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repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 42-51, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366970


Introducción: el benceno es un hidrocarburo aromático obtenido por destilación del alquitrán utilizado en gasolineras y como solvente industrial, clasificado como cancerígeno por exposición ocupacional o ambiental. Está relacionado con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) por su absorción principal por vía inhalatoria, y su metabolismo hepático con producción de benzoquinona de alta liposolubilidad que le permite depositarse en la médula ósea y tejido graso. Objetivo: analizar la asociación de las formas de exposición por actividades económicas, oficios, cargos, exposición ambiental y aditiva con el desarrollo de LMA. Materiales y métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet y OpenGrey, en inglés y español con los términos benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and enviromental exposition. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudios muestran una relación causal entre la exposición a benceno y el desarrollo de LMA, con predominio en ambientes laborales, seguidos de factores ambientales y aditivos como el humo del cigarrillo. Conclusiones: se encontró evidencia de asociación entre la exposición a benceno ocupacional y/o ambiental con el desarrollo de leucemia mieloide aguda, debido a que altera el estrés oxidativo y la desregulación del aryl hidrocarburo generando efectos citogenéticos, mutación genética y alteraciones epigenéticas que se expresan en hematotoxicidad y desarrollo de leucemia.

Introduction: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by distillation of tar used in gas stations and as an industrial solvent, classified as a carcinogen by occupational and environmental exposure. It is related with the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mainly due to its absorption by inhalation and hepatic metabolism producing highly-lipid soluble benzoquinone allowing it to deposit in bone marrow and fatty tissue. Objective: to analyze the association of forms of exposure including economic activities, type of workplace, environmental and additive exposure with the development of AML. Material and Methods: systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Toxnet and OpenGrey databases in English and Spanish, using the terms benzene, cancer, leukemia, occupational and environmental exposure. Results: most studies show a causal relationship between benzene exposure and AML development, predominantly in work settings, followed by environmental factors including additive sources such as cigarette smoke. Conclusions: we found evidence of an association between occupational and/or environmental exposure to benzene and the development of AML, for it alters oxidative stress and aryl hydrocarbon deregulation inducing cytogenetic aberrations, genetic mutations and epigenetic changes expressed as hematotoxicity and leukemia development.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Benzene , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplasms , Leukemia , Occupational Exposure , Environmental Exposure
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922195


BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposures to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium) may be associated with differences in blood pressure. However, the findings of these studies have been inconsistent. This study was performed to examine the associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure among residents of four Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Vietnam).@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study examined 1899 adults in four Asian countries. Urinary concentrations of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A questionnaire survey was administered regarding individual characteristics. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured after a short rest. Multiple linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index.@*RESULTS@#The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium were 84.6, 0.885, 2.09, and 16.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The urinary arsenic concentrations were slightly higher than those typically reported in non-polluted populations, while urinary cadmium, lead, and selenium concentrations were equivalent or slightly lower. The urinary lead concentrations were positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but urinary selenium concentrations were negatively associated with them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Variations in the urinary concentrations of lead and selenium were associated with blood pressure at low levels of exposure/intake.

Adult , Arsenic/urine , Bangladesh , Blood Pressure , Cadmium/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Lead/urine , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy/urine , Middle Aged , Nepal , Selenium/urine , Vietnam
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922185


BACKGROUND@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a global health problem. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of most widely used environmental chemicals, is suspected to be a contributor to the development NAFLD. This study was performed to examine the relationship between human BPA levels and risk of NAFLD.@*METHODS@#The data (n = 3476 adults: 1474 men and 2002 women) used in this study were obtained from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey III (2015-2017). BPA levels were measured in urine samples. NAFLD was defined using hepatic steatosis index after exclusion of other causes of hepatic diseases.@*RESULTS@#There was a significant linear relationship between the elevated urinary BPA concentrations and risk of NAFLD. In a univariate analysis, odds ratio (OR) of the highest quartile of urinary BPA level was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.94] compared to the lowest quartile. After adjusted with covariates, the ORs for NAFLD in the third and fourth quartiles were 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.67] and 1.32 [95% CI 1.03-1.70], respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Urinary BPA levels are positively associated with the risk of NAFLD in adults. Further experimental studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of BPA on NAFLD prevalence.

Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Benzhydryl Compounds/urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Health , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Phenols/urine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888608


BACKGROUND@#Ambient fine particle (PM@*METHODS@#A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly related to ambient PM@*RESULTS@#Each 10 μg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#Birth season which reflects the early-life PM

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Life Expectancy , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiration Disorders/mortality , Seasons
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878325


Objective@#The relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) has been inconclusive. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study in northwestern China to investigate the effect of outdoor temperature on BP and effect modification by season.@*Methods@#A total of 32,710 individuals who participated in both the baseline survey and the first follow-up in 2011-2015 were included in the study. A linear mixed-effect model and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) were applied to estimate the association between outdoor temperature and BP after adjusting for confounding variables.@*Results@#The mean differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between summer and winter were 3.5 mmHg and 2.75 mmHg, respectively. After adjusting for individual characteristics, meteorological factors and air pollutants, a significant increase in SBP and DBP was observed for lag 06 day and lag 04 day, a 0.28 mmHg (95% @*Conclusions@#This study demonstrated a significant negative association between outdoor temperature and BP in a high-altitude environment of northwest China. Moreover, BP showed a significant seasonal variation. The association between BP and temperature differed by season and individuals' demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI), unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and chronic disease status (CVDs, hypertension, and diabetes).

Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons , Temperature
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877513


Field survey is an important foundation for of birth cohort. In a field survey, data such as the environmental exposures, genetics, lifestyle and biological samples will be collected. This document establishes specifications for institutions' establishment, site preparation, coding system, the recruitment of participants, and quality control in the field survey of birth cohort research.

Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Quality Control , Research Design
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377


BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.

Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880350


BACKGROUND@#The industrial revolution has resulted in increased synthesis and the introduction of a variety of compounds into the environment and their potentially hazardous effects have been observed in the biota. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effects of chronic exposure to the low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) in male rats.@*METHODS@#Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats (22 days old) were either exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPS (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks in the chronic exposure study. After completion of the experimental period, animals were dissected and different parameters (hormone concentrations, histology of testis and epididymis, oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in the testis, daily sperm production (DSP), and sperm parameters) were determined.@*RESULTS@#Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organ weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, daily sperm production, and the number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in the 50 μg/L-exposed group. Histological observations involved a significant reduction in the epithelial height of the testis along with disrupted spermatogenesis, an empty lumen of the seminiferous tubules, and the caput region of the epididymis.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L of BPS for the chronic duration started from an early age can induce structural changes in testicular tissue architecture and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system which may lead to infertility in males.

Animals , Biomarkers , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Male , Phenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfones/toxicity , Testis/physiopathology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880339


BACKGROUND@#Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women.@*METHODS@#Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM@*RESULTS@#The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.

Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infertility, Female/etiology , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Republic of Korea
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880334


BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase stroke risk, but the results remain inconsistent. Evidence of more recent studies is highly warranted, especially gas air pollutants.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies till February 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis on the association between air pollution (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 68 studies conducted from more than 23 million participants were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of all six air pollutants and stroke hospital admission (e.g., PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to air pollution was positively associated with an increased risk of stroke hospital admission (PM

Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880325


BACKGROUND@#Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become a severe global burden in terms of both health and the economy. Few studies, however, have thoroughly assessed the influence of air pollution on COPD-related mortality among elderly people in developing areas in the hinterland of southwestern China. This study is the first to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient airborne pollutants and COPD-related mortality among elderly people in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China.@*METHODS@#Data on COPD-related mortality among elderly people aged 60 and older were obtained from the Population Death Information Registration and Management System (PDIRMS). Data on airborne pollutants comprised of particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 61,058 COPD-related deaths of people aged 60 and older were obtained. Controlling the influences of daily temperature and relative humidity, interquartile range (IQR) concentration increases of PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increased concentrations of ambient airborne pollutants composed of PM

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Time Factors
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433


SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.

RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 204-210, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138553


