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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5798-5808, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008777

ABSTRACT

Based on the concept of quality by design(QbD), the Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology combined with standard relation(SR) and analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method(EWM) was applied to optimize the extraction process of the classic prescription Yihuang Decoction. The content of geniposidic acid, phellodendrine hydrochloride, and berberine hydrochloride in Yihuang Decoction, the extract yield, and fingerprint similarity were used as the critical quality attributes(CQAs) of the extraction process. The extraction time, water addition, and extraction times were used as the critical process parameters(CPPs). After determining the levels of each factor and level through single-factor experiments, response surface experiments were designed according to the Box-Behnken principle, and the experimental results were analyzed. The SR between each sample and the reference sample under various evaluation indicators of different extraction parameters was calculated. The weights of the five evaluation indicators were determined using AHP-EWM, followed by comprehensive evaluation. A function model between CPPs and CQAs characterized by comprehensive scores was established to predict the optimal extraction process parameters. In the final comprehensive weight coefficients, the yield rate accounted for 43.1%, and the content of berberine hydrochloride, phellodendrine hydrochloride, and geniposidic acid accounted for 35.1%, 6.3%, and 15.5%, respectively. After comprehensive score analysis with SR, the established second-order polynomial model was statistically significant(P<0.01, and the lack of fit was not significant). The predicted optimal extraction conditions for Yihuang Decoction were determined as follows: 8-fold volume of water, extraction time of 1.5 h, and extraction once. The mean comprehensive score of the validation experiment was 85.77, with an RSD of 0.99%, and it met the quality control stan-dards for the reference sample of Yihuang Decoction. The results indicate that the optimized extraction process for Yihuang Decoction is stable and reliable, and the water extract is close in quality attributes to the reference sample. This can serve as a foundation for the research and development of granules in the future. Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology combined with SR and AHP-EWM can provide references for the modern extraction process research of other classic prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Analytic Hierarchy Process , Berberine , Entropy , Water
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5450-5459, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008742

ABSTRACT

Analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method(EWM) and network pharmacology were employed to identify the potential quality markers(Q-markers) of Gei Herba. According to the new concept of Q-markers in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the AHP-EWM was applied to quantitatively identify the Q-markers of Gei Herba. The AHP was used for the weight analysis of primary indicators(factor layer), and the EWM for the analysis of literature and experimental data of secondary indicators(control layer). In addition, network pharmacology was employed to build the "component-target-disease-efficacy" network for Gei Herba, and the components showing strong associations with the Qi-replenishing, spleen-invigorating, blood-tonifying, Yin-nourishing, lung-moistening, and phlegm-resolving effects of Gei Herba were screened out. According to the results of AHP-EWM and network pharmacology, four components, i.e., ellagic acid, gallic acid, gemin G, and gemin C, were finally identified as potential Q-markers of Gei Herba. In this study, the AHP-EWM and network pharmacology were employed to screen the Q-markers of Gei Herba, which provided ideas for the quantitative evaluation and identification of Q-markers of TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Analytic Hierarchy Process , Entropy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 79-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969951

ABSTRACT

According to the theory of acupuncture-moxibustion for the treatment of spirit, starting from the relationship between eye movement and spirit, the application of electrooculogram (EOG) signal acquisition and analysis technology for the clinical treatment of spirit by acupuncture-moxibustion is discussed. Based on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of EOG signals, it is proposed to apply the approximate entropy algorithm to extract the EOG signal characteristics in autism spectrum disorder children under different behavior states, which could realize the preliminary exploration of the correlation between EOG signals and cognitive activities. This could provide a possibility to objectively reflect the patient' s current mental state, and could be used as a potential method to grasp spirit in clinical acupuncture- moxibustion treatment. Furthermore, considering the characteristics of acupoint stimulation on the body surface, the EOG signal acquisition and analysis technology could further be combined with biofeedback technology, and a new idea for clinical acupuncture-moxibustion to treat spirit guided by biofeedback of EOG is proposed.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Moxibustion , Electrooculography , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Entropy , Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture Points
4.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 195-206, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To detect the contents of Tangwei capsule main components with high performance liquid chromatography-quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (HPLC-QAMS) method and to evaluate the quality with chemometrics and entropy weight-technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (EW-TOPSIS).@*METHODS@#A symmetry C18 column and 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase were used for HPLC of Tangwei capsule. The contents of 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, methylnissolin-3-O-glucoside, calycosin, formononetin, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, dihydrotanshinone Ⅰ, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA and cucurbitacin B in 15 batches of Tangwei capsule were determined simultaneously. The quality differences of 15 batches of samples were analyzed by chemometrics and EW-TOPSIS.@*RESULTS@#The HPLC-UV showed that 13 components had good linear relationships in corresponding concentration ranges (r≥0.9991). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of precision, repeatability and stability were all less than 2.00%. The average recovery rates were between 96.86% and 100.13%, and RSD were all less than 2.00%. Cluster analysis showed that 15 batches of samples were clustered into 3 groups. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed that salvianolic acid B, formononetin, puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin and rosmarinic acid were the main potential markers affecting the quality of Tangwei capsule. EW-TOPSIS analysis showed that the quality of S12-S15 was superior.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The analytical method established in this study can be used for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of Tangwei capsule to provide laboratory support for its quality control and overall evaluation.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chemometrics , Entropy
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3000-3013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981446

ABSTRACT

Huocao(a traditional Chinese herbal medicine) moxibustion is a characteristic technology in Yi medicine suitable for cold-dampness diseases. Huocao, as the moxibustion material, is confusedly used in clinical practice and little is known about its quality control. In this study, UPLC method was used to establish the chemical fingerprint of non-volatile components in Huocao, and the contents of eight phenolic acids such as chlorogenic acid were determined. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to obtain the indicator components of Huocao for quality evaluation, and thus a comprehensive evaluation system for the quality of Huocao was built. The UPLC fingerprints of 49 batches of Huocao were established, and there were 20 common peaks, of which eight phenolic acids including neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid were identified. Except for three batches of Huocao, the similarity of the other 46 batches was higher than 0.89, suggesting that the established fingerprint method could be used for quality control of the medicinal herb. The correlation coefficient between entropy weight score of the eight phenolic acids and comprehensive fingerprint score in Huocao was 0.875(P<0.01), which indicated that the eight phenolic acids could be used as indicator components for the quality evaluation of Huocao. Furthermore, in multivariate statistical analysis on the common peaks of fingerprint and the contents of the eight phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C were screened to be the indicator components. The results revealed that the proposed method achieved a simple and accurate quality control of Huocao based on UPLC fingerprint and multi-component content determination, which provided useful data for establishing the quality standard of Huocao.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Entropy , Hydroxybenzoates , Quality Control
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 997-1003, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985511

ABSTRACT

Objective: To comprehensively evaluate the physical health level of students of different school-age segments in four regions of Anhui province using the entropy weight approximation ideal solution ranking method (TOPSIS), and to provide a scientific method and basis for conducting school health work evaluation. Methods: Using the physical fitness survey data of four regions in Anhui province, the entropy weight method was used to draw the weights of various indicators for different school-age segments of men and women. Then, the TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the school-age segments of men and women in the four regions. Finally, the physical health level of students in four regions was classified according to the results of entropy weight TOPSIS and the rank sum ratio method. Results: A total of 10 127 students were included in this study, with an average age of (11.85±3.82) years, including 5 050 males (49.8%) and 5 072 urban students (50.1%). The results of the entropy weight method showed that the weight of body mass index of boys was similar to that of girls in each school-age segment. According to the TOPSIS and rank sum ratio analysis, the physical health level of students in the four regions of Anhui province was different. The physical health score of Suzhou was 0.617 4 points, which was classified as the best grade. The scores of Hefei and Wuhu were 0.556 3 and 0.411 2, which were classified as middle. Jiju City scored 0.381 9 points, which was classified as poor. Conclusion: TOPSIS combined with rank sum ratio can reflect the level of students' physical health, which can be applied to the evaluation of students' physical health and provide a basis for monitoring students' physical health .


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Entropy , Health Status , Physical Fitness , Students , Body Mass Index
7.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(2): 349-355, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387180

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: although mortality and perinatal asphyxia in newborns have been considerably reduced, there are still deficiencies in screening and diagnosis methods for intrapartum fetal well being that aim to detect its early alterations. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to apply a methodology based on probability and entropy and confirm its capacity to detect normal and abnormal fetal cardiac dynamics from 20-minute cardiotocographic tracings. Methods: 80 cardiotocographic tracings of pregnant women in the last trimester were collected, of which the minimum and maximum fetal heart rate were evaluated every 10 seconds, as well as its repetitions along with their probability and the diagnostic S/k ratio. Finally, the statistical analysis was carried out to establish the diagnostic capacity of the method concerning the clinical evaluation and interpretation of the cardiotocographic tracing, taken as the Gold Standard. Results: it was confirmed that S/k ratio values differentiated normal from abnormal fetal cardiac dynamics with sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and a Kappa coefficient of 1. Conclusion: the applicability of a diagnostic mathematical method of cardiotocography was confirmed, which suggests its implementation in the clinical context to detect alterations in fetal well-being in 20 minutes.


Resumo Objetivos: aunque se ha logrado reducir considerablemente la mortalidad y asfixia perinatal en neonatos, aún hay deficiencias en los métodos de tamizaje y diagnóstico del bienestar fetal intraparto que detecten sus alteraciones tempranas. Por lo anterior, el propósito de esta investigación fue aplicar una metodología basada en la probabilidad y la entropía y confirmar su capacidad para diagnosticar la dinámica cardíaca fetal normal de la anormal a partir de trazados cardiotocográficos de 20 minutos. Métodos: se recolectaron 80 trazados cardiotocográficos de gestantes en el último trimestre, de los cuales se evaluaron frecuencia cardíaca fetal mínima y máxima cada 10 segundos al igual que sus repeticiones, su probabilidad y la proporción S/k diagnóstica. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis estadístico para establecer la capacidad diagnóstica del método con respecto a la interpretación el trazado cardiotocográfico y la evaluación clínica, tomadas como Gold Standard. Resultados: se confirmó que los valores de la proporción S/k diferenciaron las dinámicas cardíacas fetales normales de las anormales con valores de sensibilidad y especificidad del 100% y un coeficiente Kappa de 1. Conclusión: se confirmó la aplicabilidad de un método matemático diagnóstico de la cardiotocografía, lo cual sugiere que su implementación en la clínica para detectar alteraciones del bienestar fetal en 20 minutos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Heart Rate, Fetal , Cardiotocography/methods , Neonatal Screening , Perinatal Care , Entropy
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 612-619, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939629

ABSTRACT

In recent years, exploring the physiological and pathological mechanisms of brain functional integration from the neural network level has become one of the focuses of neuroscience research. Due to the non-stationary and nonlinear characteristics of neural signals, its linear characteristics are not sufficient to fully explain the potential neurophysiological activity mechanism in the implementation of complex brain functions. In order to overcome the limitation that the linear algorithm cannot effectively analyze the nonlinear characteristics of signals, researchers proposed the transfer entropy (TE) algorithm. In recent years, with the introduction of the concept of brain functional network, TE has been continuously optimized as a powerful tool for nonlinear time series multivariate analysis. This paper first introduces the principle of TE algorithm and the research progress of related improved algorithms, discusses and compares their respective characteristics, and then summarizes the application of TE algorithm in the field of electrophysiological signal analysis. Finally, combined with the research progress in recent years, the existing problems of TE are discussed, and the future development direction is prospected.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Brain/physiology , Entropy , Neural Networks, Computer , Nonlinear Dynamics
9.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 311-319, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928227

ABSTRACT

Heart sound signal is a kind of physiological signal with nonlinear and nonstationary features. In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the phonocardiogram (PCG) classification, a new method was proposed by means of support vector machine (SVM) in which the complete ensemble empirical modal decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) permutation entropy was as the eigenvector of heart sound signal. Firstly, the PCG was decomposed by CEEMDAN into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) from high to low frequency. Secondly, the IMFs were sifted according to the correlation coefficient, energy factor and signal-to-noise ratio. Then the instantaneous frequency was extracted by Hilbert transform, and its permutation entropy was constituted into eigenvector. Finally, the accuracy of the method was verified by using a hundred PCG samples selected from the 2016 PhysioNet/CinC Challenge. The results showed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method could reach up to 87%. In comparison with the traditional EMD and EEMD permutation entropy methods, the accuracy rate was increased by 18%-24%, which demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed method.


