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1.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 217-223, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115545

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Es importante mantener programas de vigilancia bacteriana para disminuir resistencia y definir esquemas farmacológicos adecuados. Los pacientes con abdomen agudo representan un grupo microbiológico especial. Objetivos: Hacer una revisión de agentes patógenos en pacientes adultos operados en nuestro Servicio de Urgencia por patología abdominal con líquido libre y analizar los resultados obtenidos de cultivos respecto a las cepas y la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva con estadística descriptiva. Se incluyen pacientes consecutivos, mayores de 18 años, operados por abdomen agudo que presentan líquido libre intraperitoneal entre noviembre de 2017 y abril de 2018. Se excluyen casos con terapia antimicrobiana, hospitalización y/o cirugía en los 3 meses previos. Se registran los cultivos positivos, cepas aisladas, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, datos demográficos y evolución clínica. Resultados: De 63 pacientes 55% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,2 años. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron de origen apendicular (62%) y de causa entérica (30%). En un 44% el cultivo fue positivo y en 36% con más de un germen. Escherichia coli fue el patógeno más frecuente (64,2%) seguidos de Enterococcus faecium y Streptococcus anginosus (7,1%). De los otros patógenos cultivados sólo se observó resistencia múltiple en un caso aislado de Morganella Morganii. Conclusiones: Estos datos constituyen la realidad microbiológica local en abdomen agudo. La Escherichia Coli sigue siendo el germen más frecuente, debe enfrentarse con profilaxis y tratamiento antibiótico adecuado. Es necesario mantener vigilancia microbiología local para un manejo acorde.


Introduction: It is important to maintain bacterial surveillance programs to decrease resistance and define adequate pharmacological schemes. Patients with abdomen represent a special microbiological group. Objetives: Make a review of pathogens in adult patients operated in our Emergency Service for abdominal pathology with free fluid and analyze the results obtained from cultures with respect to the strains and susceptibility to antibiotics. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study with descriptive statistics. We include consecutive patients, older than 18 years old, operated on by abdomen who present free intraperitoneal fluid between November 2017 and April 2018. Cases with antimicrobial therapy, hospitalization and/or surgery 3 months prior are excluded. Positive cultures, isolated strains, antimicrobial susceptibility, demographic data and clinical evolution are recorded. Results: Of 63 patients, 55% were men and the average age was 52.2 years. The most frequent pathologies were of appendicular origin (62%) and of enteric origin (30%). In 44% the crop was positive and in 36% with more than one germ. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen (64.2%) followed by Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus anginosus (7.1%). Of the others, cultivated pathogens have only observed multiple resistance in an isolated case of Morganella Morganii. Conclusions: These data include the local microbiological reality in acute abdomen. Escherichia coli is still the most frequent germ that must be faced with the profile and the appropriate treatment. It is necessary to maintain local microbiology surveillance for a proper management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Ascitic Fluid , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Streptococcus anginosus , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Abdomen, Acute/pathology , Metronidazole
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180568, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Glycolipids/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Glycolipids/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
3.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 179-183, jun. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013370

ABSTRACT

Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to several antimicrobial classes and show a great ability to acquire new mechanisms of resistance. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is a major concern because these drugs either alone or in combination are commonly used for the treatment of enterococcal infections. Ampicillin resistance, which is rare in Enterococcus faecium occurs in most of the hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium isolates. High-level resistance to ampicillin in E. faecium is mainly due to the enhanced production of PBP5 and/or by polymorphisms in the beta subunit of this protein. The dissemination of high-level ampicillin resistance can be the result of both clonal spread of strains with mutated pbp5 genes and resistance horizontal gene transfer.


Los enterococos son intrínsecamente resistentes a varias clases de antimicrobianos y presentan una gran capacidad para adquirir mecanismos de resistencia. La resistencia a los antibióticos p-lactámicos es preocupante porque estos fármacos solos o combinados se usan comúnmente para el tratamiento de las infecciones enterocócicas. La mayoría de los aislamientos hospitalarios de Enterococcus faecium presentan resistencia a la ampicilina, la cual es rara en Enterococcus faecalis. El alto nivel de resistencia a la ampicilina en E. faecium se debe principalmente a la hiperproducción de PBP5 y/o a polimorfismos en la subunidad beta de esta proteína. La propagación de esta resistencia puede deberse tanto a la diseminación clonal de cepas con genes pbp5 mutados como a la transferencia horizontal de genes.


Subject(s)
Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Ampicillin/antagonists & inhibitors , Ampicillin Resistance/genetics
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 69-74, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Propofol and Ephedrine are commonly used during anesthesia maintenance, the former as a hypnotic agent and the later as a vasopressor. The addition of propofol to ephedrine or administration of ephedrine before propofol injection is useful for decreasing or preventing propofol related hemodynamic changes and vascular pain. This in vitro study evaluated the antibacterial effect on common hospital-acquired infection pathogens of ephedrine alone or combined with propofol. Material and method The study was performed in two stages. In the first, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of propofol and ephedrine alone and combined was calculated for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter spp. at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h, using the microdilution method. In the second stage, the same drugs and combination were used to determine their effect on bacterial growth. Bacterial solutions were prepared at 0.5 MacFarland in sterile 0.9% physiological saline and diluted at 1/100 concentration. Colony numbers were measured as colony forming units.mL-1 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th hours. Results Ephedrine either alone or combined with propofol did not have an antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and this was similar to propofol. However, ephedrine alone and combined with propofol was found to have an antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species at 512 mcg.mL-1 concentration and significantly decreased bacterial growth rate. Conclusion Ephedrine has an antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter species which were frequently encountered pathogens as a cause of nosocomial infections.


Resumo Introdução Propofol e efedrina são fármacos comumente usados durante a manutenção da anestesia, o primeiro como agente hipnótico e o segundo como vasopressor. A adição de propofol à efedrina ou a administração de efedrina antes da injeção de propofol é útil para diminuir ou prevenir alterações hemodinâmicas e dor vascular relacionadas ao propofol. Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito antibacteriano de efedrina, isolada ou em combinação com propofol, em patógenos comuns implicados em infecção hospitalar. Material e método O estudo foi feito em duas etapas. Na primeira, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de propofol e de efedrina isolada e em combinação foi calculada para Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e um isolado clínico de Acinetobacter spp às 0, 6, 12 e 24 horas, com o método de microdiluição. Na segunda etapa, o mesmo fármaco e sua combinação foram usados para determinar seus efeitos no crescimento bacteriano. As soluções bacterianas foram preparadas em soro fisiológico a 0,9% em 0,5 McFarland e diluídas a uma concentração de 1/100. Os números das colônias foram medidos como ufc.mL-1 às 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 horas. Resultados Efedrina isolada ou em combinação com propofol não apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre E. coli, E. faecium ou P. aeruginosa, um resultado semelhante ao de propofol. Porém, efedrina isolada e em combinação com propofol apresentou efeito antimicrobiano sobre Staphylococcus aureus e Acinetobacter spp, em concentração de 512 mcg.mL-1, e redução significativa da taxa de crescimento bacteriano. Conclusão Efedrina tem atividade antimicrobiana em S. aureus e Acinetobacter spp, patógenos frequentemente identificados como causa de infecções nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Ephedrine/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propofol/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 656-659, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Only 6 (6.5%) of the VREfm isolates showed the ability to form biofilm. The 93 isolates analyzed belong to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis lineage and presented six subtypes. MLST genotyping showed that all VREfm belonged to ST412 (the high-risk clone, hospital-adapted). The present study describes the dissemination of ST412 clone in the local hospitals. The clonal spread of these ST412 isolates in the area we analyzed as well as other hospitals in southeastern Brazil supports the importance of identifying and controlling the presence of these microorganisms in health care-related services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 298-302, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041765

