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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254816, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355894


Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.

Resumo O Paquistão é um país agrícola, onde a pesca desempenha um papel muito importante para o desenvolvimento econômico. Diferentes doenças são prevalentes em peixes do Paquistão, mas as informações relacionadas aos agentes causadores não são bem conhecidas. Tendo em vista a importância dos patógenos bacterianos como agentes causadores de múltiplas doenças em peixes, o presente estudo foi conduzido para identificação, caracterização e análise de genes de virulência de isolados de Aeromonas spp. de peixes doentes. Foram coletadas 50 amostras de peixes com múltiplas indicações clínicas em diferentes fazendas do distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Para isolar Aeromonas spp., as amostras foram enriquecidas e inoculadas em meio de isolamento. Os isolados foram identificados e caracterizados por diferentes testes bioquímicos, kit Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E, e ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Todos os isolados foram selecionados para três genes de virulência putativos, incluindo aerolisina (aer), hemolisina (hyl) e enterotoxina citotônica termolábil (alt). Sete isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila foram recuperados e identificados com base no API 20E. Esses isolados foram posteriormente confirmados como A. hydrophila de acordo com ensaios de PCR. Três isolados indicaram a presença de genes de virulência (alt e hyl), enquanto o gene aerolisina (aer) não esteve presente em nenhum dos isolados de A. hydrophila. O presente estudo confirmou A. hydrophila como o agente causador da síndrome ulcerativa epizoótica e septicemia móvel por Aeromonas em fazendas de peixes, no distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Além disso, a detecção de dois genes de virulência (alt e hyl) em isolados de A. hydrophila é uma ameaça para os consumidores de peixes da área de estudo.

Animals , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Aeromonas/genetics , Pakistan , Aeromonas hydrophila/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Fishes
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 81-87, 2017. ilus., tab.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846777


The multidrug resistant and the emergence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from animals, food, and humans are public health concern. These microorganisms produce different toxins related to food poisoning in humans. This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from two organic milk farms in Brazil. A total of 259 milk samples were collected, from which 58 (22.4%) Staphylococcus spp. were isolated. The highest sensibility to ceftiofur and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in 96.6% of Staphylococcus spp., and whereas 89% were resistant to penicillin G. The mecA gene was detected in 13.8% of the isolates. SEA and SEC were the most common enterotoxins detected. PFGE revealed genetic heterogeneity from S. intermedius and S. warneri analyzed, while S. aureus presented similar profiles among isolates from the two studied herds. To the best of our knowledge, the current study describes for the first time presence of enterotoxins, mecA gene, and genetic diversity of staphylococci isolated from organic dairy farms in Brazil.(AU)

A emergência de estafilococos multirresistentes e resistentes à meticilina, isolados de animais, alimentos e humanos é uma preocupação em saúde pública. Esses micro-organismos produzem diferentes toxinas relacionadas à intoxicação alimentar em humanos. Este estudo caracterizou Staphylococcus spp. isolados em duas fazendas orgânicas no Brasil. Foram coletadas 259 amostras de leite em duas propriedades leiteiras orgânicas, nas quais 58 (22,4%) estirpes de Staphylococcus spp. foram isoladas. A maior sensibilidade dos isolados foi observada para ceftiofur e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim em 96,6%. Em contraste, acima de 89% de resistência dos estafilicocos foi encontrada para penicilina G. O gene mecA foi identificado em 13,8% dos isolados. SEA e SEC foram as enterotoxinas mais comumente detectadas. PFGE revelou heterogeneidade genética entre S. intermedius e S. warneri, enquanto S. aureus demonstraram perfis semelhantes entre isolados dos dois rebanhos estudados. Relata-se pela primeira vez no Brasil a detecção de enterotoxinas, o gene mecA e diversidade genética em estafilococos isolados de vacas em produção orgânica.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral , Food, Organic , Genes, MDR , Milk/microbiology , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterotoxins/genetics , Genetic Variation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34958


BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of four commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs: Xpert C. difficile, BD MAX Cdiff, IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000, and Illumigene C. difficile) for direct and rapid detection of Clostridium difficile toxin genes. METHODS: We compared four NAATs on the same set of 339 stool specimens (303 prospective and 36 retrospective specimens) with toxigenic culture (TC). RESULTS: Concordance rate among four NAATs was 90.3% (306/339). Based on TC results, the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.9% for Xpert; 86.3% and 89.3% for Max; 84.3% and 94.4% for IMDx; and 82.4% and 93.7% for Illumigene, respectively. For 306 concordant cases, there were 11 TC-negative/NAATs co-positive cases and 6 TC-positive/NAATs co-negative cases. Among 33 discordant cases, 18 were only single positive in each NAAT (Xpert, 1; Max, 12; IMDx, 1; Illumigene, 4). Positivity rates of the four NAATs were associated with those of semi-quantitative cultures, which were maximized in grade 3 (>100 colony-forming unit [CFU]) compared with grade 1 (<10 CFU). CONCLUSIONS: Commercial NAATs may be rapid and reliable methods for direct detection of tcdA and/or tcdB in stool specimens compared with TC. Some differences in the sensitivity of the NAATs may partly depend on the number of toxigenic C. difficile in stool specimens.

Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 95-102, June 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757147


The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7 %) healthy and 225 (36.3 %) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1 % isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una caracterización molecular actualizada de cepas patógenas bovinas de Escherichia coli aisladas de un muestreo aleatorio en tambos de una de las principales zonas lecheras de Argentina. Se obtuvieron hisopados rectales de 395 terneros neonatos sanos (63,7 %) y 225 diarreicos (36,3 %) pertenecientes a 45 tambos de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina. Los genes de virulencia f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae y vt se analizaron mediante PCR y se investigó la prevalencia de los perfiles de virulencia en función de la distribución geográfica. La prevalencia de aislamientos de E. coli patogénicos con al menos un gen de virulencia fue del 30,1 %. Once perfiles de virulencia fueron identificados, dependiendo de la combinación de genes presentes. La mayor parte de las muestras presentó un solo gen de virulencia, y no predominó ninguna combinación de genes de fimbrias y toxinas. No hubo asociación entre la frecuencia y la distribución de los genes de virulencia y el estado de salud de los terneros. La mayoría de los perfiles de virulencia fueron compatibles con cepas ECET y se distribuyeron cubriendo toda el área geográfica muestreada. No se reconoció ningún patrón de agrupamiento espacial para dichos perfiles. Este trabajo provee información actualizada sobre la caracterización molecular de E. coli patógena en rodeos lecheros de Córdoba, Argentina. Estos resultados serían importantes para formular programas preventivos y terapias eficaces contra la diarrea bovina causada por E. coli.

Animals , Animals, Newborn/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle/microbiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Argentina/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Dairying , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Fimbriae, Bacterial/genetics , Prevalence , Sampling Studies , Virulence/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 155-159, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748252


To determine the presence of some toxins of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), 138 urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing UPECs were analyzed. The astA, set, sen and cdtB genes were detected in 13 (9.4%), 2 (1.3%), 13 (9.4%) and 0 (0%) of UPEC isolates respectively. The results show that some genes encoding toxins can be transferred from DEC pathotypes to UPECs therefore these isolates can transform into potential diarrhea-causing agents.

Humans , Enterotoxins/genetics , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34570


BACKGROUND: Burn wounds lack normal barriers that protect against pathogenic bacteria, and burn patients are easily colonized and infected by Staphylococcus aureus. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but fatal disease caused by S. aureus. A lack of detectable antibodies to TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1) in serum indicates susceptibility to TSS. METHODS: A total of 207 patients (169 men and 38 women; median age, 42.5 yr) admitted to a burn center in Korea were enrolled in this study. The serum antibody titer to TSST-1 was measured by sandwich ELISA. S. aureus isolates from the patients' nasal swab culture were tested for TSST-1 toxin production by PCR-based detection of the TSST-1 toxin gene. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-four (84.1%) patients showed positive results for antibody against TSST-1. All patients aged > or =61 yr (n=28) and <26 months (n=7) were positive for the anti-TSST-1 antibody. S. aureus was isolated from 70 patients (33.8%), and 58.6% of the isolates were methicillin resistant. Seventeen patients were colonized with TSST-1-producing S. aureus. The antibody positivity in these 17 carriers was 88.2%, and the positivity in the non-carriers was 83.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Most burn patients had antibody to TSST-1, and nasal colonization with TSST-1-producing S. aureus was associated with positive titers of anti-TSST-1 antibody. Additionally, patients with negative titers of anti-TSST-1 antibody might be susceptible to TSS.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Burns/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterotoxins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Superantigens/genetics , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36809