Subject(s)
Entropy , Heart Sounds , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Support Vector Machine
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1776-1789, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928174

ABSTRACT

The potential quality markers(Q-markers) of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were studied based on analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method(EWM), network pharmacology, and spectrum-effect relationship analysis. The AHP-EWM was used for quantitative identification of the Q-markers. To be specific, AHP was applied for the weight analysis of the validity, testability, and specificity of the first-level indexes, and EWM for the analysis of the second-level indexes supported by literature and experimental data. Based on literature and network pharmacology, the validity analysis was to study the component-target-disease-efficacy network, and select the components with the strongest correlation with the efficacy of clearing heat and removing toxin, diuresis and alleviating edema, and relieving cough. For the testability analysis, the high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and literature research were used to determine the 10 components in Polygoni Perfoliati Herba, and the fingerprints of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were established at the same time. The specificity analysis was based on the statistics of the number of plants in which the components existed. Thereby, the 11 compounds: quercetin, oleanolic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol, rutin, esculetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, ursolic acid, protocatechuic acid, and ferulic acid, were identified as potential Q-markers. The 11 compounds were identified to have high anti-inflammatory activity, indicating that the 11 Q-markers may be the functional material basis. The result in this study is expected to serve as a reference for the quality control of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba.


Subject(s)
Analytic Hierarchy Process , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Entropy , Quercetin
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 820-830, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927747

ABSTRACT

Studies of cellular dynamic processes have shown that cells undergo state changes during dynamic processes, controlled mainly by the expression of genes within the cell. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the availability of large amounts of gene expression data enables the acquisition of true gene expression information of cells at the single-cell level. However, most existing research methods require the use of information beyond gene expression, thus introducing additional complexity and uncertainty. In addition, the prevalence of dropout events hampers the study of cellular dynamics. To this end, we propose an approach named gene interaction network entropy (GINE) to quantify the state of cell differentiation as a means of studying cellular dynamics. Specifically, by constructing a cell-specific network based on the association between genes through the stability of the network, and defining the GINE, the unstable gene expression data is converted into a relatively stable GINE. This method has no additional complexity or uncertainty, and at the same time circumvents the effects of dropout events to a certain extent, allowing for a more reliable characterization of biological processes such as cell fate. This method was applied to study two single-cell RNA-seq datasets, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and chronic myeloid leukaemia. The GINE method not only effectively distinguishes malignant cells from benign cells and differentiates between different periods of differentiation, but also effectively reflects the disease efficacy process, demonstrating the potential of using GINE to study cellular dynamics. The method aims to explore the dynamic information at the level of single cell disorganization and thus to study the dynamics of biological system processes. The results of this study may provide scientific recommendations for research on cell differentiation, tracking cancer development, and the process of disease response to drugs.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/genetics , Entropy , Gene Regulatory Networks , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
12.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(3)sept. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408559

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las teorías físicas y matemáticas han permitido el desarrollo de nuevas metodologías diagnósticas de la dinámica cardiaca. Entre estas se encuentra la evaluación de las proporciones de la entropía proporcional para diferenciar la normalidad de la enfermedad cardiaca, aunque su capacidad diagnóstica debe comprobarse en escenarios clínicos críticos específicos, como en la falla cardiaca y el infarto agudo de miocardio. Objetivo: Describir evaluaciones diagnósticas de la dinámica cardiaca en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio o falla cardiaca aguda. Métodos: En un estudio a doble ciegos con 20 Holter, 5 normales, 8 con falla cardiaca aguda y 7 con infarto agudo de miocardio, se aplicó un método fundamentado en las proporciones de la entropía tomando los valores máximos y mínimos de la frecuencia cardiaca y el número total de latidos por hora, en un mínimo de 18 horas, generando un atractor numérico. Se evaluó cada dinámica con base en la entropía y sus proporciones. Finalmente, se comparó la precisión diagnóstica del método matemático con respecto al diagnóstico clínico convencional. Resultados: Se diferenciaron matemáticamente los casos normales y patológicos mediante la evaluación en 18 horas con el método descrito, encontrando valores de sensibilidad y especificidad del 100 por ciento y un coeficiente Kappa de uno, indicando una concordancia diagnóstica perfecta del método matemático con respecto al diagnóstico clínico. Conclusiones: Las proporciones de la entropía permiten establecer diagnósticos objetivos de la dinámica cardiaca, diferenciando matemáticamente dinámicas normales de aquellas que presentan infarto agudo de miocardio y falla cardiaca aguda(CU)


