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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 804-813, Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143408

ABSTRACT

Bacterial resistance is shown to be an inevitable side effect due to the excessive use of antibiotics, becoming a significant concern worldwide. Knowledge of regional bacterial resistance profiles enables the development of site-specific infection control practices, making conscious and moderate use of commercially available antibiotics. The aim of this study was the retrospective evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from companion animal infections in the region of Umuarama/PR, from 2013 to 2017. This research was performed by analyzing the database belonging to the "Laboratório de Microbiologia Animal" at the "Universidade Estadual de Maringá" (UEM). Staphylococcus spp. represented 45.53% of the bacteria isolated from clinical infections in small animals in the period and place evaluated, followed by enterobacteria (34.04%), non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB, 11.06%) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus (9.36%). A high number of antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics used in veterinary medicine was found. The lowest resistances associated with the best impact factor values were found for aminoglycosides, especially amikacin, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin). Intermediate results were found for sulbactam-associated ampicillin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and enrofloxacin. According to the number of resistant antimicrobial drugs, 64.26% (151/235) of the isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant, being 15.32% extensively resistant. Considering the resistance to antimicrobial classes, 68.94% (162/235) of the isolates were classified as multiresistant, being 19.15% extensively resistant. No bacterial strains were characterized as pan-resistant, but ten bacteria were resistant to all classes tested, with isolated susceptibility to certain drugs. Through the evaluation of resistance profiles found in the period and place studied and relevant literature, it is clear that there is a growing increase in the number of multiresistant bacteria among domestic animals which characterizes a serious risk to public health. The therapeutic arsenal is becoming increasingly diminished, and there is more difficulty in empirical drug selection, making antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential for more specific selection in antimicrobial therapy. Educational measures on the conscious use of antibiotics, infection control, and prevention of local specific zoonoses need to be instituted for the knowledge of health professionals and general access of the population.(AU)


A resistência bacteriana, mostra-se como um efeito colateral inevitável pelo excessivo uso de antibióticos, tornando-se alvo de grande preocupação mundial. O conhecimento dos perfis de resistência bacteriana regionais possibilita o desenvolvimento de práticas de controle de infecções específicas para cada localidade, fazendo uso consciente e moderado dos antibióticos disponíveis no mercado. O objetivo deste estudo foi a avaliação retrospectiva do perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de infecções de animais de companhia na região de Umuarama/PR, no período de 2013 a 2017. Esta pesquisa foi realizada por meio da análise do banco de dados pertencente ao Laboratório de Microbiologia Animal da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM). Os Staphylococcus spp. representaram 45,53% das bactérias isoladas de infecções clínicas em pequenos animais no período e local avaliado, seguido por enterobactérias (34,04%), bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentados (BGNNF, 11,06%) e Streptococcus/Enterococcus (9,36%). Um número elevado de resistência antimicrobiana frente aos antibióticos utilizados na medicina veterinária foi encontrado. As menores resistências associadas aos melhores valores do fator de impacto foram encontrados para aminoglicosídeos, em especial amicacina, cloranfenicol, fluoroquinolonas (norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina). Já resultados intermediários foram encontrados para ampicilina associada a sulbactam, ceftriaxona, amoxacilina com ácido clavulônico e enrofloxacina. Conforme o número de drogas antimicrobianas resistentes, foram classificados como multirresistentes 64,26% (151/235) dos isolados, sendo 15.32% extensivamente resistentes. Já considerando a resistência a classes de antimicrobianos, 68,94% (162/235) dos isolados foram classificados como multirresistentes, sendo 19.15% extensivamente resistentes. Nenhum isolado bacteriano foi caracterizado como pan-resistente, porém 10 bactérias foram resistentes a todas as classes testadas, com susceptibilidade isolada a determinadas drogas. Por meio da avaliação dos perfis de resistência encontrados no período e local estudados e de literatura pertinente, percebe-se que há um aumento crescente no número de bactérias multirresistentes entre os animais domésticos o que caracteriza um grave risco à saúde pública. O arsenal terapêutico está se tornando cada vez mais diminuto e há mais dificuldade na seleção empírica de drogas, tornando essencial a realização de testes de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana para uma seleção mais específica na terapêutica antimicrobiana. Medidas educativas sobre o uso consciente dos antibióticos, controle de infecções e prevenção de zoonoses específicas para as localidades precisam ser instituídas para conhecimento dos profissionais do setor da saúde e acesso geral da população.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 556-564, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058081

