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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254816, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355894

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país agrícola, onde a pesca desempenha um papel muito importante para o desenvolvimento econômico. Diferentes doenças são prevalentes em peixes do Paquistão, mas as informações relacionadas aos agentes causadores não são bem conhecidas. Tendo em vista a importância dos patógenos bacterianos como agentes causadores de múltiplas doenças em peixes, o presente estudo foi conduzido para identificação, caracterização e análise de genes de virulência de isolados de Aeromonas spp. de peixes doentes. Foram coletadas 50 amostras de peixes com múltiplas indicações clínicas em diferentes fazendas do distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Para isolar Aeromonas spp., as amostras foram enriquecidas e inoculadas em meio de isolamento. Os isolados foram identificados e caracterizados por diferentes testes bioquímicos, kit Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E, e ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Todos os isolados foram selecionados para três genes de virulência putativos, incluindo aerolisina (aer), hemolisina (hyl) e enterotoxina citotônica termolábil (alt). Sete isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila foram recuperados e identificados com base no API 20E. Esses isolados foram posteriormente confirmados como A. hydrophila de acordo com ensaios de PCR. Três isolados indicaram a presença de genes de virulência (alt e hyl), enquanto o gene aerolisina (aer) não esteve presente em nenhum dos isolados de A. hydrophila. O presente estudo confirmou A. hydrophila como o agente causador da síndrome ulcerativa epizoótica e septicemia móvel por Aeromonas em fazendas de peixes, no distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Além disso, a detecção de dois genes de virulência (alt e hyl) em isolados de A. hydrophila é uma ameaça para os consumidores de peixes da área de estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Aeromonas/genetics , Pakistan , Aeromonas hydrophila/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Fishes
2.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022203, 06 abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Contamination of cell phones can contribute to the dissemination of pathogens in the community and/or hospital environment. OBJECTIVE: To characterize Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cell phones of university students. METHODS: Samples were collected from 100 cell phones. Detection of genes associated with virulence factors such as biofilm formation (icaA and icaD), enterotoxins production (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), and resistance to methicillin (mecA and mecC) was performed in S. aureus isolates by PCR. Typing mecA gene performed by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to antimicrobials and biofilm formation rate also evaluated by using disk diffusion test and crystal violet staining. RESULTS: S. aureus was present in 40% of the total samples and about 70% of them belonged to Nursing students. Of the isolates, 85% presented resistance to penicillin and 50% were classified as moderate biofilm producers. In addition, 92.5% of isolates contained the gene icaA and 60% of the gene icaD. Approximately 25% of the isolates presented the mecA gene. Typing of the mecA gene showed the presence of staphylococcal chromosome cassette SCCmec I and c III respectively in 20% and 10% of the isolates. 70% of the samples could not be typed by the technique. Regarding the enterotoxins, the most prevalent gene was SEA (30%) followed by the SEC gene (2.5%). The presence of SED and SEB genes not observed in any of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The cleaning and periodic disinfection of cell phones can contribute to the reduction of the risk of nosocomial infection.


INTRODUÇÃO: A contaminação de celulares pode contribuir para a disseminação de patógenos na comunidade e/ou ambiente hospitalar. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de telefones celulares de estudantes universitários. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de 100 telefones celulares. Detecção de genes associados a fatores de virulência quanto a: formação de biofilme (icaA e icaD), produção de enterotoxinas (SEA, SEB, SEC e SED) e resistência à meticilina (mecA e mecC) foi realizada em isolados de S. aureus por PCR. A Tipagem do gene mecA foi realizada por PCR multiplex. A susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e a taxa de formação de biofilme pelo teste de difusão em disco e coloração com cristal violeta. RESULTADOS: S. aureus esteve presente em 40% do total de amostras, destas, 70% pertenciam a estudantes do curso de enfermagem. Dos isolados, 85% apresentaram resistência à penicilina e 50% foram classificados com moderada formação de biofilme. Além disso, 92,5% dos isolados continham o gene icaA e 60% o gene icaD. Aproximadamente 25% dos isolados apresentaram o gene mecA. A tipagem do gene mecA mostrou a presença do cassete cromossômico estafilocócico SSCmec I e III em respectivamente 20% e 10% dos isolados. 70% das amostras não puderam ser identificadas pela técnica. Das enterotoxinas, o gene mais prevalente foi o SEA (30%), seguido pelo gene SEC (2.5%). A presença dos genes SED e SEB não foi observada nos isolados. CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza e desinfecção periódica dos telefones celulares podem contribuir para a redução do risco de infecção nosocomiais.