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia por Enterococcus adquirió un papel relevante en los últimos años, debido al incremento de casos intrahospitalarios. Nuestro objetivo fue describir los episodios ocurridos en pacientes adultos de nuestro hospital. Entre enero del 2000 y diciembre del 2013 se registraron 117 episodios. El 61% eran varones y el 39% mujeres. La edad promedio fue 68 años. El 91% presentaba condiciones predisponentes. El principal foco fue intraabdominal. Enterococcus faecalis fue responsable del 65% de los casos, Enterococcus faecium del 28% y otras especies del 7%. El 34% fueron bacteriemias polimicrobianas. Todas las cepas de E. faecalis fueron sensibles a ampicilina y vancomicina. El 88% de los aislamientos de E. faecium fue resistente a ampicilina y el 54% a vancomicina y teicoplanina. En nuestro hospital, el enterococo es el sexto patógeno causante de bacteriemia intrahospitalaria y predomina E. faecium resistente a ampicilina y vancomicina.


Enterococcal bacteremia has acquired considerable importance in recent years, mainly due to an increased number of cases that occur during hospital admission. We describe the episodes of enterococcal bacteremia in adult patients recorded at our hospital. Between January 2000 and December 2013, 117 episodes were analyzed. Sixty one percent (61%) of the patients were male and 39% female. The mean age was 68. Predisposing factors were present in 91% of patients. The primary source of infection was intraabdominal. Enterococcus faecalis was responsible for 65% of the cases; E. faecium for 28%; and other species for 7%. Thirty four percent (34%) of cases were polymicrobial bacteremia. All E. faecalis isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Eighty eight percent (88%) of E. faecium were resistant to ampicillin and 54% to vancomycin and teicoplanin. In our hospital, Enterococcus is the sixth pathogen causing nosocomial bacteremia, with high incidence of ampicillin and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755813

ABSTRACT

Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs) of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs), and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI) criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1%) were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs); however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin Resistance/physiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Egypt/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Infection Control/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects
9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(7): 2211-2220, 07/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-749930

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo pretende compreender a visão das pacientes com câncer sobre o processo de adoecimento e os procedimentos terapêuticos que experimentam. Os tratamentos de câncer provocam uma série de consequências físicas e emocionais nas pacientes, assim, estas passam por uma reestruturação e elaboram mecanismos para “cuidarem de si”. A metodologia utilizada foi a etnográfica, desencadeada por meio de entrevistas, anotações em diário de campo e observação participante. A etnografia revelou como essas mulheres, submetidas ao tratamento convencional em determinado hospital, criam tecnologias de cuidado compartilhadas baseadas na sociabilidade.


Abstract This article seeks to understand the viewpoint of cancer patients about the disease process and the therapeutic procedures that they experience. Cancer treatments provoke a series of physical and emotional consequences in patients. Thus, patients undergo a restructuring of life and establish mechanisms to “take care of themselves.” The methodology used was an ethnographic approach through interviews, field notes and participant observation. The ethnographic approach revealed how these women being given conventional treatment in a given hospital create shared care technologies based on sociability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Vancomycin Resistance , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 712-715, 09/09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723999

ABSTRACT

The vanC1 gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC1gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC1and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC1 gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC1gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC1gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC1gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC1gene from different species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Blotting, Southern , Bacterial Proteins/blood , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , In Situ Hybridization/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Multigene Family/physiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Vancomycin/pharmacology
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 50-57, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712421