ABSTRACT

Resumen Durante las últimas décadas, especies del género Enterococcus han emergido como importantes agentes etiológicos de bacteriemia, osteomielitis, endocarditis e infecciones de tejidos blandos. La combinación de antibacterianos ha sido la estrategia terapéutica más utilizada para dichas infecciones, buscando un potencial efecto sinérgico bactericida. Sin embargo, aparte de los modelos in vitro e in vivo, la utilidad clínica del tratamiento combinado genera controversia, especialmente en infecciones sistémicas no endocárdicas. Aunque las combinaciones entre β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos o el tratamiento dual con β-lactámicos, han mejorado las tasas de curación de la endocarditis, aún no se ha esclarecido cuál es su tratamiento óptimo o si estas combinaciones también son útiles en otro tipo de infecciones graves sistémicas. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar y resumir los resultados obtenidos de diferentes modelos experimentales de combinaciones anti-enterocócicas y de los estudios clínicos disponibles en PubMed/Medline, a fin de evaluar mejor la evidencia que soporta la utilización de estas combinaciones. En conclusión, la información disponible es escasa, e indica la necesidad de mejores modelos in vivo y estudios clínicos que permitan comprobar la potencial actividad sinérgica de las combinaciones anti-enterocóciccas.


During the last decades, enterococci have emerged as important etiological agents in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and soft tissue infections. Antimicrobial combinations have been the most used therapeutic strategies for these infections, aiming for a bactericidal synergistic effect. However, besides in vitro and in vivo models, the clinical usefulness of such combinations is controversial, especially in non-endocardic systemic infections. For example, although beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combinations or double beta-lactam treatment have achieved high cure rates in endocarditis, the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified or if these combinations are useful in other infections. The aim of this review was to analyze and summarize the results from several experimental models of antienterococcal combined therapy and from clinical trials available in PubMed/Medline, to better assess the evidence that supports the use of these combinations. In conclusion, the available information is scarce, and more and better in vivo models and clinical studies are required to confirm the potential synergistic activity of antienterococcal combinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Enterococcus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endocarditis/chemically induced
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 300-303, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888140

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the aqueous humor (AH) concentrations of moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% solutions alone or when treatment was combined with steroids, and to correlate these concentrations with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the most common endophthalmitis-causing organisms. Methods: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification were enrolled to receive one drop of one of the following solutions: moxifloxacin (G1), moxifloxacin + dexamethasone (G2), gatifloxacin (G3), or gatifloxacin + c (G4), every 15 min, 1h before surgery. AH samples were collected before surgery and analyzed using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The mean antibiotic concentrations in the AH were: G1= 1280.8 ng/mL; G2= 1644.3 ng/mL; G3= 433.7 ng/mL; and G4= 308.1 ng/mL. The mean concentrations statistically differed between G1 and G2 (p=0.01), and G3 and G4 (p=0.008). All samples achieved the MIC for Staphylococcus epidermidis; 100% of the samples from G1 and G2, and 97% from G3 and G4 reached the MIC for fluoroquinolone-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; 100% of the samples from G1 and G2, 88% from G3, and 72% from G4 reached the MIC for enterococci (p<0.001); and 100% of samples from G1 and G2, 59% from G3, and 36% from G4 reached the MIC for Streptococcus pneumoniae (p<0.001). For fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus, 23% from G1, 44% from G2, and no samples from G3 or G4 achieved the MIC (p<0.001). Conclusions: Moxifloxacin + dexamethasone demonstrated a higher concen­tration in the AH than the moxifloxacin alone. Gatifloxacin + steroids demonstrated less penetration into the anterior chamber than gatifloxacin alone. Moxifloxacin was superior to gatifloxacin considering the MIC for enterococci, S. pneumoniae, and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus.


RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar a concentração no humor aquoso entre as soluções de moxifloxacina 0,5% e gatifloxacina 0,3% sozinhas ou combinadas com corticosteroides, e correlacionar a concentração com a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) para os agentes microbianos mais comumente relacionados a endoftalmites. Métodos: Pacientes que seriam submetidos a cirurgia de catarata foram selecionados para receber 1 gota a cada 15 min, 1 hora antes do procedimento de uma das seguintes soluções: moxifloxacina (G1), moxifloxacina + dexametasona (G2), gatifloxacina (G3) ou gatifloxacina + prednisolona (G4). Amostras do humor aquoso foram coletadas antes do início da cirurgia. Espectrofotometria de massa por HPLC determinou a concentração do antibiótico nas amostras. Resultados: A concentração media de antibiótico nas amostras foram: G1= 1280,8 ng/mL; G2= 1644,3 ng/mL; G3= 433,7 ng/mL; G4= 308,1 ng/mL. Concentração média entre G1 e 2 (p=0,01), e G3 e 4 (p=0,008). Todas as amostras alcançaram MIC para S. epidermidis; 100% das amostras do G1 e 2, e 97% do G3 e 4 atingiram o MIC para S. aureus fluoroquinolona-sensível; 100% das amostras do G1 e 2, 88% do G3 e 72% do G4 atingiram o MIC para Enterococci (p<0,001); e 100% das amostras do G1 e 2, 59% do G3 e 36% do G4 atingiram o MIC para S. pneumoniae (p<0,001). Para o S. aureus resistente a fluoroquinolona, 23% do G1, 44% do G2, e nenhuma das amostras G3 e 4 atingiram o MIC (p<0,001). Conclusão: Moxifloxacina + dexamethasona demonstrou maior concentração no humor aquoso comparado com a moxifloxacina sozinha. Gatifloxacina + esteróide demonstrou menor penetração na câmara anterior comparado a solução de ga­ti­floxacin sem corticóide. A moxifloxacina foi superior a gatifloxacina considerando o MIC para Enterococci, S. pneumoniae e S. aureus fluorquinolona resistente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aqueous Humor/chemistry , Steroids/analysis , Fluoroquinolones/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Reference Values , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Moxifloxacin , Gatifloxacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(5): 519-523, oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844402

ABSTRACT

Background: Nosocomial infections caused by multiresistant Gram-positive cocci are a serious problem for public health systems worldwide. The use of copper surfaces in hospital environments has proven to be an effective alternative for the control of various microorganisms, including multiresistant nosocomial pathogens. Aim: To determine the association between antibiotic multiresistance and higher levels of copper tolerance in Gram-positive cocci isolated from Chilean hospitals, which might confer a selective advantage in environments with copper. Methods: The ionic copper tolerance levels were evaluated using the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method, in S. aureus and Enterococcus spp. strains with different levels of susceptibility to clinically relevant antibiotics. Results: A statistically significant association between higher levels of tolerance to copper ion and multi-resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus spp. was observed.


Introducción: Las infecciones nosocomiales, producidas por bacterias cocáceas grampositivas multi-resistentes constituyen un serio problema para los sistemas de salud pública mundial. El uso de superficies de cobre en ambientes hospitalarios ha demostrado ser una alternativa efectiva para el control de diversos microorganismos, incluyendo patógenos nosocomiales multi-resistentes. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre la multi-resis-tencia a antimicrobianos y mayores niveles de tolerancia a cobre en bacterias cocáceas grampositivas aisladas de hospitales chilenos, que podrían conferir una ventaja selectiva en ambientes cobrizados. Material y Métodos: Se evaluó los niveles de tolerancia a cobre iónico en grupos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Enterococcus spp. con distintos grados de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de relevancia clínica, mediante el método de dilución en agar Mueller Hinton. Resultados: Se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre mayores niveles de tolerancia a cobre iónico y la multi-resistencia a antimicrobianos en Enterococcus spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/physiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus/metabolism , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism
6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; set. 2015. 112 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834104

ABSTRACT

Enterococos são ubíquos no ambiente e fazem parte da microbiota do trato gastrintestinal de humanos e animais. A importância dessas bactérias tem sido associada com infecções hospitalares e resistência a múltiplas drogas, principalmente à vancomicina. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar a caracterização molecular de cepas de Enterococcus spp. resistentes à vancomicina (VRE) isoladas a partir de amostras coletadas de pacientes hospitalizados, água superficial de rios urbanos e carne de frango comercializada no Brasil. A presença do gene vanA foi confirmada em 20 cepas multirresitentes isoladas durante 1997-2011. Dentre os isolados VRE, 12 cepas foram identificadas como E. faecium e oito como E. faecalis. Cepas de E. faecium isoladas de amostras clínicas e águas foram classificadas como clonalmente relacionadas pelo PFGE, com perfil virulência predominante (acm+, esp+). Adicionalmente, enquanto cepas de E. faecium isoladas dos rios pertenceram aos ST203, ST412 e ST478 (previamente caracterizados como endêmicos em hospitais brasileiros), novos STs foram identificados entre as cepas de E. faecalis (ST614, ST615 e ST616) e E. faecium (ST953 e ST954) isoladas de alimentos. Sequências completas do transposon Tn1546 das cepas clínicas VREfm 320/07 (ST478) e ambiental VREfm 11 (ST412) mostraram Tn1546-like element de ~12800 pb, com um ponto de mutação no gene vanA na posição 7.698 (substituição do nucleotídeo T pelo C) e uma no gene vanX na posição 8.234 (G pelo T). Além disso, uma deleção na extremidade esquerda do Tn1546, e as sequências IS1251 e IS1216E na região intergênica vanHS e vanYX, respectivamente, também foram detectados. A este respeito, a IS1216E na região intergênica vanXY constitui um conjunto de genes previamente relatado em cepas clínicas de VREfm no Brasil, denotando uma característica regional. IS1216E tem sido associada com os genes tcrB e aadE que conferem resistência ao cobre e aminoglicosídeos, em E. faecium e Streptococcus agalactiae, respectivamente. Portanto, essa IS pode contribuir para a rápida aquisição de resistência antimicrobiana entre as espécies de cocos Gram-positivos clinicamente importantes. Os tipos de Tn1546 indistiguíveis que foram identificados no atual estudo isolados de humano e ambientes aquáticos sugerem uma comum partilha de um pool de genes de resistência à vancomicina