Subject(s)
Students, Health Occupations , Universities , Cell Phone , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Enterotoxins
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 113-115, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279084

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Clostridioides difficile causa diarrea y colitis pseudomembranosa. Su diagnóstico se realiza con la detección de glutamato-deshidrogenasa (GDH) o las toxinas A y B y se confirma con pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Objetivo: Definir si la determinación de GDH es redundante a la de las toxinas. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de muestras fecales de pacientes con sospecha de infección por Clostridioides difficile. Las toxinas y GDH se determinaron mediante inmunocromatografía. Se realizó una simulación bayesiana con los cocientes de probabilidad; se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 329 resultados de GDH y toxinas A y B. Se encontró una prevalencia de infección de Clostridioides difficile de 18.2 %. La sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de GDH fue de 0.90 y 0.89, respectivamente. El cociente de probabilidad positivo fue de 8.9 y el negativo, de 0.11. Conclusiones: Un resultado negativo de GDH disminuye considerablemente la probabilidad de infección, pero no la descarta. La detección de toxinas de Clostridioides difficile puede ser necesaria en instituciones donde la amplificación de ácidos nucleicos no es económica o accesible.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridioides difficile causes diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Its diagnosis is made with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or toxins A and B detection and is confirmed with nucleic acid amplification tests. Objective: To define if GDH determination is redundant to that of toxins. Methods: Retrospective, observational study in diarrheal stools of patients with suspected Clostridioides difficile infection. Toxins and GDH were determined by immunochromatography. Bayesian simulation was performed with likelihood ratios; a p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: 329 GDH and toxin A and B results were analyzed. Clostridioides difficile infection prevalence was 18.2 %. Sensitivity and specificity of the GDH test were 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio was 8.9, and negative was 0.11. Conclusions: A negative GDH result considerably reduces the probability of infection but does not rule it out. Clostridioides difficile toxins detection may be necessary in institutions where nucleic acid amplification is not affordable or accessible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Enterotoxins/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Likelihood Functions , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Feces/enzymology , Glutamate Dehydrogenase/analysis
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0812019, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130055

ABSTRACT

Food prepared with products derived from animals are involved in most cases of staphylococcal poisoning; therefore, the research of Staphylococcus spp. in Emmental cheese is more applicable. The objective of this study was to identify coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (CNS) in cheese using biochemical and molecular techniques to detect the presence of nine genes responsible for the production of enterotoxins. From 180 samples analyzed, 204 CNS strains were obtained and identified as being 46 (22.6%) S. saprophyticus strains, 27 (13.2%) S. hominis spp. hominis strains, 22 (10.8%) S. sciuri strains, 21 (10.3%) S. xylosus strains, 19 (9.3%) S. epidermidis strains, 19 (9.3%) S. haemolyticus strains, 17 (8.3%) S. lentus strains, 17 (8.3%) S. warneri strains, 11 (5.4%) S. equorum strains and 5 (2.5%) S. cohnni . Using the PCRm protocol, 14 (6.9%) strains with the presence of the genes on the enterotoxin E (SEE)11 (78.6%), J (SEJ) 1 (7%), C (SEC) 1 (7%) and I (SEI) 1 (7%) were detected. Based on the results, the type of package is not interfered of growth and isolated that Staphylococcus spp. in cheese. It was observed that bacteria capacity to produce coagulase cannot be understood as an indicative of enterotoxigenicity; therefore, the CNS should be considered as a target of importance in the epidemiology of staphylococcal intoxications. It can be concluded that CNS need to be included in bacterial foodborne disease research, since the genes responsible for the production of toxins were detected and none of the studied samples presented Staphylococcus spp. counting above the limits allowed by legislation.(AU)