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous identification and toxigenic type characterization of Clostridium difficile. METHODS: The multiplex real-time PCR assay targeted and simultaneously detected triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and binary toxin (cdtA) genes, and toxin A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) genes in the first and sec tubes, respectively. The results of multiplex real-time PCR were compared to those of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, targeting the tcdB gene alone. The toxigenic culture was used as the reference, where toxin genes were detected by multiplex real-time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 351 stool samples from consecutive patients were included in the study. Fifty-five stool samples (15.6%) were determined to be positive for the presence of C. difficile by using multiplex real-time PCR. Of these, 48 (87.2%) were toxigenic (46 tcdA and tcdB-positive, two positive for only tcdB) and 11 (22.9%) were cdtA-positive. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of the multiplex real-time PCR compared with the toxigenic culture were 95.6%, 98.6%, 91.6%, and 99.3%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex real-time PCR assay was determined to be 103colonyforming unit (CFU)/g spiked stool sample and 0.0625 pg genomic DNA from culture. Analytical specificity determined by using 15 enteric and non-clostridial reference strains was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The multiplex real-time PCR assay accurately detected C. difficile isolates from diarrheal stool samples and characterized its toxin genes in a single PCR run.

ADP Ribose Transferases/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triose-Phosphate Isomerase/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1401-1407, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741293


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and risk factors for the acquisition of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) as the main cause of skin and soft tissue infections. S. aureus were characterized for the presence of PVL, TSST-1 and mecA genes. SCCmec typing was carried out in mecA positive strains and PFGE was performed only in these strains. During the study period, 127 outpatients attending a dermatology clinical the Botucatu Medical School, a regional tertiary hospital in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were diagnosed with active skin infections. A total 66 (56.9%) S. aureus strains were isolated. The methicillin resistance gene mecA was detected in seven (10.6%) S. aureus strains. The SCCmec types detected in the seven mecA-positive S. aureus strains were type Ia in one, type II in three, and type IV in three. The PVL gene was detected in 10 (15.1%) in sensitive strains. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed non-clonal diversity among the isolates. The risk factors associated with MRSA acquisition in this study were previous ciprofloxacin use and working in a healthcare environment. The risk factors indicate plausible routes of CA-MRSA transmission among the subjects studied.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Brazil , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterotoxins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Leukocidins/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Typing , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Skin/microbiology , Superantigens/genetics
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(3): 192-197, sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-752698


La leche en polvo es un producto de alto consumo humano que no precisa de ser conservado en frío, no obstante, diversos microorganismos pueden deteriorarlo. En la población costarricense, también se observa este alto consumo, por la facilidad del alimento para transporte, preparación y su costo competitivo. Bacillus cereus es una bacteria potencialmente patógena asociada a este tipo de producto, capaz de desarrollar toxinas dependiendo de la presencia o ausencia de los respectivos genes codificantes. En este estudio se determinó la presencia de los genes toxigénicos nheA, nheB y nheC en cepas de B. cereus aisladas de leche deshidratada vendida en el mercado nacional costarricense.Se examinaron cinco lotes diferentes, de diez marcas comerciales de leche en polvo distribuidos en el área metropolitana de San José Costa Rica. Se procedió a cuantificar B. cereus en las muestras de leche en polvo mediante la técnica de Número Más Probable (NMP) e identificar los aislamientos utilizando el equipo automatizado Vitek®. Adicionalmente, se determinó la presencia de los genes nheA, nheB y nheC mediante la técnica de PCR. La frecuencia de aislamiento de Bacillus cereus en las muestras de leche en polvo analizadas alcanzó un 50%, con cantidades que oscilaron entre 3 y >100 NMP/g. Se recuperaron 19 cepas de B. cereus aisladas, cinco fueron positivas para los tres genes toxigénicos, lo cual revela la presencia de B. cereus potencialmente toxigénico en leches deshidratadas del mercado nacional, lo que representa un riesgo para la salud pública.