Introduction: Physical and mathematical theories have allowed the development of new diagnostic methodologies of cardiac dynamics, as one based on the evaluation of entropy proportions to differentiate normality from cardiac disease, although its diagnostic capacity must be yet determined in specific critical scenarios as acute heart failure and acute myocardial infarction Objective: To describe diagnostic evaluations of cardiac dynamics in patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction or acute heart failure. Methods: A blind study was developed with 20 Holter registries; 5 normal, 8 with acute cardiac failure and 7 with acute myocardial infarction. Then, a method based on the proportions of the entropy of the numerical attractors was applied. The maximum and minimum values of the heart rate and the total number of beats per hour were taken for at least 18 hours, with which numerical attractors were generated, which measure the probability of consecutive heart rate pairs. An evaluation of all dynamics was made based on the entropy and its proportions. Finally, a comparison between the diagnostic precision of the mathematical method with respect to the conventional clinical diagnosis was performed. Results: Normal cases were mathematically differentiated from the pathological ones through the evaluation of Holter registries for 18 hours, achieving values of sensitivity and specificity of 100 percent as well as a Kappa coefficient of 1, indicating a perfect diagnostic concordance between the mathematical method to diagnose the cardiac dynamics with respect to the clinical diagnosis. Conclusions: The proportions of entropy allow to establish objective diagnoses of cardiac dynamics, mathematically differentiating normal dynamics from those with acute myocardial infarction and with acute cardiac failure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Entropy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Mathematics/methods
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 1419-1428, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285924

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was an effort to assess the mitigation interventions carried out, so far, by the nations to fight the pandemic COVID-19. The novelty of the study was that it had considered the issue of pandemic mitigation strategy as a decision making problem. The performances of the twenty nations were to be ranked. The problem considered in the study was essentially a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) problem. The available alternatives were the 20 countries and the 8 traits were the criteria. The Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used in the present study. The study used Entropy method for assignment of weights to all the criteria. The performance score obtained in respect of the countries considered in the study and the corresponding ranks indicated the relative performances of the countries in their efforts to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that New Zealand is the best performing country and India is the worst one. Brazil ranked 17th, while the rank of UK was 15. The performance of the USA stood at 18th position.


Resumo O presente estudo foi um esforço para avaliar as intervenções de mitigação realizadas, até o momento, pelas nações para combater a pandemia COVID-19. A novidade do estudo é que considerou a questão da estratégia de mitigação da pandemia como um problema de tomada de decisão. As performances das vinte nações deveriam ser classificadas. O problema considerado no estudo era essencialmente um problema de Análise de Decisão Multi-Critério (MCDA). As alternativas disponíveis eram os 20 países e as 8 características eram os critérios. A Técnica de Similaridade de Preferência de Pedido com a Solução Ideal (TOPSIS) foi utilizada no presente estudo. O estudo utilizou o método da Entropia para atribuição de pesos a todos os critérios. A pontuação de desempenho obtida em relação aos países considerados no estudo e as classificações correspondentes indicaram os desempenhos relativos dos países em seus esforços para mitigar a pandemia COVID-19. Os resultados mostram que a Nova Zelândia é o país com melhor desempenho e a Índia o pior. O Brasil ficou em 17º, enquanto o Reino Unido ficou em 15. O desempenho dos EUA ficou na 18ª posição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Entropy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2710-2717, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887941

ABSTRACT

Qixuehe Capsules is a compound Chinese patent medicine developed for treating the disorder of Qi and blood(a common etiology of gynecological disease), which has remarkable effects on smoothing liver and regulating Qi, activating blood circulation, and relieving pain. However, due to its complex prescriptions(15 herbs) and multiple effects, the quality control of Qixuehe Capsules has always been a bottleneck problem limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, this study adopted the traditional Chinese medicine Q-markers quantitative identification system established previously by our research group based on the combination of analytic hierarchy process and entropy weight methods. With the different effects of Qixuehe Capsules as the entry point, the comprehensive scores of chemical ingre-dients in Qixuehe Capsules under the items of effectiveness(smoothing liver and regulating qi, activating blood circulation, and relieving pain), testability and specificity were calculated and integrated, respectively. Subsequently, through the analysis of compatibility relationship of Qixuehe Capsules, 15 active ingredients with high comprehensive scores were found to be the top Q-mar-kers of Qixuehe Capsules, including ferulic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid, kaempferol, rutin, Z-ligustilide, senkyunolide Ⅰ, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, senkyunolide A, gallic acid, tetrahydropalmatine and eugenol. Collectively, this study not only provided scientific evidence for further research on the improvement and standardization of quality standards of Qixuehe Capsules but also provided methodological references for the quantitative identification of Q-markers of multi-effect traditional Chinese medicine formulae.


Subject(s)
Analytic Hierarchy Process , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Entropy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2547-2555, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879159

ABSTRACT

The present work is to analyze the HPLC fingerprints of mulberry-sourced materials(Mori Ramulus, Mori Folium, Muri Cortex, Mori Fructus) using the fingerprint division total statistical moment method and information entropy, and to study the diffe-rences of the chemical components and the overall characteristics of the imprinting template in different parts of mulberry-sourced medicinal materials, so as to provide the basis for finding the effective substances in response to "homologous and different effect" of mulberry(Morus alba). The fingerprints of 24 batches of mulberry-related materials, such as Mori Ramulus, Mori Folium, Muri Cortex, Mori Fructus, were established, and the similarities and differences of the fingerprints were analyzed by calculating the division total statistical moment parameters and information entropy. The AUC_T, MCRT_T, VCRT_T and H values of 24 batches of mulberry-sourced materials were less than 0.05, with significant difference. Among them, all samples showed absorption peaks within 3-11, and 20-24 min, indicating that the four types had the identical or similar chemical composition in the same time period. After 34 min, none of the four types showed absorption peaks. Greater VCRT_T value of the fingerprints of the four kinds was observed at the retention time ranges of 3-4, 16-18, 25-27, and 31-32 min, indicating that the components of the four kinds were significantly different in these time periods; and VCRT_T value of the mulberry was significantly higher than that of the other three kinds of medicinal materials at the retention time windows of 3-4 and 15-17 min; the VCRT_T value of the mulberry white skin was significantly higher at the time windows of 8-10 and 28-30 min; the VCRT_T value of all four kinds was significantly higher within 21-23 min, indicating that the four herbs contain the same or similar components in the chromatogram during this period, but there may be significant differences between the content and the proportion. In addition, the information entropy of mulberry branches is the largest at 7-12, 23-27 min, and that of mulberry fruits is the largest at 2-8 min, which indicates that the components of mulberry branches and mulberry fruits respond greatly in the corresponding period of time, which is also the main peak period of their chemical components. For the chemical components and corresponding efficacy here. The results showed that there are significant differences in the components and contents of mulberry-sourced medicinal materials. The division total statistical moment and information entropy of the total amount of segments can be used to analyze the differences in the components of "homology and different effects", which could provide a more comprehensive analysis method for the determination of quality markers.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Entropy , Fruit , Morus , Plant Leaves
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2537-2546, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879158

ABSTRACT

This research was used with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), combined with information entropy-response surface method(RSM) to investigate the ethanol concentration, extraction time, liquid-to-material ratio. Taking the content of four chromogens as evaluation indexes, the weight coefficients of each index were given, and the comprehensive score was calculated to optimize the extraction process. Then, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin was used as the reference, the relative calibration factors(RCFs) of cimifugin, 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol and sec-O-glucosylhamaudo to prim-O-glucosylcimifugin were calculated respectively. The contents of four components in Saposhnikoviae Radix were determined by both external standard method(ESM)and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method, and the results were compared. At last, combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) to evaluate the quality of the Saposhnikoviae Radix in different production areas. The optimal extraction process parameter of the Saposhnikoviae Radix was as follows: liquid-to-material ratio is 60∶1(mL·g~(-1)), extraction time is 35 min, and ethanol concentration is 70%. The repeatability of the RCFs was perfect, and the results calculated by the QAMS were consistent with the results from the ESM. The stoichiometric results indicate that there are obvious differences in the distribution of Saposhnikoviae Radix in different production areas, and cimifugin and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin are the characteristic compounds that cause this difference. In this study, the optimal extraction process is stable and feasible, and the method of QAMS is accurate and reliable. From the perspective of four chromogens, there are differences in the quality of the Saposhnikoviae Radix in different production areas. Therefore, the established extraction process combined with the method of QAMS can be used to evaluate the quality of Saposhnikoviae Radix and provide a scientific basis for the quality control of Saposhnikoviae Radix.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Entropy , Plant Roots
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 907-914, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878955

ABSTRACT

The study is aiming at investigating the application of entropy weight TOPSIS method in the comparison of the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) of Chrysanthemum indicum. The DPPH, ABTS, salicylic acid and spectrophotometry were used to determine the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) of Ch. indicum from 31 different areas in vitro. Take the half inhibition rate of as the evaluation index, two principal components were extracted by the principal component analysis, and their cumulative contribution rate reached at 92.4%. The different areas of Ch. indicum could be divided into Dabei Mountain and Qinling-Taihang Mountain by use principal component to analysis. The entropy weight TOPSIS method was used to objectively assign weights to five indexes, calculate the weight of each index and set up the best and worst scheme of the evaluation object, and the relative proximity(C_i) was used as the measure to construct the multi-index comprehensive evaluation model of Ch. indicum. And then sort with the relative proximity value. The results showed that the relative proximity was between 0.098 and 0.983 which represents there were significant differences in the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) between extracts of Ch. indicum from different areas. The Ch. indicum from Dabie Mountain area have a relatively high relative degree of measurement and high-quality ranking. Taken together, the quality of Ch. indicum.from the Dabie Mountain area is better. The index weight coefficient and the classification result of producing area are basically consistent with the result of principal component analysis. The results show that the TOPSIS method based on entropy weight method can be used to evaluate the comprehensive quality of Ch. indicum.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Chrysanthemum , Entropy , Plant Extracts
18.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1163-1172, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921858

ABSTRACT

Entropy model is widely used in epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis, but there are few reports on how to objectively select the parameters to compute the entropy model in the analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Therefore, an optimization algorithm to confirm the parameters in multi-scale entropy (MSE) model was proposed, and the location of epileptogenic hemisphere was taken as an example to test the optimization effect by supervised machine learning. The rfMRI data of 20 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with hippocampal sclerosis, positive on structural magnetic resonance imaging, were divided into left and right groups. Then, the parameters in MSE model were optimized by the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and area under ROC curve (AUC) values in sensitivity analysis, and the entropy value of the brain regions with statistically significant difference between the groups were taken as sensitive features to epileptogenic hemisphere lateral. The optimized entropy values of these bio-marker brain areas were considered as feature vectors input into the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, combining optimized MSE model with SVM could accurately distinguish epileptogenic hemisphere in TLE at an average accuracy rate of 95%, which was higher than the current level. The results show that the MSE model parameter optimization algorithm can accurately extract the functional imaging markers sensitive to the epileptogenic hemisphere, and achieve the purpose of objectively selecting the parameters for MSE in rfMRI, which provides the basis for the application of entropy in advanced technology detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Entropy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5545-5554, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921736

ABSTRACT

The potential quality markers( Q-markers) of Eupatorium lindleyanum were studied with analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method(EWM) and network pharmacological method. Based on the concept of Q-markers of traditional Chinese medicine, AHP-EWM was employed to quantitatively identify the Q-markers of E. lindleyanum. AHP method was applied to the weight analysis of the validity, testability, and specificity of the first-level indexes, and EWM method was used to analyze the secondlevel indexes supported by literature and experimental data. At the same time, based on the theory and method of network pharmacology, the component-target-disease-efficacy network of E. lindleyanum was built, and the components most closely related to the efficacy of resolving phlegm and relieving cough and asthma were screened out. Through the integrated analysis of the results obtained with AHP-EWM and network pharmacological method, 13 compounds including rutin, quercetin, nepetin, cirsiliol, luteolin, hyperoside,isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, eupalinolide K, eupalinolide A, eupalinolide B, and eupalinolide C were comprehensively identified as the potential Q-markers of E. lindleyanum. The results provide a basis for the quality control of E. lindleyanum.


Subject(s)
Analytic Hierarchy Process , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Entropy , Eupatorium , Network Pharmacology , Rutin
20.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(3): 111-117, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1126292

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and balanced anesthesia (BA) are the most commonly used anesthetic techniques. The differences are the variability of the depth of anesthesia between these techniques that might predict which one is safer for patients and presents a lower risk of intraoperative awakening. Objective: To determine whether a difference exists in the variability of depth of anesthesia obtained by response entropy (RE). Methods: A crossover clinical trial was conducted on 20 healthy patients receiving upper or lower limb ambulatory orthopedic surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to (a) target-controlled infusion of propofol using the Schnider model at a target concentration of 2.5 µg/mL for 15 minutes and a 10-minute washout, followed by sevoflurane administration at 0.8 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) for the reminder of the surgery, or (b) the reverse sequence. Differences in the variability of the depth of anesthesia using RE were evaluated using paired t-test. Results: The treatment effect showed no significant difference in the average values of RE, during TIVA = 97.23 vs BA 97.04 (P = 0.39). Carry Over (-4.98 vs 4.08) and Period (100.3 vs 94.68) effects were not significantly different. Conclusion: The present study suggests that both anesthetic techniques are equivalent in terms of the stability of the depth of anesthesia. It is important to keep testing the determinants of the efficacy of different populations because the individual behaviors of patients might ultimately tip the scale.


Resumen Introducción: La anestesia total intravenosa (TIVA, por sus siglas en inglés) y la anestesia balanceada (AB) son las técnicas anestésicas más comúnmente utilizadas. La diferencia está en la variabilidad de la profundidad de la anestesia entre estas dos técnicas, lo cual pudiera predecir cuál es más segura para los pacientes y representar un menor riesgo de despertar intraoperatorio. Objetivo: Determinar si existe alguna diferencia en la variabilidad de la profundidad de la anestesia obtenida según los índices de entropía de respuesta (ER). Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio clínico cruzado en 20 pacientes sanos que se sometieron a cirugía ortopédica ambulatoria de miembros superiores o inferiores. Los pacientes se asignaron aleatoriamente así: a) infusión controlada por objetivo (TCI, por sus siglas en inglés) de propofol, utilizando el modelo Schnider a una concentración objetivo de 2,5 µg/mL durante 15 min y un período de lavado de 10 minutos, seguido de la administración de sevoflurano a 0,8 de concentración alveolar mínima (CAM) durante el tiempo restante de la cirugía; o b) la secuencia inversa. Las diferencias en la variabilidad de la profundidad de la anestesia utilizando entropía de respuesta se evaluaron utilizando la prueba t pareada. Resultados: El efecto del tratamiento no mostró ninguna diferencia significativa en los valores promedio de entropía de respuesta (ER) durante TIVA = 97,23 vs. AB 97,04 (P = 0,39). Los efectos de arrastre (-4,98 vs. 4,08) y período (100,3 vs. 94,68) no fueron significativamente diferentes. Conclusiones: El presente estudio sugiere que ambas técnicas anestésicas son equivalentes en términos de estabilidad de la profundidad de la anestesia. Es importante continuar probando los factores determinantes de eficacia en las distintas poblaciones, ya que el comportamiento individual de cada paciente pudiera finalmente inclinar la balanza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Entropy , Intraoperative Awareness , Balanced Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Propofol , Epidemiologic Methods , Sevoflurane
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