Enterococci are ubiquitous in the environment and in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. The importance of these bacteria has been associated with nosocomial infection and multiple resistance to antimicrobial agents, mainly vancomycin. The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. strains (VRE) isolated from hospitalized patients, surface water of urban rivers and retail chicken meat in Brazil. The presence of the vanA gene was confirmed in 20 multidrug-resistant strains isolated in 1997-2011. Among these VRE isolates, (n = 12) were identified as E. faecium and (n = 8) as E. faecalis. E. faecium strains isolated from water and clinical samples were classified as clonally related by PFGE, the predominant virulence profile being (acm+, esp+). Additionally, while E. faecium strains isolated from rivers belonging to ST203, ST412 and ST478 (previously characterized as endemic in Brazilian hospitals), new STs were identified among strains of E. faecalis (ST614, ST615 and ST616) and E. faecium (ST953 and ST954) isolated from food. Complete sequences of transposon Tn1546 from VREfm clinical strain 320/07 (ST478) and environmental strain VREfm 11 (ST412) showed a Tn1546-like element of ~12800 bp, with T7698C vanA and G8234T vanX mutations. Moreover, deletion of the Tn1546 left extremity, and the IS1251 and IS1216E sequence inside the vanHS and vanYX intergenic region, respectively, were also detected. In this regard, the IS1216E sequence inside the vanXY intergenic region constitutes a gene array previously reported for Brazilian VREfm clinical strains alone, denoting a regional characteristic. IS1216E has been associated with tcrB and aadE genes, which confer resistance to copper and aminoglycosides, in E. faecium and Streptococcus agalactiae, respectively. Therefore, IS1216E should contribute to rapid acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among species of the clinically important Gram-positive cocci. On the other hand, Tn1546-like elements were identical among clinical and environmental VREfm isolates, suggesting sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool


Subject(s)
Humans , Aquatic Environment/adverse effects , Enterococcus/cytology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Food/adverse effects , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Genes
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 76-81, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744299

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare visual outcomes, corneal astigmatism, and keratometric readings in patients with keratoconus who underwent intrastromal corneal ring implantation (ICRSI) alone with those who underwent ICRSI combined with ultraviolet A riboflavin-mediated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Methods: Pre- and post-operative best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), spherical error, cylindrical error, and mean keratometry were retrospectively compared over a period of 2 years in patients with keratoconus who underwent only ICRSI (group 1) versus those in patients who underwent combined ICRSI-CXL (group 2). Results: Thirty-two eyes of 31 patients were evaluated. CXL was performed in 10 cases (31%), and there were no complications or need for ring repositioning. BCDVA improved from 0.54 to 0.18 in the group 1 and from 0.56 to 0.17 in the group 2. Spherical and cylindrical errors and mean keratometry values significantly decreased in both groups. No patient postoperatively had visual acuity (VA) of less than 20/60 on refraction, and 78% exhibited VA better than or equal to 20/40 with spectacles (72% of group 1 and 90% of group 2). Improvement in the spherical equivalent (SE) value was observed in the group 1 (from -5.89 ± 3.37 preoperatively to -2.65 ± 2.65 postoperatively; p<0.05) and group 2 (from -6.91 ± 1.93 preoperatively to -2.11 ± 3.01 postoperatively; p<0.05). Conclusion: Both techniques can be considered safe and effective in improving VA and refractive SE values, in decreasing the curvature of the cone apex in the topographical analysis, and in decreasing corrected diopters postoperatively in patients with keratoconus. .