Os alimentos preparados com produtos de origem animal são os mais envolvidos em casos de intoxicação alimentar estafilocócica; portanto a pesquisa do Staphylococcus spp. em queijos tipo Emmental é relevante. O objetivo foi isolar e identificar espécies de Staphylococcus coagulase negativas (CNS)de queijo Emmental acondicionado em vários tipos de embalagem, por meio de técnicas bacteriológicas e bioquímicas e detectar, por PCR, a presença de nove genes responsáveis pela produção de enterotoxinas. Das 180 amostras, foram isoladas 204 cepas de CNS, que foram identificadas por provas bioquímicas como: 46 (22,6%) S. saprophyticus, 27 (13,2%) S. hominis spp. hominis, 22 (10,8%) S. sciuri, 21 (10,3%) S. xylosus, 19 (9,3%) S. epidermidis , 19 (9,3%) S. haemolyticus , 17 (8,3%) S. lentus , 17 (8,3%) S. warneri , 11(5,4%) S. equorum e 5 (2,5%) S. cohnii . Na PCR multiplex, em 14 (6,9%) isolados foi detectada a presença dos genes para enterotoxina E (SEE), em 11 (78,6%) J (SEJ), em 1 (7%) C (SEC) e em 1 (7%) I (SEI). Com base nos resultados, o tipo de embalagem não interferiu na multiplicação dos Staphylococcus spp. isolados dos queijos. Neste estudo, verificou-se que a capacidade para a produção de coagulase pela bactéria não pode ser concebida como indicativa de enterotoxigenicidade, portanto devem-se considerar os CNS como objeto de importância na epidemiologia das intoxicações estafilocócicas, fazendo-se necessária a atenção com relação à pesquisa dos CNS nos alimentos, uma vez que foram detectados genes responsáveis pela produção de toxinas, e nenhuma das amostras apresentou contagem para Staphylococcus spp. acima do limite permitido pela legislação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning , Staphylococcus/virology , Enterotoxins , Foodborne Diseases , Bacteria , Cheese , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bacteriological Techniques , Product Packaging , Foods of Animal Origin , Food Safety , Food Supply
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Osteitis refers to the development of new bone formation and remodeling of bone in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; it is typically associated with eosinophilia, nasal polyps (NPs), and recalcitrant CRS. However, the roles of ossification in CRS with or without NPs remain unclear due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Thus, it is necessary to have a suitable animal model for greater advances in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis.METHODS: BALB/c mice were administered ovalbumin (OVA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and bony changes were assessed. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans were conducted to measure bone thickness. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteonectin, interleukin (IL)-13, and RUNX2 downstream gene expression. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed in mucosal tissues from control and CRS patients. The effect of resveratrol was evaluated in terms of osteogenesis in a murine eosinophilic CRS NP model.RESULTS: The histopathologic changes showed markedly thickened bones with significant increase in osteoblast numbers in OVA/SEB-treated mice compared to the phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice. The structural changes in bone on micro-CT were consistent with the histopathological features. The expression of RUNX2 and IL-13 was increased by the administration of OVA/SEB and showed a positive correlation. RUNX2 expression mainly co-localized with osteoblasts. Bioinformatic analysis using human CRS transcriptome revealed that IL-13-induced bony changes via RUNX2. Treatment with resveratrol, a candidate drug against osteitis, diminished the expression of IL-13 and RUNX2, and the number of osteoblasts in OVA/SEB-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found the histopathological and radiographic evidence of osteogenesis using a previously established murine eosinophilic CRS NP model. This animal model could provide new insights into the pathophysiology of neo-osteogenesis and provide a basis for developing new therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Enterotoxins , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Mice , Models, Animal , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nose , Osteitis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteonectin , Ovalbumin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sinusitis , Transcription Factors , Transcriptome
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9877, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132555

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile causes intestinal inflammation, which increases adenosine. We compared the expression of adenosine receptors (AR) subtypes A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 in HCT-8, IEC-6 cells, and isolated intestinal epithelial cells, challenged or not with Clostridium difficile toxin A and B (TcdA and TcdB) or infection (CDI). In HCT-8, TcdB induced an early A2BR expression at 6 h and a late A2AR expression at 6 and 24 h. In addition, both TcdA and TcdB increased IL-6 expression at all time-points (peak at 6 h) and PSB603, an A2BR antagonist, decreased IL-6 expression and production. In isolated cecum epithelial cells, TcdA induced an early expression of A2BR at 2s and 6 h, followed by a late expression of A2AR at 6 and 24 h and of A1R at 24 h. In CDI, A2AR and A2BR expressions were increased at day 3, but not at day 7. ARs play a role in regulating inflammation during CDI by inducing an early pro-inflammatory and a late anti-inflammatory response. The timing of interventions with AR antagonist or agonists may be of relevance in treatment of CDI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Receptors, Purinergic P1/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins , Up-Regulation , Interleukin-6 , Disease Models, Animal , Enterotoxins , Infections , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(1)2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099655

