased continuously, while carbapenem-susceptibility gradually decreased, particularly in K. pneumoniae. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii increased significantly; therefore, few treatment options remain for these resistant strains.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Cefotaxime , Cephalosporins , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pneumonia , Prevalence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Tertiary Care Centers
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL