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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3101-3107, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921409

ABSTRACT

Viral myocarditis (VMC) is a disease characterized by inflammation of myocardial cells caused by viral infection. Since the pathogenesis mechanism of VMC has not been fully elucidated, the diagnosis and treatment of this disease remains extremely challenging. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. An increasing number of studies have shown that ncRNAs are involved in regulating the occurrence and development of VMC, thus providing potential new targets for the treatment and diagnosis of VMC. This review summarizes the possible roles of ncRNAs in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of VMC revealed recently.


Subject(s)
Coxsackievirus Infections , Enterovirus B, Human , Humans , Inflammation , Myocarditis/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878347

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop RT-nPCR assays for amplifying partial and complete VP1 genes of human enteroviruses (HEVs) from clinical samples and to contribute to etiological surveillance of HEV-related diseases.@*Methods@#A panel of RT-nPCR assays, consisting of published combined primer pairs for VP1 genes of HEV A-C and in-house designed primers for HEV-D, was established in this study. The sensitivity of each RT-nPCR assay was evaluated with serially diluted virus stocks of five serotypes expressed as CCID @*Results@#The sensitivity of RT-nPCR assays for amplifying partial VP1 gene of HEVs was 0.1 CCID @*Conclusion@#This RT-nPCR system is capable of amplifying the partial and complete VP1 gene of HEV A-D, providing rapid, sensitive, and reliable options for molecular typing and molecular epidemiology of HEVs in clinical specimens.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus C, Human/genetics , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , Molecular Typing/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190160, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040614

ABSTRACT

Human enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequences of one EV-C99 strain and one E29 strain obtained from children suffering from acute gastroenteritis, without symptoms of enteroviral syndromes. This is the first report of EV-C99 in South America, and the second E29 genome described worldwide. Continuous surveillance on EVs is vital to provide further understanding of the circulation of new or rare EV serotypes in the country. The present study also highlights the capacity of EVs to remain in silent circulation in populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus C, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Enterovirus B, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus C, Human/isolation & purification , Feces/virology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785899

ABSTRACT

Echovirus 30 is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adults. The purpose of our current study was to investigate whether selected antiviral drugs could provide antiviral activity against echovirus 30. Using RD cells, we assessed the cytopathic effect of echovirus 30, including viral RNA levels as indicators of viral replication. The effects of gemcitabine were compared to rupintrivir, a well-known antiviral drug. To understand the activity gemcitabine exerts on the viral life cycle, time course and time-of-addition assays were implemented. The most effective compounds against echovirus 30 were gemcitabine and rupintrivir, as demonstrated by their concentration-dependent activity. Gemcitabine affects the early stages of echovirus 30 infection by disrupting viral replication. However, gemcitabine failed to directly inactivate echovirus 30 particles or impede viral uptake into the RD cells. Gemcitabine can be considered as a lead candidate in the development of echovirus 30 antiviral drugs, specifically in the early stages of echovirus 30 replication.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiviral Agents , Child , Enterovirus B, Human , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Life Cycle Stages , Meningitis , RNA, Viral
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation pathway. Many picornaviruses induce autophagy to benefit viral replication, but an understanding of how autophagy occurs remains incomplete. In this study, we explored whether coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection induced autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.@*METHODS@#In CVB3-infected HeLa cells, the specific molecules of ER stress and autophagy were detected using Western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and confocal microscopy. Then PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK) inhibitor, inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1) inhibitor, or activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) inhibitor worked on CVB3-infected cells, their effect on autophagy was assessed by Western blotting for detecting microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3).@*RESULTS@#CVB3 infection induced ER stress, and ER stress sensors PERK/eIF2α, IRE1/XBP1, and ATF6 were activated. CVB3 infection increased the accumulation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 punctuation and induced the conversion from LC3-I to phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated LC3-1 (LC3-II). CVB3 infection still decreased the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p-mTOR. Inhibition of PERK, IRE1, or ATF6 significantly decreased the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in CVB3-infected HeLa cells.@*CONCLUSION@#CVB3 infection induced autophagy through ER stress in HeLa cells, and PERK, IRE1, and ATF6a pathways participated in the regulation of autophagy. Our data suggested that ER stress may inhibit mTOR signaling pathway to induce autophagy during CVB3 infection.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 6 , Metabolism , Autophagy , Coxsackievirus Infections , Metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoribonucleases , Metabolism , Enterovirus B, Human , HeLa Cells , Humans , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , eIF-2 Kinase , Metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Echovirus 30 is a major cause of meningitis in children and adults. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the antifungal drug itraconazole could exhibit antiviral activity against echovirus 30. METHODS: The cytopathic effect and viral RNA levels were assessed in RD cells as indicators of viral replication. The effects of itraconazole were compared to those of two known antiviral drugs, rupintrivir and pleconaril. The time course and time-of-addition assays were used to approximate the time at which itraconazole exerts its activity in the viral cycle. RESULTS: Itraconazole and rupintrivir demonstrated the greatest potency against echovirus 30, demonstrating concentration-dependent activity, whereas pleconaril showed no antiviral activity. Itraconazole did not directly inactivate echovirus 30 particles or impede viral uptake into RD cells, but did affect the initial stages of echovirus 30 infection through interference with viral replication. CONCLUSION: Itraconazole can be considered a lead candidate for the development of antiviral drugs against echovirus 30 that may be used during the early stages of echovirus 30 replication.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiviral Agents , Child , Enterovirus B, Human , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Itraconazole , Meningitis , RNA, Viral
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115771