Objetivo: Comparar os resultados visuais, astigmatismo corneano e ceratometria em pacientes com ceratocone submetidos a implante de anel corneano intraestromal (ICRSI) e quando em combinação com radiação ultravioleta associado ao crosslinking do colágeno corneano mediada pela riboflavina (CXL). Métodos: Comparou-se retrospectivamente pacientes com ceratocone submetidos somente a implante de anel corneano intraestromal (grupo 1) versus o mesmo procedimento associado ao crosslinking em um período de 2 anos. Avaliou-se acuidade visual com correção, equivalente esférico, ápice do cone na topografia e adaptação com lentes de contato pré e pós operatórios. Resultados: O estudo avaliou 32 olhos de 31 pacientes. Em 10 casos (31%) foi realizado crosslinking corneano, não havendo complicações ou necessidade de reposicionamento do anel. Acuidade visual corrigida pré e pós-operatória, componentes esférico e cilíndrico da refração e valores de ceratometria media diminuíram significativamente em ambos os grupos. Após o implante, nenhum paciente apresentou acuidade visual pior que 20/60 e 78% apresentaram acuidade corrigida melhor ou igual a 20/40 (72% do grupo 1 e 90% do grupo 2). Observou-se diminuição no valor do equivalente esférico no grupo 1 (de -5,89 ± 3,37 pré-operatório para -2,65 ± 2,65 pós-operatório; p<0,05) e no grupo 2 (de -6,91 ± 1,93 pré-operatório para -2,11 ± 3,01 pós-operatório; p<0,05). Conclusão: Ambas as técnicas podem ser consideradas seguras e eficazes na melhora da acuidade visual e equivalente esférico, diminuição do ápice de curvatura do cone na análise topográfica e na redução de dioptrias a serem corrigidas no pós-operatório de pacientes com ceratocone. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohols/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Hand Disinfection , Colony Count, Microbial , Hand/microbiology , Infection Control , Vancomycin Resistance
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 712-715, 09/09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723999

ABSTRACT

The vanC1 gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC1gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC1and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC1 gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC1gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC1gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC1gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC1gene from different species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Blotting, Southern , Bacterial Proteins/blood , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , In Situ Hybridization/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Multigene Family/physiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Vancomycin/pharmacology
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(2): 97-103, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703745

ABSTRACT

Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg), gentamicin (120 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg) were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30). For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%), vancomycin (80.0%), tetracycline (43.35) and gentamicin (33.3%). The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci.


Os enterococos são cada vez mais responsáveis por infecções hospitalares em todo o mundo. Este estudo foi realizado para comparar a identificação e perfil de suscetibilidade entre o sistema automatizado MicrosScan e a técnica molecular de PCR em espécies de Enterococcus spp. Foram avaliados 30 isolados clínicos de Enterococcus spp. Os isolados foram identificados pelo sistema MicrosScan® e pela técnica de PCR. A detecção de genes de resistência a antibióticos (vancomicina, gentamicina, tetraciclina e eritromicina) foi determinada por PCR. Suscetibilidades antimicrobianas à vancomicina (30 µg), gentamicina (120 µg), tetraciclina (30 µg) e eritromicina (15 µg), foram testados pelos métodos automatizados e pelo disco difusão, de acordo com as orientações do CLSI. No que diz respeito à identificação de Enterococcus em geral entre os dados obtidos pelo método de PCR e pelo sistema automático foi de 90,0% (27/30). Para todos os isolados de E. faecium e E. faecalis observamos concordância de 100%. Freqüências de resistência foi maior em E. faecium do que em E. faecalis. As taxas de resistência obtidas foi maior para eritromicina (86,7%), vancomicina (80,0%), tetraciclina (43,35%) e gentamicina (33,3%). A correlação entre a técnica de disco difusão e automação revelou-se de acordo para maioria dos antibióticos com taxas > 80%. O gene van(A) foi detectado em 100% dos Enterococcus resistentes á vancomicina. O ensaio baseado em PCR é de simples realização e de confiança para identificação de enterococos clinicamente relevantes. Os dados obtidos reforçam a necessidade de melhoria no sistema automatizado para identificar alguns enterococos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79641

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Quinolones/pharmacology , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Urinalysis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(6): 622-625, dic. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701710