Powdered milk is a frequently consumed product that does not need to be kept under cold conditions. Nevertheless, different microorganisms may contaminate it. Powdered milk is a highly consumed product by Costa Rican population, and Bacillus cereus is a potentially pathogenic bacteria associated to it, with the ability to develop toxins depending on the presence of the respective codifying genes. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of the toxigenic genes nheA, nheB and nheC from B. cereus strains, found in powdered milk sold at the Costa Rican national market. Five different lots of ten brands of powdered milk, distributed in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica were analyzed. B cereus load was quantified using the Most Probable Number technique and identified using the Vitek® system. The presence of the toxigenic genes was determined using the PCR technique. The isolation frequency of this bacteria in the powdered milk samples analyzed reached 50%, with populations ranging from 3 to >100 MPN/g. Five out from nineteen strains were found positive for the three toxigenic genes, indicating contamination with potentially toxigenic B. cereus in powdered milk distributed in the national market, and an important risk for public health.

Animals , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Enterotoxins/genetics , Food Microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Colony Count, Microbial , Costa Rica , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterotoxins/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1031-1037, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727035


Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

Humans , Environmental Microbiology , Food Microbiology , Food Services , Hand/microbiology , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Staphylococcus/classification , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterotoxins/genetics , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcus/genetics
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(7): 633-636, jul. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720436


Staphylococcal enterotoxins are the leading cause of human food poisoning worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the main mastitis-causing agents in goats and frequently found in high counts in goat milk. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis in lactating goats in Paraiba State, Brazil. Milk samples (n=2024) were collected from 393 farms. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 55 milk samples. Classical (sea, seb, sec, sed, see) and novel (seg, seh, sei) enterotoxin-encoding genes were investigated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From thirty-six tested isolates, enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in 7 (19.5 percent) S. aureus. The gene encoding enterotoxin C (seC) was identified in six isolates, while seiwas observed in only one isolate. The genes sea, seb, sed, see, seg and seh were not observed amongst the S. aureus investigated in this study. In summary, S. aureus causing mastitis in goats can harbor enterotoxin-encoding genes and seC was the most frequent gene observed amongst the investigated isolates. This finding is important for surveillance purposes, since enterotoxin C should be investigated in human staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks caused by consumption of goat milk and dairy products.

As enterotoxinas estafilocócicas são as principais causas de intoxicação alimentar em humanos em todo o mundo. O principal agente causador da mastite caprina são os Staphylococcus spp., frequentemente encontrado em altas contagens no leite caprino. Este estudo objetivou investigar a ocorrência de genes codificadores de enterotoxinas em Staphylococus aureus associados com mastite em cabras em lactação no estado da Paraíba, Brasil. As amostras de leite (n=2024) foram coletadas em 393 propriedades. Foram isolados 55 S. aureus em amostras de leite. Os genes codificadores de enterotoxinas clássicas (sea, seb, sec, sed, see) e as novas (seg, seh, sei) foram investigadas por meio de reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Foram testados trinta e seis isolados, foram detectados 7 (19,5 por cento) genes codificadores de enterotoxinas de S. aureus. O gene codificador da enterotoxina C (sec) foi identificado em seis isolados, enquanto sei foi observado em apenas um isolado. Os genes sea, seb, sed, see, seg e seh não foram observados entre os S. aureus investigados neste estudo. Em síntese, a mastite caprina causada por S. aureus pode abrigar genes codificadores de enterotoxinas e sec foi o gene mais frequentemente observado entre os isolados investigados. Essa descoberta é importante para fins de vigilância e a enterotoxina C deve ser investigada em surtos de intoxicações alimentares estafilocócicas em humanos causadas pelo consumo de leite caprino e seus derivados.

Humans , Animals , Goats/microbiology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis/etiology , Mastitis/veterinary , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(3): 179-191, 03/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704624


The isolation of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) from Escherichia coli and cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae has increased our knowledge of specific mechanisms of action that could be used as pharmacological tools to understand the guanylyl cyclase-C and the adenylyl cyclase enzymatic systems. These discoveries have also been instrumental in increasing our understanding of the basic mechanisms that control the electrolyte and water balance in the gut, kidney, and urinary tracts under normal conditions and in disease. Herein, we review the evolution of genes of the guanylin family and STa genes from bacteria to fish and mammals. We also describe new developments and perspectives regarding these novel bacterial compounds and peptide hormones that act in electrolyte and water balance. The available data point toward new therapeutic perspectives for pathological features such as functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with constipation, colorectal cancer, cystic fibrosis, asthma, hypertension, gastrointestinal barrier function damage associated with enteropathy, enteric infection, malnutrition, satiety, food preferences, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and effects on behavior and brain disorders such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia.

Animals , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Gastrointestinal Hormones/genetics , Guanylate Cyclase/physiology , Natriuretic Peptides/genetics , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Adenylyl Cyclases/physiology , Bacterial Toxins/isolation & purification , Evolution, Molecular , Enterotoxins/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Proteins/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Forecasting , Guanylate Cyclase/therapeutic use , Mammals/physiology , Peptides/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193134


BACKGROUND: ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMerieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile. We compared the performance of IDCd with that of Clostridium difficile Selective Agar (CDSA). METHODS: A total of 530 fresh stool specimens were collected from patients with clinical signs compatible with C. difficile infection, and cultures for C. difficile were performed on IDCd and CDSA. C. difficile colonies were identified by spore staining, odor, use of an ANI identification test kit (bioMerieux SA), and multiplex PCR for tcdA, tcdB, and tpi. RESULTS: The concordance rate between IDCd and CDSA was 90.6% (480/530). The positivity rates on IDCd on days 1 and 2 (55.6% and 85.0%, respectively) were significantly higher than those on CDSA (19.4% and 75.6%, respectively) (P<0.001 for day 1 and P=0.02 for day 2), but the detection rates on IDCd and CDSA on day 3 were not different (89.4% vs. 82.8%, P=0.0914). On day 3, the recovery rates for non-C. difficile isolates on IDCd and CDSA were 30.2% (160/530) and 22.1% (117/530), respectively (P=0.0075). Clostridium spp. other than C. difficile were the most prevalent non-C. difficile isolates on both media. CONCLUSIONS: The culture positivity rates on IDCd and CDSA were not different on day 3 but IDCd may allow for rapid and sensitive detection of C. difficile within 2 days of cultivation.

Agar/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterotoxins/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Triose-Phosphate Isomerase/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1155-1161, Oct.-Dec. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705275


An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers' intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products.

Enterotoxins/genetics , Fruit/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Argentina , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , /genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(5): 579-585, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656212


INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcal species are pathogens that are responsible for outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enterotoxin-genes and the antimicrobial resistance profile in staphylococcus coagulase-negative (CoNS) and coagulasepositive (CoPS) isolates from black pudding in southern Brazil. METHODS: Two hundred typical and atypical colonies from Baird-Parker agar were inoculated on mannitol salt agar. Eighty-two mannitol-positive staphylococci were submitted to conventional biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling. The presence of coagulase (coa) and enterotoxin (se) genes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The isolates were divided into 2 groups: 75.6% (62/82) were CoNS and 24.4% (20/82) were CoPS. The biochemical tests identified 9 species, of which Staphylococcus saprophyticus (37.8%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (15.9%) were the most prevalent. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to antibiotics widely administered in humans, such as gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. The coa gene was detected in 19.5% (16/82) of the strains and 4 polymorphic DNA fragments were observed. Five CoNS isolates carrying the coa gene were submitted for 16S rRNA sequencing and 3 showed similarity with CoNS. Forty strains were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin-encoding gene, the genes most frequently detected were sea (28.6%) and seb (27.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of antimicrobial resistant and enterotoxin-encoding genes in staphylococci isolates from black pudding indicated that this fermented food may represent a potential health risk, since staphylococci present in food could cause foodborne diseases or be a possible route for the transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans.

INTRODUÇÃO: Estafilococos são patógenos responsáveis por surtos de doenças transmitidas por alimentos. O estudo investigou a prevalência de genes de enterotoxinas e o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos em estafilococos coagulase-negativo (CoNS) e estafilococos coagulase-positivo (CoPS) isolados de morcilhas no sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Duzentas colônias típicas e atípicas do ágar Baird-Parker foram inoculadas em ágar sal-manitol. Oitenta e dois estafilococos manitol-positivos foram submetidos a testes bioquímicos e perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana. A presença dos genes da coagulase (coa) e enterotoxinas (se) foi investigada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). RESULTADOS: Os isolados foram divididos em dois grupos: 75,6% (62/82) CoNS e 24,4% (20/82) CoPS. Através dos testes bioquímicos, 9 espécies foram determinadas, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (37,8%) e Staphylococcus carnosus (15,9%) foram as mais prevalentes. Testes de susceptibilidade demostraram fenótipos de resistência aos antibióticos administrados em humanos, como gentamicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol e eritromicina. O gene coa foi detectado em 19,5% (16/82) das cepas e quatro fragmentos de DNA polimórficos foram observados. Cinco CoNS contendo o gene coa foram submetidos ao sequenciamento do 16S rRNA e três mostraram similaridade com CoNS. Quarenta amostras foram positivas para pelo menos um gene se, os mais frequentes foram sea (28,6%) e seb (27,5%). CONCLUSÕES: A presença de resistência aos antimicrobianos e de genes se nos isolados de morcilha indicou que este alimento pode representar um risco potencial à saúde, já que a presença nos alimentos pode causar doenças de origem alimentar ou ser uma possível rota de transferência de estafilococos resistentes aos humanos.

Humans , Coagulase/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Food Microbiology , Staphylococcus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Enterotoxins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/microbiology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Staphylococcus/enzymology
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(2): 85-88, jun. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657616


El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar mediante PCR 47 aislamientos de Escheríchia coli recuperados de 32 cerdos con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea posdestete (DPD) y de 3 cerdos con enfermedad de los edemas (ED). Sobre 44 aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con DPD, 42 (95,5 %) fueron caracterizados como E. coli enterotoxigénicos (ETEC) y 2 (4,5 %) como E. coli productores de toxina Shiga (STEC). Catorce aislamientos de ETEC (33,3 %) fueron positivos para los genes estl/estlI/fedA. El genotipo más complejo fue eltA/estll/east1/faeG/aidA. Los aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con ED se clasificaron como STEC porcinos y fueron portadores de stxJaidA. Once aislamientos (25 %) fueron portadores del gen que codifica la expresión de la adhesina AIDA-I. Sin embargo, en ningún aislamiento se detectaron los genes que codifican la expresión de las adhesinas F5, F6, F41, de intimina y de "Paa". La prevención de la DPD y de la ED podría realizarse mediante el desarrollo de vacunas que generen anticuerpos contra las adhesinas de las cepas de E. coli prevalentes en la Argentina.

The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and tree pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 %) of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and 2 (4.5 %) as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Fourteen (33.3 %) ETEC strains were positive for est/estll/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estl/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stxjaidA carriers. Eleven (25 %) strains carried the gene encoding adhesln protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED.

Animals , Diarrhea/veterinary , Edema Disease of Swine/microbiology , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Adhesins, Escherichia coli/genetics , Argentina/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Edema Disease of Swine/epidemiology , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Enterotoxins/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Genotype , Sus scrofa , Swine , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Weaning
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(2): 101-104, jun. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657619


Staphylococcus aureus es una causa de intoxicaciones alimentarias por su capacidad de producir enterotoxinas. Los manipuladores de alimentos que portan S. aureus productores de enterotoxinas pueden provocar intoxicaciones alimentarias. Se estudiaron muestras tomadas de fosas nasales de 88 manipuladores de alimentos en la provincia de Misiones. El 37,5 % de los individuos analizados eran portadores de S. aureus. Mediante técnicas de amplificación (PCR), se detectaron genes que codifican la producción de enterotoxinas en 13 de los 33 aislamientos obtenidos (39,4 %) y en el 14,7 % de los manipuladores. De estos aislamientos, 10 portaban el gen sea y 3 el gen sec. El estudio de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mostró un 100 % de sensibilidad a teicoplanina, gentamiclna y rifampicina; 2 aislamientos fueron resistentes a clindamicina y a eritromicina y 4 resultaron resistentes a la meticilina. Estos resultados son un alerta e indicarían la necesidad de desarrollar medidas racionales para reducir el riesgo potencial de intoxicaciones alimentarias.