ABSTRACT

Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a highly contagious viral disease that causes vesicular disease in pigs. The importance of the disease is due to its indistinguishable clinical signs from those of foot-and-mouth disease, which prevents international trade of swine and related products. SVD-specific antibody detection via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most versatile and commonly used method for SVD surveillance and export certification. Inactivated SVD virus is the commonly used antigen in SVD-related ELISA. A recombinant SVD virus-like particle (VLP) was generated by using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. Results of SVD-VLP analyses from electron microscopy, western blotting, immunofluorescent assay, and mass spectrometry showed that the recombinant SVD-VLP morphologically resemble authentic SVD viruses. The SVD-VLP was evaluated as a replacement for inactivated whole SVD virus in competitive and isotype-specific ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SVD virus. The recombinant SVD-VLP assay produced results similar to those from inactivated whole virus antigen ELISA. The VLP-based ELISA results were comparable to those from the virus neutralization test for antibody detection in pigs experimentally inoculated with SVD virus. Use of the recombinant SVD-VLP is a safe and valuable alternative to using SVD virus antigen in diagnostic assays.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Baculoviridae , Blotting, Western , Certification , Enterovirus B, Human , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Microscopy, Electron , Neutralization Tests , Serologic Tests , Swine Vesicular Disease , Swine , Virus Diseases
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Enterovirus infection in children can manifest various disease and enterovirus have many serotypes. This study was aimed to investigate neurologic manifestations according to serotypes of enterovirus in pediatric inpatients in Incheon. METHODS: We collected the stool samples from the admitted pediatric patients in Inha University Hospital from January 2015 to September 2016. Enterovirus detection and serotypes identification were performed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and semi-nested RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 527 samples were collected during study period and 170 patients (32.2%) were diagnosed with enterovirus infections. Genetic sequences of enteroviruses were identified: echovirus 18 (50, 40.5%), enterovirus 71 (12, 9.6%), coxakievirus A10 (10, 8.0%), echovirus 6 (7, 5.6%). Virus in patient with meningitis were identified: echovirus 18 (15, 75%), coxakievirus B5 (2, 10%), enterovirus 71 (2, 10%), and echovirus 6 (1, 5%). Neurologic manifestations of echovirus 18 are headache (15, 30%), vomiting (17, 34%), meningeal irritation sign (10, 20.0%). And enterovirus 71 have headache (3, 25%), vomiting (3, 25%), meningeal irritation sign (2, 16.0%), seizure (1, 8.3%), neurologic sequelae (1, 8.3%). Echovirus 18 and neurologic manifestation have a statistically significant correlation with other serotypes (r=0.701, P < 0.01) CONCLUSION: Echovirus 18 infection was more prominent in neurological symptoms than in other serotypes. The major serotype of meningitis was echovirus 18 but there was no reported neurologic sequelae. Enterovirus infection has different neurological symptoms, depending on the serotypes.