ABSTRACT

Colonial cheese is a culturally and economically important product from the south of Brazil. As most of its production is artisanal, the technology employed is mostly knowledge passed down from one generation to the next according to family tradition and may be produced with raw or pasteurized milk. It is noted for its spicy flavour and variable composition and is often classified as a medium to high-moisture cheese. This intrinsic feature increases the risk of microbial spoilage and food poisoning. One of the main bio-indicators of contamination in colonial cheese is coagulase positive Staphylococcus. The purpose of this study was the phenotypic identification of Staphylococcus species isolated from the products and surfaces in the main production stages of colonial cheese. Staphylococcus sp. isolates from the food and the production environment were obtained from two colonial cheese-production agro-industries in Rio Grande do Sul. Samples of fresh milk, curd, ripening and final colonial cheese were collected. In addition, surface sampling was performed on the coagulation tanks, production tables, molds, cheese ripening shelves and on the hands of the handlers. Staphylococcus sp. isolates in the cheese and the production environments tested in this study were identified by phenotypic techniques through biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS analyses. These isolates were subjected to gene expression analysis for enterotoxins A, B, C, D, and E. All isolates (72) were identified as Staphylococcus sp., and 43% of the total isolates tested were coagulase positive. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant species in the raw milk and production tanks. Regarding coagulase negative staphylococci isolates, S. warneri and S. sciuri were most abundant. The sea and seb genes were detected in 4% of the Staphylococcus isolates. The results indicate eleven different species of Staphylococcus present in the colonial cheese production environments studied. The predominant presence of S. aureus in the different samples of milk, curd, ripened cheese, ready-to-eat cheese and hands of the handlers indicates that there are issues with the selection of milk-producing animals, pasteurization process and/or hygiene control of handlers. The sea and seb genes were detected in samples of raw milk and colonial cheese. No enterotoxin genes were detected in coagulase negative staphylococci.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus , Cheese/analysis , Coagulase , Enterotoxins
8.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 354-358, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057400

ABSTRACT

Resumen El 27 de noviembre de 2008 ocurrió un brote de intoxicación alimentaria asociado al consumo de salpicón de ave en un jardín de infantes de Hurlingham, provincia de Buenos Aires. Treinta y siete niños y 10 adultos presentaron síntomas gastrointestinales. Cinco niños fueron internados con signos de deshidratación, y uno de ellos requirió cuidados intensivos. Se aisló Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus del alimento involucrado, de 4/5 muestras de materia fecal de pacientes y de 3/5 manipuladores (nariz del manipulador 1, manos de manipuladores 2 y 3). Las cepas aisladas portaban los genes que codifican las enterotoxinas SEA y SED. Por electroforesis de campo pulsado con la enzima SmaI, los patrones de macrorrestricción presentaron 100% de similitud. La investigación oportuna del brote permitió identificar al agente causal de la intoxicación, determinar las fallas en la elaboración del alimento e implementar las medidas correctivas correspondientes.


Abstract On November 27, 2008, a foodborne disease outbreak associated with the consumption of chicken salad occurred in a kindergarten in the District of Hurlingham, Province of Buenos Aires. Thirty-seven children and 10 adults with gastrointestinal symptoms were affected. Five children were hospitalized with signs of dehydration, one of them requiring intensive care. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus was isolated from the mentioned food in 4 out of 5 stool specimens from the patients, and in 3 out of 5 food handlers (nose of food handler #1, hands of food handlers #2 and 3). The isolates carried the genes coding for enterotoxins SEA and SED. The macrorestriction patterns showed 100% similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the SmaI enzyme. A timely outbreak investigation allowed us to identify the causative agent of the food poisoning as well as the failures in food processing and to implement corrective measures.


Subject(s)
Poisoning/etiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Enterotoxins/analysis , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/methods
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 931-941, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771833

ABSTRACT

Claudin proteins are the most crucial components of tight junctions, and play an essential role in maintaining cell polarity, regulating cell permeability and the intercellular ion. In recent years, many studies have shown that abnormality of claudins expression is implicated in the tumor progression. The expression correlates with tumor prognosis and can serve as a biomarker of prognosis and potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding claudin dysregulation in cancer and highlights the progress in claudin-based treatments.