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Actualmente se considera a Enterococcus spp. como uno de los agentes de infección hospitalaria más importantes, siendo su resistencia a los antibióticos un problema importante en los centros de salud. Objetivos. Caracterizar la resistencia antimicrobiana en 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas de muestras clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados . Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo observacional de corte transversal en 50 aislamientos clínicos de estas especies microbianas. Se trabajó un aislamiento por paciente. La identificación y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron por métodos automatizados y convencionales. El análisis fenotípico de los mecanismos de resistencia a glucopéptidos se hizo según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. Resultados. De 50 aislamientos, 30 (60,0 %) y 20 (40,0 %) pertenecían a las especies de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, respectivamente. La resistencia global expresada por este género fue de 38/50 (76,0 %) para ampicilina; 33/50 (66,0 %) para gentamicina de alto nivel; 34/50 (68,0 %) para estreptomicina de alto nivel; 26/50 (52,0 %) para ciprofloxacina; 4/50 (8,0 %) para linezolid; 17/50 (34,0 %) para teicoplanina; 25/50 (50,0 %) para vancomicina; 31/50 (62,0 %) para minociclina; 34/50 (68,0 %) para tetraciclina y 9/50 (18,0 %) para nitrofurantoina. Frente a los glucopéptidos, 25/50 (50,0 %) y 10/50 (20,0 %) de los aislamientos presentaron los mecanismos Van A y Van B, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de las veces, las cepas aisladas en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras mostraron porcentajes de resistencia por encima de lo reportado en la literatura científica consultada. El alto porcentaje de cepas con resistencia a la vancomicina podría influir en la aparición de otros gérmenes Gram positivos con resistencia a este fármaco. Se reporta por primera vez en un hospital cubano resistencia de E. faecium a linezolid.


Introduction: Enterococcus spp is currently considered as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens . The antibiotic resistance of this group of bacteria is a particularly important problem in health centers. Objective: To characterize the antibiotic resistance of 50 Enterococcus spp strains isolated from hospitalized patients clinical samples. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive observational study in 50 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Only one isolate per patient was analyzed . The identification and antibiotic susceptibility were studied by conventional and automated methods . The phenotypic analysis of glycopeptide resistance mechanisms was performed as recommended by the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases . Results: Of 50 isolates obtained from clinical samples, 30 ( 60.0%) belonged to Enterococcus faecalis and 20 (40.0 %) to Enterococcus faecium . The global resistance expressed by this genre was as follows: Ampicillin, 38/50 ( 76.0%); high-level gentamicin, 33/50 ( 66.0%); high-level streptomycin, 34/50 (68.0 %) ; ciprofloxacin, 26/50 (52.0 %); linezolid, 4/50 (8.0 %); teicoplanin, 17/50 ( 34.0%); vancomycin, 25/50 (50.0 %); minocycline, 31/50 ( 62.0%); tetracycline, 34/50 (68.0 %); nitrofurantoin, 9/50 ( 18.0%). As regards glycopeptides, 25/50 (50.0%) showed a Van A mechanism and 10/50 (20.0 %) a Van B mechanism . Conclusions: The isolates obtained at Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras showed higher resistance rates than those reported in the consulted literature. The high percentage of vancomycin-resistant strains might have influenced the development of other Gram-positive bacteria resistant to this drug. This is the first report on Enterococcus faecium resistant to linezolid in a Cuban hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Acetamides/pharmacology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cuba/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oxazolidinones/pharmacology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Vancomycin Resistance
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 590-595, ago. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680773

ABSTRACT

Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/enzymology , Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/enzymology , Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity , Gelatinases/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43981

ABSTRACT

In July 2010, we identified an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in our 26-bed neonatal intensive care unit. We performed an epidemiological investigation after clinical cultures of 2 neonates were positive for VRE. Identification, susceptibility testing, and molecular characterization were performed. Cultures of 3 surveillance stool samples of inpatients and 5 environmental samples were positive for VRE. All isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium containing the vanA gene. Two distinct clones were identified by performing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The 2 clones exhibited different pulsotypes, but they represented identical Tn1546 types. Two sequence types, ST18 and ST192, were identified among all of the isolates with multilocus sequence typing. Our investigation determined that the outbreak in the neonatal intensive care unit was caused by 2 genetically different clones. The outbreak may have occurred through clonal spread and horizontal transfer of the van gene.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Genotype , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(3): 253-257, Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576072