Subject(s)
Child , Echovirus 6, Human , Enterovirus B, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Headache , Humans , Inpatients , Meningitis , Neurologic Manifestations , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seizures , Serogroup , Vomiting
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261211

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of tranilast on myocardial fibrosis in mice with viral myocarditis (VMC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male balb/c mice (n=72) were randomly divided into control, VMC and tranilast groups (n=24 each). In the VMC and tranilast groups, the mice were infected with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) to prepare VMC model, while the control group was treated with Eagle's medium. After modeling, the tranilast group was administrated with tranilast [200 mg/(kg.d)] until the day before sampling. On days 7, 14 and 28 after CVB3 or Eagle's medium infection, heart specimens (n=8) were taken and examined after Toluidine blue staining and Nissl staining for counts of mast cells (MC), hematoxylin-eosin staining for myocardial pathological changes, and Masson staining for myocardial fibrosis. The expression of CTGF and type I collagen (Col I) in the myocardial tissue was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. The correlations of CTGF mRNA expression with MC counts and Col I expression were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The myocardial pathological changes and collagen volume fraction in the VMC group were significantly higher than in the control group at all three time points (P<0.05). Tranilast treatment significantly decreased the myocardial pathological changes and collagen volume fraction compared with the VMC group (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of CTGF and Col I increased in the VMC group compared with the control group, and the increases were reduced with tranilast treatment (P<0.05). The number of MC was positively correlated to CTGF mRNA expression on the 7th day and 14th day (r=0.439, P=0.049) in the VMC group. There were positive correlations between the mRNA expression of Col I and CTGF on the 7th day and 14th day (r=0.646, P=0.007) and the 28th day (r=0.326, P=0.031).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Tranilast may inhibit the aggregation of MC and down-regulate the expression of CTGF, relieving myocardial fibrosis of mice with VMC.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen Type I , Genetics , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Genetics , Coxsackievirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Enterovirus B, Human , Fibrosis , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myocarditis , Drug Therapy , Myocardium , Pathology , RNA, Messenger , ortho-Aminobenzoates , Pharmacology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250320

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly people and young children throughout the world. The most common pathogens include coxsackie virus (CV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, no antiviral agents with low toxicity and drug resistance are currently available in clinic therapy. The present study aimed to examine the antiviral activities of emodin (an ingredient of Rheum palmatum) against CVB5 and RSV infections, in an attempt to discover new antiviral agents for virus infection. The monomer emodin was extracted and isolated from Rheum palmatum. The antiviral activities of emodin on HEp-2 cells were evaluated, including virus replication inhibition, virucidal and anti-absorption effects, by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tet-razolium bromide (MTT) assay and plaque reduction assay (PRA). The kinetics of virus inhibition by emodin in a period of 14 h was further determined by plaque assay and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α) mRNA expressions after emodin treatment (7.5, 15, 30 μmol/L) were also assessed by qPCR post-infection. The results showed that emodin had potent inhibitory activities against CVB5 and RSV, with the 50% effective concentration (EC50) ranging from 13.06 to 14.27 μmol/L and selectivity index (SI) being 5.38-6.41 μmol/L. However, emodin couldn't directly inactivate the viruses or block their absorption to cells. It acted as a biological synthesis inhibitor against CVB4 and RSV in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, especially during the first 0-4 h post-infection. Moreover, emodin could decrease the mRNA expression of IFN-α but enhance TNF-γ expression significantly compared to the viral controls in vitro. Our results provide a molecular basis for development of emodin as a novel and safe antiviral agent for human enterovirus and respiratory virus infection in the clinical therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Emodin , Pharmacology , Enterovirus B, Human , Physiology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Physiology , Rheum , Chemistry , Virus Replication
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 280-284, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240111

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate pathogens and molecular-epidemiology characteristics of viral meningoencephalitis in the monitoring sites of Zhejiang province, 2013.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cerebrospinal fluid and/or stool specimens were collected from suspected patients admitted to the monitoring hospitals in southern and northern Zhejiang province. Such specimen were subject to real-time qPCR for the detection of Human enterovirus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Mumps virus (MuV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). HEVs were isolated using the RD and Hep-2 cell lines, while VP1 genes from all HEV-positive isolates or RNA-positive specimen were amplified, sequenced, for homology and evolution analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>92 (38.5%) of the 239 samples collected from 229 patients were detected as virus nucleic acid positive, including 87 HEV positive samples, 1 MuV positive, 2 HSV positive, and 2 CMV positive; of the 87 HEV positive samples, 38 were further determined to be Coxsackievirus (CV) and 49 as Echovirus (E). 56 HEV strains were isolated from 239 (23.4%) samples. From the 31 cerebral fluid specimen of nucleic acid positive yet virus isolation negative, the most specimen were identified with E9 (9 specimen), followed by CVA9 (8 specimen); the viral serotype of Zhejiang province HEV were CVA9, CVB4, CVB5, E6, E7, E9, E11, E14, E16, E25 and E30, respectively. Predominant epidemic strains identified at southern and northern Zhejiang province were CVB5 and E6 respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene showed that all the HEV isolates in Zhejiang province were HEV-B.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The HEV-B was the main pathogen for viral meningoencephalitis in Zhejiang province in 2013, including 11 serotypes, while E7 was the first time to be isolated in Zhejiang province. The predominant isolates were CVB5 and E6 in southern and northern Zhejiang province respectively. The positive rate of viral nucleic acid detection was significantly higher than that of viral isolation. Regular EV isolation method was exposed to the risk of missing-detection of E9 and CVA9.</p>


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , China , Epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Viral , Enterovirus , Enterovirus B, Human , Hepatitis E virus , Humans , Meningitis, Viral , Epidemiology , Genetics , Meningoencephalitis , Molecular Epidemiology , Mumps virus , Phylogeny
12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 501-505, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240064

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the complete genome sequence of an echovirus 20 isolate (KM/EV20/2010) and understand its genetic variation and evolution characteristics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seven overlapping clones covering the whole viral genome (excluding the poly-A tail) were obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced, and their nucleotide and amino acid sequences were aligned with other echovirus 20 isolates. Phylogenetic and pairwise alignment analyses based on genome and complete VP1 regions were conducted with software Mega 4.1, RDP3 and SimPlot 3.5.1.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The genome of the echovirus strain was 7 395 nucleotides in length, and contained a 744-nt non-translated region (NTR) at the 5' end and a 96-nt NTR at the 3' end. The entire open reading frame contained 6 549 nt, encoding a 2 183-aa polyprotein. In the coding region, there was no nucleotide deletion or insertion. Based on the complete genome sequence alignments, the echovirus strain showed 80.1% nucleotide and 96.7% amino acid homology to echovirus 20 prototype JV-1 strain. The phylogenetic trees constructed on the genome and complete VP1 regions all indicated that the echovirus strain was not in one cluster with echovirus 20 prototype JV-1 strain, while had a closer relationship with echovirus 30 prototype Bastianni. Genotyping results from phylogenetic analysis showed that echovirus 20 has six genotypes. The strain used in this study belonged to genotype IV. The nucleotide divergence was 9.4%-21.7% among the 6 genotypes. The possible putative recombination was detected in its non-coding sequence of the echovirus 20 strain used in this study.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Based on the bioinformatics analysis. The echovirus 20 strains isolated in China could be divided into six genotypes, and the echovirus 20 in this study belonged to genotype IV.</p>


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , China , Computational Biology , Enterovirus B, Human , Genetics , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Genotype , Humans , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment
13.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 36-41, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280298

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyse the genetically characterize isolates of Echovirus 11 from Longyan City,Fujian Province,and to reveal their genetic relationships with other isolates from China and abroad. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from patients diagnosed with viral encephalitis or central nervous system (CNS) infections were collected from Longyan First Hospital between January and December 2011. Seven Echo11 strains were isolated and identified using the RIMV serum panel. The entire VP1 coding regions of four strains were sequenced and typed as Echo11 by an online blast program and,subsequently, phylogenet- ic analyses of the VP1 sequences of these stains and others published on GenBank were conducted. There were 600 nucleotides (nt) in each complete VP1 coding region that encoded 200 amino acids (aa). Among those four Echo11 strains, the sequence identities of nt and aa were 100% and 99%-100% respectively. And phylogenetic analyses indicate belong to subtype DS, the homology compared with DS strain (GU393713) were 93% (nt) and 99% (aa). The sequence identities for the nt and aa were 75%-76% and 90%, respectively, between the current isolates from Longyan and the Gregory prototype strain found in 1953. The sequence identity of nt and aa between the Longyan virus strains and the domestic Shandong strains isolated in 2010 were lower, at 74% and 88%-89%, respectively. However,the highest level of ho- mology was found when the Longyan strains were compared with the Netherlands strain (GU393773) found in 2007 (nt and aa identity: 94%-95% and 98%-99%, respectively). The relatively low levels of similarity between domestic isolates suggest that different transmission routes exist for Echo11 in mainland China.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Child , Child, Preschool , Chin , China , Encephalitis, Viral , Virology , Enterovirus B, Human , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Enterovirus Infections , Virology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Viral Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279007

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the dynamic expression and role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the myocardium of mice with viral myocarditis (VMC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and twenty 4-week-old male BALB/c mice were selected and assigned into control (n=40) and experimental groups (n=80). The mice in the experimental group were injected intraperitoneally with Coxsackievirus B3 to establish the model of VMC, while the mice in the control group were injected intraperitoneally with an equal volume of DMEM solution. Fifteen mice in the experimental group and ten mice in the control group were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, or 28 days after injection, and the myocardial specimens were obtained. The dynamic expression of VDR in the myocardium was determined by the immunohistochemical technique. The pathological changes in the myocardium were examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the experimental group, the mice had significantly increased expression of VDR after virus injection (P<0.01); the expression of VDR reached the peak at 7 days after injection, and then declined gradually; the expression of VDR remained high at 28 days after injection. At 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after injection, the expression of VDR in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). Moreover, in the experimental group, the changes in the pathological score of the myocardium were in accordance with the changes in the expression of VDR; the expression level of VDR in the myocardium was positively correlated with the pathological changes in the myocardium in the experimental group (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>VDR may be involved in the inflammatory-immune process in the pathogenesis of VMC.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Coxsackievirus Infections , Metabolism , Enterovirus B, Human , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myocarditis , Metabolism , Pathology , Myocardium , Chemistry , Pathology , Receptors, Calcitriol , Physiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 561-566, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280327

ABSTRACT

We wished to analyze the genetic characterization of echovirus 11 (Echo11) from samples of environmental sewage in Shandong Province (China). The VP1 coding region was typed as the strains were amplified. Phylogenetic analyses on the VP1 sequences from these isolates, strains isolated from AFP cases in the period 1994-2010 and others published in GenBank were conducted. From 2011 to 2012, 94 Echo11 strains were isolated from samples of environmental sewage in Jinan and Linyi City in Shandong Province. Numbers of Echo11 were seasonal and reached peaks in the summer and autumn in both cities; A- mong these isolates, nucleotide (nt) identities were 89.5%-100.0% whereas amino acid (aa) identities were 95.4%-100.0%. The nt and aa identities were 76.6%-79.7% and 90.4%-92.5% between those strains and the prototype (Gregory) strain of Echo11, respectively. All isolates from Shandong Province were the A genotype and the strains evolved very rapidly, which suggested that several transmission chains was co-circulating. We described the temporal fluctuation and genetic characterization of Echo11 isolates from surveillance of environmental sewage in Shandong Province, thereby providing important information for exploring the dynamic change and genetic variation of circulating human enteroviruses in this Province in China.