INTRODUCCIÓN: Las placas pleurales por fibras de asbesto se caracterizan por lesiones compuestas por tejido fibroso que se ubican en la pleura parietal. Suelen aparecer hasta en un 3% a 58% de los trabajadores que estuvieron expuestos a fibras de asbesto, y en un 0,5% a 8% en población general. El OBJETIVO de este artículo es presentar dos casos clínicos de pacientes a los que se les detectó en la radiografía de tórax alteraciones pleurales posiblemente asociadas a la exposición a fibras de asbesto. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Caso 1. Paciente de sexo masculino de 49 años, trabajador de la construcción con antecedentes de exposición a fibras de asbesto. Se le realizó una radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT (Organización Internacional del Trabajo), la que evidenció alteraciones pleurales focales. Una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. Caso 2. Paciente de sexo femenino de 79 años, jefa de hogar, sin exposición laboral conocida a fibras de asbesto. En una radiografía de tórax anteroposterior, se observó la presencia de una placa pleural focal. Se solicitó una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, la que confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. CONCLUSIÓN: La radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT es el instrumento básico para la identificación de enfermedades relacionadas con la exposición a fibra de asbesto. El estudio debe ser completado con una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax cuya sensibilidad es mayor permitiendo detectar tempranamente las anomalías pleurales. Es fundamental la historia ocupacional detallada ya que constituye el método más fiable y práctico para medir la exposición a fibra de asbesto.

INTRODUCTION: Asbestos fiber pleural plaque is characterized by lesions composed of fibrous tissue that are located in the parietal pleura. They usually appear in up to 3 to 58% of workers who were exposed to asbestos fiber, and 0.5 to 8% in the general population. The OBJECTIVE of this article is to present two clinical cases of patients who were detected in the chest radiograph pleural alterations associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. CLINICAL CASES: First case: 49-year-old male patient, building worker with a history of exposure to asbestos fibers. Focal pleural alterations were detected by a chest x-ray performed according ILO (International Labour Organization) technique. The presence of pleural plaques was confirmed in a computed tomography of the chest. Second case: Holder, without occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. An anteroposterior chest radiography showed the presence of focal pleural plaque in a CT scan of the chest. CONCLUSION: Chest x-ray with ILO technique is the basic instrument for the identification of diseases related to asbestos fiber exposure. The study should be completed with a CT scan of the chest whose sensitivity is greater, allowing early detection of pleural abnormalities. Detailed occupational history is essential, as it is the most reliable and practical method to measure asbestos fiber exposure.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pleural Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Asbestos/adverse effects , Pleura/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Inhalation Exposure , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 274-283, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131044


Resumen Objetivo: Comprobar las diferencias morfológicas y funcionales del corazón en dos poblaciones latinoamericanas con distintas características raciales y condiciones de vida. Métodos: Mediante el ecocardiograma transtorácico se obtuvieron datos de 206 personas: 103 del poblado de Atahualpa, Ecuador (nivel del mar, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 53 mujeres) y 103 habitantes de la Ciudad de México (altitud de 2,300 m, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 52 mujeres). Resultados: Las diferencias significativas entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fueron frecuencia cardíaca, 66 vs. 80; diámetro diastólico ventricular izquierdo, 40.8 vs. 42.7; grosor del tabique, 9.8 vs. 11.6; pared posterior, 10.2 vs. 11.8; volumen-latido en centímetros cúbicos, 53.0 vs. 46.6; volumen auricular Izquierdo, 25.8 vs. 33.6; presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar, 27.1 vs. 42.0; gasto cardíaco, 3.1 vs. 4.8; cociente E/Ea, 6.4 vs. 9.2; área mitral, 3.4 vs. 3.0. El comparativo de la función diastólica entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fue: tipo 0: 2 vs. 1; tipo 1: 96 vs. 81; tipo 2: 5 vs. 20; tipo 3: 0 vs. 1. Conclusión: Las características ecocardiográficas que identifican los cambios adaptativos del corazón en Atahualpa coinciden con personas que viven a nivel del mar y con buena actividad física y en México con los habitantes de grandes altitudes y expuestos a contaminación ambiental. La función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo fue similar en ambas poblaciones, lo que indica que los cambios adaptativos hacen posible que el corazón sea eficaz en diferentes circunstancias del ecosistema.

Abstract Objective: To compare morphological and functional differences of the heart in two Latin American populations with different ethnicity and living conditions. Methods: Using transthoracic echocardiogram we obtained data on 206 individuals: 103 from Atahualpa, Ecuador (living at sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 53 women) and 103 inhabitants from Mexico City (living at 2300 m above sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 52 women). Results: Significant differences between Atahualpa and Mexico were: Heart rate 66 versus 80 x’, left ventricular diastolic diameter 40.8 versus 42.7, septum thickness 9.8 versus 11.6, posterior wall 10.2 versus 11.8, stroke volume cc 53.0 versus 46.6, left atrial volume 25. 8 versus 33.6, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery 27.1 versus 42.0, cardiac output 3.1 versus 4.8, E/Ea ratio 6.4 versus 9.2, and mitral area 3.4 versus 3.0. Comparison of diastolic function between Atahualpa and Mexico was: Type 0; 2 versus 1. Type 1; 96 versus 81. Type 2; 5 versus 20 and Type 3; 0 versus 1. Conclusion: Echocardiographic characteristics that identify adaptive changes of the heart in Atahualpa are coincident with people living at sea level and with good physical activity, and Mexico City, with inhabitants living at high altitudes and exposed to environmental pollution. The systolic function of the left ventricle was similar in both populations, indicating that adaptive changes allow the heart to be effective in different circumstances of the ecosystem.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Altitude , Mexico
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s118-s129, agosto 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118605


En las últimas décadas, las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ENT) se han convertido en la principal causa de mortalidad global y han aumentado en América Latina. La contribución de recursos de la ciencia del desarrollo, la epigenética, las neurociencias, las ciencias ambientales, la epidemiología y la investigación ha generado evidencia del origen de las ENT desde la programación fetal. Los resultados de salud y enfermedad devienen de una trayectoria dinámica en la que se agregan factores protectores para una vida saludable o factores de riesgo para enfermedades del individuo y las comunidades.El concepto de Developmental Origins of Health and Disease redimensiona el papel del equipo de salud materno-infantil y debe guiar las políticas públicas para priorizar los primeros mil días de vida para un desarrollo saludable y la prevención de ENT. Se presenta una actualización sobre las principales condiciones ambientales adversas que pueden alterar la programación del desarrollo y predisponer a ENT en el curso de la vida.

In recent decades, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of global mortality and increased in Latin America. The contribution of the resources from development science, epigenetics, neurosciences, environmental sciences, epidemiology and research has generated evidence of the origin of NCDs since fetal programming. The healt and disease outcomes result from a dynamic trajectory where protective factors are added for a healthy life or risk factors for diseases of the individual and the communities. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept resizes the role of the maternal and child health team and should guide public policies by prioritizing the first 1000 days of life for healthy development and NCDs prevention. We present an update on principal adverse environmental conditions that may alter development programming and predispose NCDs in life course

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Environment , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Child Development , Public Health , Maternal and Child Health , Environmental Exposure , Epigenomics , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e48-e52, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095869


El síndrome de Guillain-Barré constituye una entidad de etiología diversa, que se caracteriza por debilidad muscular aguda, simétrica, ascendente y progresiva, y es una de las polineuropatías adquiridas más frecuentes en la infancia. Entre los diagnósticos diferenciales, deben considerarse las neuropatías producidas por metales pesados, mercurio y plomo, y metaloides, como el arsénico, plaguicidas organofosforados y el tetracloruro de carbono.Se presenta a un paciente de 14 años con diagnóstico de síndrome de Guillain-Barré sin respuesta al tratamiento convencional con gammaglobulina. Considerando otras etiologías, se sospechó neuropatía producida por metales pesados, y se confirmó intoxicación por mercurio.El objetivo de esta presentación es concientizar a los pediatras acerca del impacto de los tóxicos ambientales en la salud infantil para realizar un diagnóstico precoz pesquisando datos clave a través de la historia clínica ambiental

Guillain-Barré syndrome is an entity of diverse etiology, characterized by acute, symmetric, ascending and progressive muscle weakness, being one of the most frequent acquired polyneuropathies in childhood. Neuropathies produced by heavy metals, mercury and lead, and metalloids, such as arsenic, organophosphorus pesticides and carbon tetrachloride, should be considered among the differential diagnoses.We present a 14-year-old patient with a presumptive diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome without response to conventional treatment with gamma globulin. Considering other etiologies, heavy metal neuropathy was suspected, and mercury poisoning was confirmed.The aim of this presentation is to make pediatricians aware about the impact of environmental toxic agents on children's health in order to make an early diagnosis by researching key data through the environmental clinical history.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies , Heavy Metal Poisoning, Nervous System/drug therapy , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 14(2): 29-42, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128982


En el sector de Quintero, desde los últimos 50 años han existido diversos hitos relacionados con la contaminación medioambiental. Iniciando con la instauración de la termoeléctrica "Ventanas" en 1950, Chilectra en 1958. En el año 1993 el ministerio de Agricultura de Chile declaró a Puchuncaví y Quintero como una "zona saturada de contaminación" por dióxido de azufre (SO2) y material particulado (MP10). En el año 2011, 135 trabajadores del complejo Ventana fallecieron producto del cáncer. Durante el 2014 hubo un derrame de petróleo en la Bahía de Quintero, 2015 un informe del Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) arrojó cifras de arsénico que superan 23 veces la norma establecida por el Código Sanitario de Alimentos. Frente a dicho escenario, se hace evidente la necesidad de comprender cómo es la situación de los pobladores de dichas comunas. La presente investigación busca asociar los niveles de contaminación de las comuna de Quintero y el número de hospitalizaciones durante los años 2012 hasta el 2018.

In Quintero, since the last 50 years there have been various milestones related to environmental pollution. Starting with the installation of the "Ventanas" thermoelectric plant in 1950, Chilectra in 1958. In 1993, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture declared Puchuncaví and Quintero as a "zone saturated with contamination" by sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (MP10). In 2011, 135 workers at the Ventana complex died of cancer. During 2014 an oil spill emerged in Quintero Bay, 2015 a report by the Institute for Fisheries Development (IFOP) showed arsenic figures that exceed 23 times the norm established by the Sanitary Food Code. Faced with this scenario, the need to understand what the situation of the residents of said communes is like is evident. The present investigation seeks to associate the levels of contamination of the commun of Quintero and the number of hospitalizations during the years 2012 to 2018.

Air Pollution , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ozone/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Chile , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Government Regulation , Methane/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 71, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127243


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the many factors regarding socioeconomic and healthcare-related variables linked to maternal diseases and the possible impact of the environmental disaster of Mariana, given the prenatal exposure to different water sources for human consumption that were associated with low birthweight in full-term live births in the Municipal Hospital of Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais. METHODS Case-control study, carried out with live births at the Municipal Hospital of Governador Valadares, from May 2017 to July 2018. The case group consisted of full-term live births and low birthweight, and the control group consisted of full-term live births with adequate weight, matched by gender and date of birth. For each case, two controls were selected. Data collection was performed through interviews with the puerperal women, and complementary information was obtained by analyzing the prenatal card and medical records. For data analysis, logistic regression was performed. RESULTS The study included 65 live births from the case group and 130 from the control group. After the analysis was adjusted for other factors under study, we found that the higher risks of low birthweight are associated with the first childbirth (OR = 2.033; 95%CI = 1.047-3.948; p = 0.036), smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.850; 95%CI = 1.013-8.021; p = 0.047) and consumption of water supplied by the municipalities affected by the tailings from the Fundão dam failure (RC = 2.444; 95%CI = 1.203-4.965; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS The variables "water consumed during pregnancy," "previous pregnancies" and "maternal smoking" were associated with low birthweight in the population studied. The importance of epidemiological studies that assess water quality and its adverse health effects is reinforced, as well as greater prenatal control of first-time pregnant women and greater support of policies against smoking, especially during pregnancy.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar os fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, ambientais, reprodutivos, comportamentais, de assistência à saúde, doenças maternas e, sobretudo, o possível impacto do desastre ambiental ocorrido em Mariana, pela exposição pré-natal a diferentes fontes de água para consumo humano, associados ao baixo peso ao nascer em nascidos vivos a termo no Hospital Municipal de Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS Estudo caso-controle, realizado com nascidos vivos no Hospital Municipal de Governador Valadares, no período de maio de 2017 a julho de 2018. O grupo caso foi composto por nascidos vivos a termo e baixo peso ao nascer e o grupo controle, por nascidos vivos a termo e com peso adequado, pareados por sexo e data de nascimento. Para cada caso foram selecionados dois controles. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista com as puérperas e informações complementares foram obtidas pela análise do cartão de pré-natal e prontuários. Para análise dos dados, foi realizada regressão logística. RESULTADOS Participaram do estudo 65 nascidos vivos pertencentes ao grupo caso e 130 ao grupo controle. Após a análise ajustada para os demais fatores em estudo, verificou-se que os riscos mais elevados de baixo peso ao nascer estão associados aos primeiros filhos (RC = 2,033; IC95% = 1,047-3,948; p = 0,036) e aos nascidos vivos cujas mães utilizaram cigarro durante a gestação (RC = 2,850; IC95% = 1,013-8,021; p = 0,047) e consumiram a água fornecida pelos serviços de abastecimento dos municípios atingidos pelos rejeitos provenientes do rompimento da barragem de Fundão (RC = 2,444; IC95% = 1,203-4,965; p = 0,013). CONCLUSÕES A água consumida na gestação, primiparidade e tabagismo materno apresentaram associação com baixo peso ao nascer na população estudada. Reforça-se a importância de estudos epidemiológicos, que avaliem a qualidade da água e seus efeitos adversos na saúde, assim como maior controle no pré-natal das gestantes que terão o primeiro filho e maior apoio das políticas contra o tabagismo, especialmente durante a gravidez.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cities , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(3): 301-310, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1127110