Subject(s)
Claudins , Therapeutic Uses , Enterotoxins , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Tight Junctions
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1093-1102, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has been well-documented to induce liver injury. miRNA-222-3p (miR-222-3p) was implicated in SEB-induced lung injury and several liver injuries. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-222-3p in SEB-induced liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of miR-222-3p and suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) was detected using real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. Liver injury was determined by levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and inflammatory cytokines, numbers of infiltrating mononuclear cells using AST/ALT assay kit, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and hematoxylin-eosin staining, respectively. Target binding between miR-222-3p and SOCS1 was predicted on targetScan software, and confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: SEB induced liver injury in D-galactosamine (D-gal)-sensitized mice, as demonstrated by increased serum levels of AST and ALT, elevated release of interferon-gamma (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-2, and promoted infiltrating immune cells into liver. Expression of miR-222-3p was dramatically upregulated, and SOCS1 was downregulated in SEB-induced liver injury both in mice and splenocytes. Moreover, miR-222-3p knockout (KO) mice exhibited alleviated liver injury accompanied with SOCS1 upregulation. Besides, splenocytes under SEB challenge released less INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-2 during miR-222-3p knockdown. Mechanically, SOCS1 was targeted and downregulated by miR-222-3p. Upregulation of SOCS1 attenuated INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-2 release in SEB-induced splenocytes; downregulation of SOCS1 could block the suppressive role of miR-222-3p knockdown in SEB-induced splenocytes. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of miR-222-3p relieves SEB-induced liver inflammatory injury by upregulating SOCS1, thereby providing the first evidence of miR-222-3p in SEB-induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Enterotoxins , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-6 , Liver , Luciferases , Lung Injury , Mice , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758948

ABSTRACT

As an important zoonotic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus has led to serious mastitis and endometritis in infected dairy cows. In this study, a total of 164 strains of S. aureus were isolated from dairy cows in Xinjiang Province, China, and subjected to assays to determine drug susceptibility and biofilm (BF) formation ability. Enterotoxin-related genes were detected, and the transcription levels of genes related to BF formation were determined by using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the pathogenicity of isolates with different BF formation abilities was determined by measuring their hemolysis activity, half lethal dose (LD₅₀) and organ bacterial load. The results showed that 86.0% of S. aureus isolates could form BF. Among them, 42.1% of the strains had weak BF formation ability, and most strains with a strong BF formation ability were ica gene carriers. The S. aureus isolates displayed multidrug resistance and their drug resistance was positively correlated with their BF formation ability. Moreover, 96.3% of the S. aureus isolates carried enterotoxin genes. Among them, the detection rates of the novel enterotoxin genes were higher than those of conventional enterotoxin genes. Furthermore, isolates with a strong BF formation ability had higher LD50 but lower hemolysis ability and organ bacterial load than those of the isolates with weak or no BF ability. However, isolates without BF ability produced more severe pathological changes than those of isolates with strong BF formation ability. These findings suggest that higher BF ability and presence of novel enterotoxin genes are important characteristics of S. aureus isolates from dairy cows in Xinjiang Province, China, and such isolates may pose potential threats to food safety.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Load , Biofilms , China , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Endometritis , Enterotoxins , Female , Food Safety , Hemolysis , Lethal Dose 50 , Mastitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Virulence
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758901

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of Staphylococcus schleiferi in dogs with otitis externa or skin and soft tissue infections has become a significant zoonotic issues. In the current study, we investigated 1) the carriage rates of S. schleiferi among major staphylococci in healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa, 2) antibiotic susceptibility profiles of S. schleiferi, particularly methicillin resistance (MR), and 3) virulence factors associated with skin and soft tissue infections such as ability to form biofilm, resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and carriage of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. Among the 21 S. schleiferi isolates, 5 isolates (24%) were determined to be methicillin-resistant (MRSS). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing revealed the presence of SCCmec type V in 4 MRSS isolates and type VII in one MRSS. Higher levels of antibiotic resistance, especially multidrug resistance, were observed in MRSS isolates compared to the methicillin-susceptible S. schleiferi (MSSS) isolates. In addition, MRSS isolates exhibited enhanced ability to form biofilm under static condition and all the 5 MRSS isolates carried three or more enterotoxin genes. However, there were no significant differences in resistance to CAMPs between MRSS and MSSS isolates. These findings suggest that coagulase-negative S. schleiferi is becoming more prevalent in canine otitis externa cases. Our results also highlight the presence of multidrug-resistant MRSS isolates with enhanced biofilm production and carriage of multiple enterotoxins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Biofilms , Dogs , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Enterotoxins , Methicillin Resistance , Otitis Externa , Otitis , Skin , Soft Tissue Infections , Staphylococcus , Virulence Factors , Virulence
13.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 6(2): 27-34, nov. 2018. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1178677

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus puede contaminar una gran gama de alimentos, constituyéndose el queso fresco en un buen medio diferencial y selectivo para el desarrollo de este microorganismo. La intoxicación estafilocóccica trasmitida por alimentos, resulta de la ingesta de enterotoxina termoestable preformada en el alimento que fue generada por una cepa toxigénica de Staphylococcus aureus llegando a constituirse en un riesgo para la salud de los consumidores. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de comparar tres métodos: i) ISO 6888-1:2003 ii) NB 32004:2004 y iii) Placas secas rehidratables (Placas Petrifilm) para el recuento de Staphylococcus aureus en queso fresco de expendio en los mercados populares de la ciudad de La Paz. La comparación entre el método de cultivo convencional empleando medio Agar Baird Parker y el método alternativo por placa seca rehidratable fue hecha por medio del muestreo al azar de 30 muestras de queso fresco, el análisis fue hecho por los tres métodos métodos, donde por el método de placa seca rehidratable 10 muestras se encontraban dentro de norma y 20 se encontraban fuera de norma; por medio del método de cultivo convencional 22 muestras se encontraban en norma y 8 fuera de norma. Concluyendo que el método de placa seca rehidratable es más sensible y fácil de aplicar en comparación con el método convencional según norma Bolivia y norma ISO.


Staphylococcus aureus can contaminate a wide range of foods, constituting fresh cheese in a good differential and selective medium for the development of this microorganism. Staphylococcal foodborne poisoning results from the intake of thermostable enterotoxin preformed in the food that was generated by a toxigenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus, becoming a risk to the health of consumers. The present study has the objective of comparing three methods: i) ISO 6888-1: 2003 ii) NB 32004: 2004 and iii) Dry rehydratable plates (Petrifilm plates) for the recount of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh cheese for sale in popular markets from the city of La Paz. The comparison between the conventional culture method using Baird Parker Agar medium and the alternative method by rehydratable dry plate was made by random sampling of 30 samples of fresh cheese, the analysis was done by the three methods methods, where by the method dry rehydratable plate 10 samples were within norm and 20 were out of norm; By means of the conventional cultivation method, 22 samples were in standard and 8 out of norm. Concluding that the rehydratable dry plate method is more sensitive and easier to apply compared to the conventional method according to the Bolivia standard and ISO standard.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Cheese , Food , Poisoning , Health , Risk , Enterotoxins , Methods
14.
Intestinal Research ; : 346-357, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715886

ABSTRACT

A role of gut microbiota in colorectal cancer (CRC) growth was first suggested in germ-free rats almost 50 years ago, and the existence of disease-associated bacteria (termed pathobionts) had becoming increasingly evident from experimental data of fecal transplantation, and microbial gavage or monoassociation. Altered bacterial compositions in fecal and mucosal specimens were observed in CRC patients compared to healthy subjects. Microbial fluctuations were found at various cancer stages; an increase of bacterial diversity was noted in the adenoma specimens, while a reduction of bacterial richness was documented in CRC samples. The bacterial species enriched in the human cancerous tissues included Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis. The causal relationship of gut bacteria in tumorigenesis was established by introducing particular bacterial strains in in situ mouse CRC models. Detailed experimental protocols of bacterial gavage and the advantages and caveats of different experimental models are summarized in this review. The microbial genotoxins, enterotoxins, and virulence factors implicated in the mechanisms of bacteria-driven tumorigenesis are described. In conclusion, intestinal microbiota is involved in colon tumorigenesis. Bacteria-targeting intervention would be the next challenge for CRC.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Animals , Bacteria , Bacteroides fragilis , Carcinogenesis , Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Enterotoxins , Escherichia coli , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Mice , Microbiota , Models, Theoretical , Mutagens , Rats , Virulence , Virulence Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758781

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus (RV)-infected piglets are presumed to be latent sources of heterologous RV infection in humans and other animals. In RVs, non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) is the major virulence factor with pleiotropic properties. In this study, we analyzed the nsp4 gene from porcine RVs isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic cases at different levels of protein folding to explore correlations to diarrhea-inducing capabilities and evolution of nsp4 in the porcine population. Full-length nsp4 genes were amplified, cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed for antigenic epitopes, RotaC classification, homology, genetic relationship, modeling of NSP4 protein, and prediction of post-translational modification. RV presence was observed in both diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets. All nsp4 genes possessed the E1 genotype. Comparison of primary, secondary, and tertiary structure and the prediction of post-translational modifications of NSP4 from diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets revealed no apparent differences. Sequence analysis indicated that nsp4 genes have a multi-phyletic evolutionary origin and exhibit species independent genetic diversity. The results emphasize the evolution of the E9 nsp4 genotype from the E1 genotype and suggest that the diarrhea-inducing capability of porcine RVs may not be exclusively linked to its enterotoxin gene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Classification , Clone Cells , Enterotoxins , Epitopes , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Humans , Protein Folding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Rotavirus , Sequence Analysis , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Virulence
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741858

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Research on the clinical role of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children has been scarce. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical correlation of S. aureus detection in children with AGE. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from children with symptoms of AGE who visited a secondary hospital between January 2012 and December 2015. The samples were sent to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment to test for pathogenic organisms. Clinical patterns were analyzed through medical record review. RESULTS: Among the 663 participants, the bacteria detection rate was 26.2% (n=174), the virus detection rate was 29.7% (n=197), and the non-detection rate was 43.1% (n=286). S. aureus was tested positive from 102 cases and was confirmed as a single pathogen in 53 cases. It was the third most common pathogen. The prevalence by age was highest (45.3%) in 0–2 year-olds. Most cases occurred in summer. Symptoms included diarrhea (71.7%), vomiting (67.9%), fever (49.1%), and abdominal pain (37.7%). Only vomiting showed a significant difference between the S. aureus group and the non-detection group (67.9% vs. 43.0%; P=0.001). Among enterotoxins, the higher incidence of vomiting was associated with classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE) and SEH (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus was the bacteria commonly isolated from children with AGE. Our study identified cases of staphylococcal AGE in children based on fecal samples and confirmed the characteristic symptoms, affected age groups, seasonal distribution, and correlation with enterotoxins.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Academies and Institutes , Bacteria , Child , Diarrhea , Enterotoxins , Fever , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Incidence , Local Government , Medical Records , Prevalence , Public Health , Seasons , Seoul , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Vomiting
17.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 5(2): 205-218, 20180000. tab, graf. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1005950

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La mastitis bovina es la inflamación de glándulas mamarias y tejidos secretores. El género Staphylococcus es el agente causal más importante, por su capacidad de producir diferentes factores de virulencia. Las enterotoxinas estafilocócicas son un grupo importante de toxinas que permiten al microorganismo invadir células y tejido huésped, son diseminadas por medio de productos alimenticios y son responsables de graves intoxicaciones alimentarias en el mundo. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de genes codificadores para las enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (Staphylococcal Enterotoxins, SE) SEA, SEB, SEC, SED y SEE, en cepas de Staphylococcus spp. asociadas con mastitis bovina. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Se identificaron especies por medio de la amplificación de la región r16S. Los genes SEA, SEE, SEC, SED y SEE se detectaron mediante la amplificación por PCR convencional, usando iniciadores específicos para cada gen, y se evidenciaron los amplicones con electroforesis. Resultados. Hubo predominio del grupo Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo (65,2 %) sobre el grupo coagulasa negativo (37,5 %). Staphylococcus aureus fue la cepa más frecuente (88,5 %). El gen SEA (1,7 %) se detectó en S. sciuri, el gen SEB (3,6 %), en S. pasteuri y S. warneri, y el gen SEC (3,6 %), en S. sciuri y S. saprophyticus SEC. No se detectaron los genes SED y SEE en ninguna de las cepas evaluadas Conclusiones. Los resultados apoyan que la mastitis bovina también es causada por Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, lo cual indica la posibilidad de que este grupo adquiera atributos genéticos, como enterotoxinas y factores de virulencia, por transferencia horizontal.


Introduction: Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of mammary glands and secretory tissues. Staphylococcus gender is the main causal agent, due to its capacity to produce different virulence factors. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are a main group of toxins which permit the microorganism to spread in cells and guest tissue, which are disseminated through food products, being responsible of serious food poisoning cases around the world. Objective: To determine the presence of coding genes for staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE); SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and SEE, in Staphylococcus spp. strains related to bovine mastitis. Materials and methods: Quantitative study, descriptive and cross-sectional. It was made an identification of species through. They were identified 57 Staphylococcus spp. strains at specie level by amplification of r16S region. The detection of SEA, SEE, SEC, SED, y SEE genes was made through conventional PCR, using specific primers for each gene, they were evinced amplicons through electrophoresis. Results: It was evinced predominance of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus group (65.2%), being Staphylococcus aureus the strain with the highest presence (88.5%), whereas coagulase-negative Staphylococcus group was 37.5%. SEA gene was detected in S. sciuri (1.7%); SEB in S. pasteuri and S. warneri (3.6%); SEC was identified in S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus (3.6%); they were not detected SED y SEE genes in any of the researched strains. Conclusions: The results support that the development of bovine mastitis is also caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, indicating the possibility that this group acquires genetic attributes as enterotoxins and virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer.