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Identification of patients with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) is essential to limit the spread of these agents, through the use of isolation and contact precautions. Traditional microbiology has a long turn around time (3-5 days) extending the time of isolation, increasing complexity and cost of these patients. Objectives: To implement a new real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) GeneXpert R for SAMR and VRE detection. To compare costs and turn around time of PCR versus traditional cultures. Methods: Two periods were compared, in the first, traditional microbiology (standard group) was used, and in the second, only PCR was used (PCR group). Results: MRSA or VRE were identified in 29.9% of patients in the PCR group and in 9.6% in the standard group. Turn around time was 15 ± 9 hours in PCR group and 53 ± 23 hours in standard group. PCR group had a net cost of USD 245 per patient and standard group USD 530 per patient. Discussion: PCR technique GeneXpert R for MRSA and VRE had a positive impact in the management of these patients and justifies its inclusion.


Introducción: La identificación de pacientes con Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) y Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (ERV), permite limitar su diseminación usando aislamiento en cohorte y precauciones de contacto. Los resultados de los cultivos microbiológicos demoran 3 a 5 días, lo que retrasa el retiro de las precauciones y agrega costos económicos. Objetivos: Implementar técnica de reacción de polimerasa en cadena en tiempo real (RPC), GeneXpert R, para SARM y ERV y comparar tiempos de respuesta y costos en relación al uso de microbiología convencional. Material y Métodos: Se compararon dos períodos, uno en que se usó solo RPC (grupo RPC) y otro histórico, en el que se usó microbiología tradicional (grupo estándar) Resultados: Se confirmó SARM y/o ERV en 29,9% de los pacientes del grupo RPC, y en 9,6% del grupo estándar. Los tiempos de respuesta fueron 15 ± 9 h (grupo RCP) y 53 ± 23 h (grupo estándar). Los costos directos por paciente fueron de USD 245 en el grupo RPC y de USD 530 en el grupo estándar. Discusión: La RPC en tiempo real, GeneXpert, para SAMR y ERV tuvo un alto impacto alto clínico que justifica su incorporación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Patient Transfer , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance , Enterococcus/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/economics , Time Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Active screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) using rectal specimens is recommended to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance within certain high-risk populations. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay (AusDiagnostics, Australia), a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay that detects vanA and/or vanB. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-eleven rectal swabs from Hematology and Oncology unit were submitted for VRE surveillance via direct detection of vanA and/or vanB by culture and by using Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay. Enterococci were identified to the species level by using standard biochemical tests and BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, USA). Vancomycin susceptibility of enterococci was determined using Etest (BioMerieux, France). RESULTS: Compared to the culture method, Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay had a sensitivity of 84.0%, specificity of 98.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 91.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.6%. The assay failed to detect 18 (8.5%) specimens because of the presence of PCR inhibitors; of the remaining 193 specimens, 25 (12.9%) were positive, 23 for vanA, and 2 for vanB. Although both sensitivity and specificity for vanA VRE was 100% compared to the culture method, all vanB-positive specimens tested negative by VRE culture. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin Resistance 3 Multiplexed Tandem PCR assay is a rapid and laborsaving option for VRE surveillance for direct use on rectal swabs. However, the high rate of PCR failure owing to the inhibitors in the specimens and the low specificity for vanB should be considered when interpreting the results.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterococcus/drug effects , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Rectum/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51365

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonization rate in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), associated risk factors and clinical outcomes for VRE colonization. METHODS: Of the 7,703 patients admitted to the ICUs between January, 2008 and December, 2010, medical records of 554 VRE colonized and 503 uncolonized patients were reviewed retrospectively. To analyzed the impact of colonization on patients' clinical outcomes, 199 VRE colonized patients were matched with 199 uncolonized patients using a propensity score matching method. RESULTS: During the study period, 567 (7.2%) of the 7,703 patients were colonized with VRE. Multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for VRE colonization: use of antibiotics (odds ratio [OR]=3.33), having bedsores (OR=2.92), having invasive devices (OR=2.29), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus co-colonization (OR=1.84), and previous hospitalization (OR=1.74). VRE colonized patients were more likely to have infectious diseases than uncolonized patients. VRE colonization was associated with prolonged hospitalization and higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Strict infection control program including preemptive isolation for high-risk group may be helpful. Further research needs to be done to investigate the effects of active surveillance program on the incidence of colonization or infection with VRE in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance/drug effects
15.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 242-245
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143957

ABSTRACT

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci rarely cause meningitis and present a therapeutic challenge. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for strains of Enterococcus species isolated from CSF samples of patients with meningitis by phenotypic methods. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the genetic basis of vancomycin resistance of such isolates. We report here two cases of enterococcal meningitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species. One of the isolates was identified as Enterococcus faecalis and the other as Enterococcus gallinarum. We also report the simultaneous presence of vanC1 and vanA resistance genes in the strain of E. gallinarum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of vanA resistance gene in an isolate of E. gallinarum from the Indian subcontinent. This is also the first Indian report of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus causing meningitis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/mortality , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Humans , India , Male , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/mortality , Meningitis, Bacterial/pathology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vancomycin Resistance
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 57-63, Feb. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612806

ABSTRACT

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important hospital pathogens and have become increasingly common in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). To determine the incidence and the risk factors associated with VRE colonisation among ICU patients, active surveillance cultures for VRE faecal carriages were carried out in patients admitted to the ICU of the University Hospital of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Risk factors were assessed using a case-control study. Seventy-seven patients (23.1 percent) were found to be colonised with vanC VRE and only one patient (0.3 percent) was colonised with vanA VRE. Independent risk factors for VRE colonisation included nephropathy [odds ratio (OR) = 13.6, p < 0.001], prior antibiotic use (OR = 5.5, p < 0.03) and carbapenem use (OR = 17.3, p < 0.001). Our results showed a higher frequency (23.1 percent) of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus, species that are intrinsically resistant to low levels of vancomycin (vanC), without an associated infection, associated with prior antibiotic use, carbapenem use and nephropathy as comorbidity. This study is the first to demonstrate the risk factors associated with vanC VRE colonisation in ICU hospitalised patients. Although vanA and vanB enterococci are of great importance, the epidemiology of vanC VRE needs to be better understood. Even though the clinical relevance of vanC VRE is uncertain, these species are opportunistic pathogens and vanC VRE-colonised patients are a potential epidemiologic reservoir of resistance genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Risk Factors
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 158-162, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614578

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to retrospectively report the results of interventions for controlling a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) outbreak in a tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a University Hospital. After identification of the outbreak, interventions were made at the following levels: patient care, microbiological surveillance, and medical and nursing staff training. Data were collected from computer-based databases and from the electronic prescription system. Vancomycin use progressively increased after March 2008, peaking in August 2009. Five cases of VRE infection were identified, with 3 deaths. After the interventions, we noted a significant reduction in vancomycin prescription and use (75 percent reduction), and the last case of VRE infection was identified 4 months later. The survivors remained colonized until hospital discharge. After interventions there was a transient increase in PICU length-of-stay and mortality. Since then, the use of vancomycin has remained relatively constant and strict, no other cases of VRE infection or colonization have been identified and length-of-stay and mortality returned to baseline. In conclusion, we showed that a bundle intervention aiming at a strict control of vancomycin use and full compliance with the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee guidelines, along with contact precautions and hand-hygiene promotion, can be effective in reducing vancomycin use and the emergence and spread of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a tertiary-care PICU.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Enterococcus/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Vancomycin Resistance , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Program Evaluation , Retrospective Studies
18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 44-51
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143893

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose an emerging problem in hospitals worldwide. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence, species prevalence, antibacterial resistance, and phenotypic and genetic characteristics of VRE isolated in Riyadh hospitals, KSA. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and six isolates of enterococcal species were obtained from clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests for vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined. Molecular typing of VRE isolates was carried out by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the resistance genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: VRE accounted for 3.9% of the isolates and were detected mostly in urine, wound and blood specimens isolated from ICU, internal medicine and surgical wards. All strains were identified to species level and were found to consist of E. faecalis (69.2%), E. faecium (11.3%), E. avium (2.1%), E. hirae (0.8%), E. casseliflavus (1.3%) and E. gallinarum (1.3%) species. According to the susceptibility data obtained, 8 (3.9%) out of 206 isolates were found to be VRE (MICs > 32 μg/ml). The vanA, vanB and vanC gene fragments of E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. gallinarum were amplified from isolates and were detected. PFGE patterns of the VRE isolates revealed homogenous patterns with dominant clone suggesting that the strains intrinsic resistance is independent. Conclusions: This study shows an emergence of VRE along with increased rate of multidrug-resistant enterococci in the area of the study. Regular surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities should be done regularly and the risk factors should be determined.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162764

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An ambulance can be a potential source of contagious or droplet infection of a community. We estimated the prevalence of positive carriage of tuberculosis (TB), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in patients transported by ambulance. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study. We enrolled all patients who visited a tertiary teaching hospital emergency department (ED). Blood, sputum, urine, body fluid, and rectal swab samples were taken from patients when they were suspected of TB, MRSA, or VRE in the ED. The patients were categorized into three groups: pre-hospital ambulance (PA) group; inter-facility ambulance (IA) group; and non-ambulance (NA) group. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model for the prevalence of each infection. RESULTS: The total number of patients was 89206. Of these, 9378 (10.5%) and 4799 (5.4%) were in the PA and IA group, respectively. The prevalence of TB, MRSA, and VRE infection were 0.3%, 1.1%, and 0.3%, respectively. In the PA group, the prevalence of TB, MRSA, and VRE were 0.3%, 1.8%, and 0.4%. In the IA group, the prevalence of TB, MRSA, and VRE were 0.7%, 4.6%, and 1.5%, respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of the PA and IA compared to the NA group were 1.02 (0.69 to 1.53) and 1.83 (1.24 to 2.71) for TB, 2.24 (1.87 to 2.69) and 5.47 (4.63 to 6.46) for MRSA, 2.59 (1.78 to 3.77) and 8.90 (6.52 to 12.14) for VRE, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of positive carriage of TB, MRSA, and VRE in patients transported by metropolitan ambulances was found.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Ambulances , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Enterococcus/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Transportation of Patients , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin Resistance/drug effects , Young Adult
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612943

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial drug resistance is a particularly significant issue in Latin America. This article explores antimicrobial resistance in three classes of clinically important bacteria: gram-positive bacteria, enterobacteria, and nonfermenting gram-negativebacilli. The gram-positive bacteria frequently responsible for infections in humans are for the most part cocci: staphylococci, streptococci (including pneumococci), and enterococci,in both community and hospital settings. This situation is no different in theRegion of the Americas. Among the gram-positive bacteria, the causative agents of bacteremia are most commonly strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by enterococci. This report explores the resistance of these species to different antimicrobial drugs, resistance mechanisms in community and hospital strains, and new drugs for treating infections caused by these bacteria. In Latin America, antimicrobialresistance in Enterococcus strains is still a minor problem compared to the situation in the United States. The strains of the genus Streptococcus isolated from respiratory infections are still sensitive to penicillin. Furthermore, the resistance of enterobacteriais extremely important in the Region, particularly because of the broad dissemination of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), some of which originated in Latin America. This article analyzes the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, betahemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci. Among the nonfermentinggram-negative bacilli, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains remain the leading cause of bacteremia, infections caused by strains of Acinetobacter spp. have proliferatedextensively in some areas. With regard to antibiotics, several options are available for treating gram-positive bacterial infections...


La resistencia a los fármacos antibacterianos tiene particular importancia en América Latina. En este artículo se analiza la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de tres clases de bacterias de importancia clínica: bacterias grampositivas, enterobacterias y bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores.Las bacterias grampositivas que producen infecciones humanas frecuentes son, en su mayoría, cocos: estafilococos, estreptococos (incluidos neumococos) y enterococos, tanto en elmedio comunitario como en el nosocomial. Esta situación no es diferente en la Región de las Américas. Entre las bacterias grampositivas, las que causan bacteriemia con mayor frecuencia corresponden a cepas de estafilococos coagulasa negativos, seguidas de las de enterococos. Eneste informe se analiza la resistencia de estas especies a distintos antimicrobianos, los mecanismosde resistencia para las cepas de origen hospitalario y comunitario y los nuevos medicamentos para tratar las infecciones por estas bacterias. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos delas cepas de Enterococcus en América Latina todavía es un problema menor en relación con la situación en los Estados Unidos de América. Las cepas del género Streptococcus aisladasde infecciones respiratorias aún son sensibles a penicilina. Por otra parte, la resistencia de las enterobacterias es de gran importancia en la Región, particularmente por la gran difusión debetalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) de tipo CTX-M, algunas de las cuales se originaron en América Latina. En el presente artículo se analizan la situación de la resistencia de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, y de los estreptococos betahemolítico y del grupo viridans. Entre los bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores, si bien las cepas de Pseudomonasaeruginosa siguen siendo la causa principal de bacteriemias, la proliferación de infecciones por cepas de Acinetobacter spp. tiene en algunas partes gran magnitud...


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Acinetobacter/enzymology , Acinetobacter/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Developing Countries , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , Global Health , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Latin America , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus/drug effects , Streptococcus/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/physiology
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