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report the characterization of a strain of Enterococcus faecium vanA, which grows only in the presence of vancomycin (VDEfm-UEL). The bacterium was isolated from the feces of a female patient who had undergone surgical treatment of Reinke’s edema and was receiving intravenous vancomycin therapy for infection with methicillin/oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a postoperative complication. Antimicrobial dependence was further confirmed by the vancomycin E-test. VDEfm-UEL was also shown to be resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, levofloxacin, penicillin, rifampicin, and teicoplanin. The putative virulence genes efaA, gelE and esp were detected by PCR. The ddl gene from VDEfm-UEL was cloned and sequenced. Vancomycin dependence seems to be associated with the insertion of a nucleotide in that sequence, which results in a frame-shift mutation, introducing a premature stop codon. This is the first report of vancomycin-dependent E. faecium isolation in a university hospital in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Frameshift Mutation/genetics , Hospitals, University , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jan-Mar 54(1): 90-95
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141923

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While foot infections in persons with diabetes are initially treated empirically, therapy directed at known causative organisms may improve the outcome. Many studies have reported on the bacteriology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs), but the results have varied and have often been contradictory. The purpose of the research work is to call attention to a frightening twist in the antibiotic-resistant Enterococci problem in diabetic foot that has not received adequate attention from the medical fraternity and also the pharmaceutical pipeline for new antibiotics is drying up. Materials and Methods: Adult diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity infections from July 2008 to December 2009 in the medical wards and intensive care unit of medical teaching hospitals were included in the study. The extent of the lower extremity infection on admission was assessed based on Wagner's classification from grades I to V. Specimens were collected from the lesions upon admission prior to the initiation of antibiotic therapy or within the first 48 h of admission. Results: During the 18-month prospective study, 32 strains of Enterococcus spp. (26 Enterococcus faecalis and 06 E. faecium) were recovered. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion method. Isolates were screened for high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). A total of 65.6% of Enterococcus species showed HLAR. Multidrug resistance and concomitant resistance of HLAR strains to other antibiotics were quite high. None of the Enterococcus species was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: Multidrug-resistant Enterococci are a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. Today, resistance has rendered most of the original antibiotics obsolete for many infections, mandating the development of alternative anti-infection modalities. One of such alternatives stemming up from an old idea is the bacteriophage therapy. In the present study, we could able to demonstrate the viable phages against MDR E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophages/growth & development , Biological Therapy/methods , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 637-643, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30697

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to describe a vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) outbreak across three intensive care units (ICUs) of a Korean hospital from September 2006 to January 2007 and the subsequent control strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We simultaneously implemented multifaceted interventions to control the outbreak, including establishing a VRE cohort ward, active rectal surveillance cultures, daily extensive cleaning of environmental surfaces and environmental cultures, antibiotic restriction, and education of hospital staff. We measured weekly VRE prevalence and rectal acquisition rates and characterized the VRE isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the vanA gene and Sma1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: During the outbreak, a total of 50 patients infected with VRE were identified by clinical and surveillance cultures, and 46 had vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF). PFGE analysis of VREF isolates from initial two months disclosed 6 types and clusters of two major types. The outbreak was terminated 5 months after implementation of the interventions: The weekly prevalence rate decreased from 9.1/100 patients-day in September 2006 to 0.6/100 by the end of January 2007, and the rectal acquisition rates also dropped from 6.9/100 to 0/100 patients-day. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that an aggressive multifaceted control strategy is a rapid, effective approach for controlling a VRE outbreak.


Subject(s)
Decontamination , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patient Isolation , Prevalence , Vancomycin Resistance
20.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Oct-Dec; 26(4): 369-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53999

ABSTRACT

Considering the emergence of high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in enterococci this study was undertaken to determine their status in a rural setting. HLAR by disc diffusion and agar dilution, beta lactamase by nitrocefin disc and vancomycin resistance by agar dilution was determined in 150 enterococcal isolates, as per NCCLS guidelines. Only two species, Enterococcus faecalis (85.5%) and Enterococcus faecium (14.7%) were recovered, mostly from blood. Forty six percent showed HLAR. Multi drug resistance and concomitant resistance of HLAR strains to beta lactams were quite high. None showed beta lactamase activity or vancomycin resistance.


Subject(s)
Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Rural/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
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