Introdução. A mastite bovina é a inflamação das glândulas mamárias e dos tecidos secretórios. O gênero Staphylococcus é o agente causador mais importante, devido à sua capacidade de produzir diferentes fatores de virulência. As enterotoxinas estafilocócicas são um importante grupo de toxinas que permitem que o microorganismo invada as células e tecidos do hospede, são disseminadas através de produtos alimentícios e são responsáveis por intoxicações alimentares graves no mundo. Objetivo. Determinar a presença de genes que codificam enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (Staphylococcal Enterotoxins, SE) SEA, SEB, SEC, SED e SEE, em cepas de Staphylococcus spp. associada à mastite bovina. Materiais e métodos. Estudo quantitativo, descritivo e transversal. As espécies foram identificadas por amplificação da região r16S. Os genes SEA, SEE, SEC e SED foram detectados por amplificação PCR convencional utilizando primers específicos para cada gene, e os amplicons foram evidenciados com eletroforese. Resultados. Houve predomínio do grupo Staphylococcus coagulase positivo (65,2%) sobre o grupo negativo da coagulase (37,5%). Staphylococcus aureus foi a cepa mais frequente (88,5%). O gene SEA (1.7%) foi detectado em S. sciuri, o gene SEB (3.6%) em S. pasteuri e S. warneri, SEC (3.6%) em S. sciuri e SEC em S. saprophyticus. Os genes SED e SEE não foram detectados em nenhuma das cepas avaliadas. Conclusões. Os resultados confirmam que a mastite bovina também é causada por Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo, o que indica a possibilidade de que este grupo adquira atributos genéticos, como enterotoxinas e fatores de virulência, por transferência horizontal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterotoxins , Staphylococcus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genes, vif , Mastitis
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(12): 1559-1564, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902481

ABSTRACT

Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Among these, 26% were toxin A producers. Conclusions Half of the sampled workers carried Staphylococcus aureus and a quarter of these produced type A enterotoxin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Enterotoxins/isolation & purification , Food Services , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Age Factors
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(12): 812-816, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) is a potent mucosal immune adjuvant. However, there is little information about LTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant. OBJECTIVES We aimed at evaluating and better understanding rLTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant using the fused R1 repeat of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin as an antigen to characterise the humoral immune response induced by this construct and comparing it to that generated when aluminium hydroxide is used as adjuvant instead. METHODS BALB/c mice were immunised intraperitoneally with either rLTBR1 or recombinant R1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. The levels of systemic anti-rR1 antibodies (total Ig, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ratio of IgG1 and IgG2a was used to characterise a Th1, Th2, or mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. FINDINGS Western blot confirmed rR1, either alone or fused to LTB, remained antigenic; anti-cholera toxin ELISA confirmed that LTB retained its activity when expressed in a heterologous system. Mice immunised with the rLTBR1 fusion protein produced approximately twice as much anti-rR1 immunoglobulins as mice vaccinated with rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. Animals vaccinated with either rLTBR1 or rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide presented a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. We speculate this might be a result of rR1 immune modulation rather than adjuvant modulation. Mice immunised with rLTBR1 produced approximately 1.5-fold more serum IgA than animals immunised with rR1 and aluminium hydroxide. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that rLTB is a more powerful parenteral adjuvant than aluminium hydroxide when administered intraperitoneally as it induced higher antibody titres. Therefore, we recommend that rLTB be considered an alternative adjuvant, even if different administration routes are employed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Toxins/toxicity , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adhesins, Bacterial/immunology , Escherichia coli Proteins/administration & dosage , Escherichia coli Proteins/immunology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/immunology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Enterotoxins/administration & dosage , Swine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Aluminum Hydroxide
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1351-1356, set.-out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-879374

ABSTRACT

The strangles is an infectious disease that affects horses from all ages and causes important economic losses in the equine-related business. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the recombinant M protein from Streptococcus equi (rSeM) co-administered with the recombinant heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit from Escherichia coli (rLTB) in mice and horses. A total of 72 female Balb-c mice were divided into eight groups and 18 horses were divided into six groups. The animals were inoculated by intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes with different treatments of rSeM, rLTB and/or Al(OH)3. The results obtained in both species, independent of administration routes, demonstrated that rSeM + rLTB had higher levels of specific serum immunoglobulins, however, in mucosal immunity the increase was not identified. Thus, the use of rSeM as vaccine antigen and rLTB as adjuvant can be a potential tool in the control of equine strangles.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Enterotoxins/administration & dosage , Horses/immunology , Streptococcus equi , Viral Matrix Proteins
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