Subject(s)
China , Enterovirus B, Human , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Sewage , Virology
16.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 619-623, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280318

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of miR-490 on Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication, HeLa cells were trans- fected with miR-490 in vitro, and infected with a Renilla luciferase (RLuc)-expressing CVB3 variant (RLuc-CVB3). The activities of RLuc in these cells were measured at 8h intervals from 0 to 40 h post-infection (p.i.), and the effects of miR-490 on RLuc-CVB3 replication were observed. In a further study, HeLa cells were transfected with either miR-490 or antisense miR-490 (AMO-miR-490), and were then infected with an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-expressing CVB3 variant (EGFP-CVB3). The replication of EGFP-CVB3 was then determined by detecting the expression of EGFP. We observed that miR-490 could significantly inhibit the expression of RLuc in infected cells at 32 h p. i. Furthermore, in HeLa cells infected with EGFP-CVB3 at 32 h p.i., EGFP expression was also significantly inhibited by the presence of mniR-490. The inhibitory effect of miR-490 on EGFP expression in EGFP-CVB3-infected cells could be reversed by tranfection with AMQ-miR-490. These results indicated that miR-490 significantly inhibits the replication and expression of QVB3.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus B, Human , Genetics , Physiology , Enterovirus Infections , Genetics , Metabolism , Virology , HeLa Cells , Humans , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Metabolism , Virus Replication
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 307-311, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348679

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To characterize the complete genome sequence of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5)A210/KM/09 strain which was isolated from Yunnan, China, 2009.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eight overlapping clones covering the whole viral genome (excluding the poly-A tail)were obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced, with their nucleotide and amino acid sequences compared with other known CVB5 strains.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The genome of the CVB5 A210/KM/09 strain had 7 372 nucleotides in length, and containing a 742-nt non-translated region (NTR) at the 5' end and a 98-nt NTR at the 3' end. The entire open reading frame contained 6 555 nt, encoding a 2 185-aa polyprotein. In the coding region, there appeared no nucleotide deletion or insertion, but some changes of amino acid seemed unique. Based on the complete genome sequence alignments, CVB5 isolate A210/KM/09 strain showed the highest nucleotide (92.5%) and amino acid (97.3%) identities to the CVB5/CC10/10. It also shared nucleotide (80.1%-92.5%) and amino acid (95.0%-97.3%) homology with other CVB5 strains: 17Y, 19CSF, 20CSF, 1954/85/US, 2000/CSF/KOR, 03001N, CoxB5/Henan/2010, VB5/SD/09 and Faulkner. Blast between genome fragments, A210/KM/09 showed similarity on nucleotide (80.1%-92.5%) and amino acid (95.0%-97.3%) identities with other CVB5 strains. The phylogenetic tree, constructed on the complete VP1 regions, indicated that CVB5 could be divided into genotype A, B, C and D. while Genotype C and D could be further divided into C1-C4 and D1-D4 subgenotypes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A210/KM/09 and other CVB5 predominant strains isolated in China belonged to CVB5 subgenotype C4.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral , Epidemiology , Virology , Enterovirus B, Human , Genetics , Female , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Humans
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1562-1567, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221606

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the possible relationship between viral infection and first trimester pregnancy loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed on 51 gravidas with missed abortion, fetal anomaly, pre-term delivery, and full-tem delivery at Hanyang University Hospital. Enteroviruses were detected by semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry in abortive tissues and placentas. Enterovirus serotypes were confirmed by genome sequencing. Herpesviruses were detected by PCR. RESULTS: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was detected in 8 of 14 missed abortion cases, 1 of 27 full-term cases, and none of the 9 pre-term cases. Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) was detected in an encephalocele case. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was found in 4 full-term cases, 3 pre-term cases, and none of the missed abortion cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CVB3 was significantly higher in missed abortion cases compared to full-term or pre-term delivery cases. CVB infection may therefore be an important etiological agent of missed abortion.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Missed/etiology , Adult , Coxsackievirus Infections/complications , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Uterus/virology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(6): 626-629, dic. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701711

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is not known if a viraemia post-oral polio vaccine (OPV) is detectable by modern molecular techniques. Such viraemia could affect the performance of the real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for non polio enterovirus (EV) detection, technique of growing clinical use for the study of febrile infants. Objective: To determine viraemia post-first dose of OPV in healthy infants, by molecular techniques. Patients and Methods: 50 infants less than three months without previous VPO were randomized in 5 groups: a control group with pre-vaccination blood sample (BS), group 1 BS at day 2, group 2 BS at day 4, group 3, BS at day 6 and group 4, BS at day 8 post-vaccination. Conventional and specific PCR for poliovirus and real time PCR for non polio EV were performed in BS and in OPV samples. Results: No genetic material of poliovirus was detected in any infant, while in 9 of them (18%) non polio EV was identified. Real time PCR for EV did not amplify poliovirus from OPV samples. Discussion: Results suggest that no post VPO viraemia detectable by molecular methods exists. Considering that real time PCR for EV does not allow to identify polio virus, no false positives of the test are expected as a result of a recent VPO vaccination. We documented presence of non polio EV in blood of healthy asymptomatic infants.


Introducción: No existen estudios que indiquen si la vacuna polio oral (VPO) produce viremia detectable mediante métodos moleculares. Una eventual viremia podría afectar el rendimiento de la RPC tiempo real para detectar enterovirus (EV) no polio, examen de creciente uso clínico en lactantes pequeños con fiebre sin foco. Objetivo: Determinar viremia post VPO en lactantes sanos, por métodos moleculares. Métodos: 50 menores de 3 meses, al momento de recibir su primera VPO se distribuyeron en forma aleatoria en 5 grupos: control, muestra de sangre pre-vacunación; grupo 1, muestra al 2° día; grupo 2, al 4° día; grupo 3, al 6° día y grupo 4, al 8° día post-vacunación. Se realizó RPC convencional específica para virus polio y RPC tiempo real para EV no polio en las muestras de sangre y en muestras de VPO. Resultados: No se identificó presencia de material genético de virus polio en lactante alguno, mientras que en 9 (18%) se identificó presencia de EV no polio. La RPC tiempo real para EV no polio no amplificó material genético a partir de las muestras de VPO. Discusión: Los resultados sugieren que no existe viremia post-VPO detectable por métodos moleculares. Considerando que la RPC tiempo real de EV no polio de uso clínico no permite identificar la presencia de virus polio, estos hallazgos indican que no existirán falsos positivos de este examen como resultado de una vacunación VPO reciente. Adicionalmente se documentó presencia de EV no polio en sangre de lactantes asintomáticos.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Poliovirus , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/immunology , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Enterovirus B, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus/genetics , Poliomyelitis/immunology , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the changes of mTOR signal pathway in HeLa cells under different nutritional conditions infected with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3).@*METHODS@#The HeLa cells were cultured with two methods: the conventional culture method cultured HeLa cells with medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for 24 h and changed the medium next day, and then infected with CVB3; the serum starvation method cultured HeLa cells with medium without fetal bovine serum for 24 h, and then infected with CVB3. The expression of the coat protein of CVB3, mTOR, p70S6K mRNA was detected with RT-PCR at different time points.@*RESULTS@#The virus group showed the expressions of mTOR and p70S6K mRNA were significantly higher than those in the control group at 12 h and 24 h (P0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#CVB3 can down-regulate the expressions of mTOR and p70S6K mRNA. The mTOR expression in the starvation serum is higher than that in the conventional culture.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Down-Regulation , Enterovirus B, Human , Virulence , HeLa Cells , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Physiology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism
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