Resumen: Las cianobacterias son bacterias fotosintéticas del plancton de aguas dulces y saladas. Su acumulación excesiva en las aguas recreacionales y potables se conoce como floración algal, con potenciales efectos en la salud de seres humanos. Son predominantemente estivales, en cursos de aguas dulces y pueden alcanzar las costas oceánicas. Esta es una revisión bibliográfica basada en las publicaciones registradas en PubMed-Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud que incluye SciELO, LILACS, IBECS), Springer, Science Direct, Portal Timbó, y obtenidas con los términos "cianobacterias", "cianotoxinas", "microcistina", "floraciones algales", "pediatría", "niños", "recreacional" "intoxicación" "exposición", sin límites de año de publicación. Su objetivo es actualizar el conocimiento sobre cianotoxinas y efectos en la salud humana, analizar escenarios de riesgo de exposición a cianobacterias, particularmente en niños, y reforzar medidas preventivas de la exposición y promover acciones desde el sector sanitario. Las manifestaciones clínicas de la intoxicación por exposición reciente son malestar general, irritación de piel y mucosas, síntomas respiratorios e incluso afectación hepática en casos graves. Es preciso incluir estas floraciones en la etiopatogenia de estos cuadros y relacionarlos con la exposición utilizando la monitorización de floraciones del país. La exposición a cianobacterias es un riesgo emergente para la salud. La evidencia científica de los últimos años consolida el conocimiento de efectos en la salud humana por exposición a cianobacterias. Recientemente se identifica el baño, juegos infantiles e ingesta de arena en costas con altos niveles de contaminación como un escenario de riesgo en niños. La evidencia de hepatoxicidad por cianotoxinas es aún más escasa, aunque existen casos documentados. El sistema de monitoreo de playas permite a los equipos de salud incorporar la sospecha de exposición a cianobacterias y el posible contacto con sus toxinas, para poder realizar un diagnóstico temprano y participar en la prevención de la exposición.

Summary: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria from fresh and saltwater plankton. Its excessive accumulation in recreational and drinking waters is known as algal bloom that could potentially affect human health. They are mainly seen in summer, in freshwater waterways and can reach the ocean coasts. This is a bibliographic review based on the publications registered in PubMed-Medline, BVS (Virtual Health Library that includes SciELO, LILACS, IBECS), Springer, Science Direct, Portal Timbó, and obtained with the terms "cyanobacteria", "cyanotoxins", "Microcystine", "algal blooms", "pediatrics", "children", "recreational" "intoxication" "exposure" without year of publication limits. The review aims to update knowledge about cyanotoxins and their effect on human health; analyze risk scenarios of exposure to cyanobacteria, particularly in children, and reinforce preventive measures for exposure, as well as to promote actions from the health sector. The clinical manifestations of recent exposure poisoning are general malaise, skin and mucous irritation, respiratory symptoms and even liver insufficiency in severe cases. It is necessary to include these blooms in the pathogenesis of these clinic cases and relate them to the exposure using the monitoring of blooms in the country. Exposure to cyanobacteria is an emerging health risk. The scientific evidence of the last years consolidates knowledge on the effect of exposure to cyanobacteria on human health. Recently, bathing, children's games, and sand intake on coasts with high levels of contamination have been identified as a risk scenario for children. Evidence of cyanotoxin hepatoxicity is even scarcer, although there are documented cases. The beach monitoring system allows health teams to incorporate the suspicion of exposure to cyanobacteria and possible contact with their toxins, to make an early diagnosis and participate in the prevention of exposure.