Staphylococcus aureus causes food poisoning due to its ability to produce enterotoxins. Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing S. aureus can contaminate food, thus leading to food poisoning. Samples were obtained from 88 food handlers in the Province of Misiones, Argentina. S. aureus was isolated from nasal swaps and PCR amplification was performed for genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins. A total of 37.5 % food handlers were positive for S. aureus. Expression of enterotoxin genes was found in 13 of the 33 (39.4 %) S. aureus isolates studied, accounting for 14.7 % of food handlers. Gene sea was detected in 10 isolates followed by gene sec in 3 isolates. All isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, gentamicin and rifampicin. Four isolates were resistant to methicillin whereas 2 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin. These results constitute a critical alert and indicate the need for developing rational measures to reduce the potential risk of food poisoning.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carrier State/epidemiology , Food Handling , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterotoxins/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/prevention & control , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/transmission , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 754-765, Apr.-June 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644493


Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health.

Humans , Animals , Acyltransferases/analysis , Aeromonas/genetics , Aeromonas/isolation & purification , Disease Susceptibility , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterotoxins/genetics , Aquatic Fauna/analysis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , In Vitro Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Water Microbiology , Enzyme Activation , Fishes , Virulence , Water Samples
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(4): 1479-1485, Dec. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-646526


Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates of different origins from Costa Rica. Clostridium perfringens, a Gram positive, spore-forming anaerobe, is widely distributed in nature. Based upon their production of four major toxins α, β, ε and ι, C. perfringens is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E). Some strains produce an enterotoxin (CPE), encoded by the cpe gene, which causes diarrhea in humans and some animals. C. perfringens strains that had been previously isolated and been kept at -80°C were analyzed for the presence of toxin genes and for antimicrobial resistance: 20 from soils,20 from animal, 20 from human origin and 21 from food non related to outbreaks. According to PCR results, all strains were classified as C. perfringens type A, since only α toxin gene was detected, while cpe was detected in two strains (2.5%) isolated from food, as it has been described in other world regions. Antibiotic resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 44% of the strains, 41% was resistant to clindamycin, 25% to chloramphenicol, 22% to penicillin and 20% to metronidazole. Soils strains showed the highest resistance percentages to almost all antibiotics. Multiresistance (to three or more antibiotic groups) was detected in the strains from soil (40%), human origin (30%), food (14%) and animal origin (5%). The high resistance rates found may be explained by the widespread use of antimicrobials as growth promoters in plants and animals; also these resistant strains may act as reservoir of resistance genes that may be transferred between bacteria in different environments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4): 1479-1485. Epub 2011 December 01.

Clostridium perfringens es un bacilo Gram positivo, esporulado, anaerobio, ampliamente distribuido en la naturaleza, que produce cuatro toxinas principales α, β, ε y ι, las cuales permiten su clasificación en cinco toxinotipos (A-E). Algunas cepas producen una enterotoxina (CPE), codificada por el gen cpe, que causa diarrea en seres humanos y en algunos animales. La presencia de los genes de estas toxinas y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se determinó en 81 cepas de C. perfringens previamente aisladas y que habían sido mantenidas a -80°C; 20 de suelos, 20 de origen animal, 20 de origen humano y 21 de alimentos cocidos no relacionados con brotes alimentarios. De acuerdo con los resultados de PCR, todas las cepas fueron clasificadas como C. perfringens tipo A, debido a que solo se les detectó el gen de la toxina α, mientras que el gen de la enterotoxina (cpe) se detectó en dos cepas (2.5%) aisladas de alimentos, tal como ha sido descrito en otras regiones del mundo. El 44% de las cepas fue resistente a algún antibiótico; clindamicina (41%), cloranfenicol (25%), penicilina (22%) y metronidazol (20%). En general, las cepas provenientes de suelos presentaron los mayores porcentajes de resistencia a casi todos los antibióticos. El 40% de las cepas de suelo presentó multiresistencia (a tres o más grupos de antibióticos), el 30% de las de origen humano, el 14% de las de alimentos y el 5% de las de origen animal. Las altas tasas de resistencia encontradas podrían deberse al amplio uso de antibióticos como promotores de crecimiento de plantas y animales y esas cepas resistentes podrían actuar como reservorio de genes de resistencia que pueden transferirse entre bacterias de diversos ambientes.

Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Clostridium perfringens/drug effects , Clostridium perfringens/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Costa Rica , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108030


The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital.

Animals , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Chromosomes, Bacterial/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Enterotoxins/genetics , Exfoliatins/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Hospitals, Animal , Humans , Medical Staff, Hospital , Molecular Sequence Data , Pets/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus/genetics , Staphylococcus intermedius/genetics