Resumo: As cianobactérias são bactérias fotossintéticas do plâncton de águas doces e salgadas. Sua acumulação excessiva em águas recreacionais e potáveis é conhecida como floração algal com potenciais efeitos sobre a saúde de seres humanos. São predominantemente estivais, ocorrem em cursos de águas doces e podem alcançar as costas oceânicas. Esta é uma revisão bibliográfica baseada nas publicações indexadas em PubMed-Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde que inclui SciELO, LILACS, IBECS), Springer, Science Direct, Portal Timbó, e obtidas com os termos "cianobactérias", "cianotoxinas", "microcistina", "florações algais", "pediatria", "crianças", "recreacional" "intoxicação" "exposição", sem limites de ano de publicação. Seu objetivo é atualizar o conhecimento sobre cianotoxinas e efeitos sobre a saúde humana; analisar cenários de risco de exposição a cianobactérias, particularmente em crianças e reforçar medidas preventivas de exposição e promover ações do setor sanitário. As manifestações clínicas da intoxicação por exposição recente são mal-estar geral, irritação de pele e mucosas, sintomas respiratórios e incluso afetação hepática nos casos graves. É preciso incluir estas florações, na etiopatogenia destes quadros e relacioná-las com a exposição utilizando o monitoramento das florações do país. A exposição a cianobactérias é um risco emergente para a saúde. A evidência científica dos últimos anos consolida o conhecimento sobre os efeitos sobre a saúde humana por exposição a cianobactérias; recentemente foram identificados como um cenário de risco para crianças: o banho, jogos infantis e ingestão de areia nas costas com altos níveis de contaminação. A evidência de hepatoxicidade por cianotoxinas é ainda escassa embora existam casos documentados. O sistema de monitoramento de praias permite as equipes de saúde incorporar a suspeita de exposição a cianobactérias e o possível contacto com suas toxinas, para poder realizar um diagnóstico precoce e participar na prevenção da exposição.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Coastal Pollution , Cyanobacteria , Harmful Algal Bloom , Environmental Exposure
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018177, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057227


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate context of overweight adolescents from the semiarid and rural areas of Pernambuco, considering the multifactorial nature of the determinants of being overweight, and the food and nutritional insecurity conditions of the region. Methods: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2015. The nutritional status of adolescents was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and classified by the BMI/Age indicator, according to sex. To analyze the factors associated with being overweight, the variables were grouped into: socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, lifestyle, psychological, biological and food and nutritional security. Poisson regression was used to verify the association between being overweight and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of excessive weight found was 20.1%, namely: 13.4% overweight and 6.7% obese. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the variables: occupancy situation (rented house), alcohol consumption, food security and light food insecurity, body perception (overweight and obese) and age range (10 to 14 years), were associated with being overweight. High food and nutritional insecurity was identified in 80.4% of the population. The moderate and severe forms were more frequent, and precarious social conditions were still prevalent in the region. Conclusions: The prevalence of being overweight was high, exceeding the expected for a population with better living conditions. The determinants of being overweight were: alcohol consumption, occupancy situation, self-perceived weight, age and food security/mild food insecurity.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar o excesso de peso em adolescentes do Sertão e Agreste de Pernambuco, considerando a multifatoriedade dos determinantes do excesso de peso e as condições de insegurança alimentar e nutricional da região. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado no período de setembro a outubro de 2015. O estado nutricional dos adolescentes foi avaliado pelo índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e classificado pelo indicador IMC/idade, segundo o sexo. Para analisar os fatores associados ao excesso de peso, as variáveis foram agrupadas em: socioeconômicas, demográficas, ambientais, de estilo de vida, psicológicas, biológicas e segurança alimentar e nutricional. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para verificar a associação entre o excesso de peso e as variáveis independentes. Resultados: A prevalência de excesso de peso encontrada foi de 20,1%, sendo 13,4% de sobrepeso e 6,7% de obesidade. Após o ajuste para as variáveis de confusão, as variáveis regime de ocupação (casa cedida, alugada), consumo de álcool, segurança alimentar, insegurança alimentar leve, percepção corporal (sobrepeso e obesidade) e faixa etária (10 a 14 anos) mostraram-se associadas ao excesso de peso. Destaca-se a elevada insegurança alimentar e nutricional, em 80,4% da população, sendo as formas moderadas e graves as mais frequentes, como também as precárias condições sociais ainda prevalentes na região. Conclusões: A prevalência de excesso de peso foi elevada, superando o esperado para uma população com melhores condições de vida. Os determinantes do excesso de peso foram: consumo de álcool, regime de ocupação, autopercepção do peso, faixa etária e segurança alimentar/insegurança alimentar leve.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Nutritional Status/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Food Supply/standards , Self Concept , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Demography/trends , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Overweight/psychology , Underage Drinking/psychology , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology