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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202732, abr. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418556

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La salud ambiental infantil es la rama de la pediatría que estudia la influencia del medioambiente en la salud y la enfermedad de los niños. Las exposiciones ambientales globales representan una seria amenaza para la salud, lo que justifica una mayor investigación y acción. Objetivo. Evaluar la salud ambiental de una muestra de niños que viven en áreas urbanas y rurales de la ciudad de Uruguaiana, Brasil. Población y métodos. Se incluyeron padres/tutores (n = 714) de niños atendidos en el Policlínico Infantil de la Ciudad de Uruguaiana de enero a octubre de 2021, que respondieron la anamnesis ambiental en pediatría (Sociedad Brasileña de Pediatría). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron según la residencia en zona urbana o rural, o el ingreso familiar. Resultados. Al comparar los habitantes de la zona urbana (n = 660) con los de la zona rural (n = 54), verificamos que entre los de la zona rural fue significativamente mayor la actividad con productos químicos (15 % vs. 32,7 %; p = 0,004), vivir cerca de plantación (7,5 % vs. 74,5 %; p <0,001) o con fuente de contaminación (4,8 % vs. 32,7 %; p <0,001), tener perro (62 % vs. 87,3 %; p <0,001), usar plaguicidas (0,6 % vs. 32,7 %; p <0,001) y exposición a contaminación química (2,6 % vs. 18,2 %; p <0,001). En el área urbana predominó la exposición al tránsito de vehículos cerca de la vivienda (85 % vs. 48,1 %; p <0,001), renta media inferior a 3 salarios mínimos (90 %) y baja escolaridad. Conclusión. Realizar la anamnesis ambiental es fundamental para la detección de amenazas ambientales presentes en los lugares donde los niños y adolescentes viven, aprenden, juegan y estudian.


Introduction. Children's environmental health studies the influence of the environment on health and disease in children. Global environmental exposures pose a serious threat to health, warranting further research and action. Objective. To assess the environmental health of a sample of children living in urban and rural areas in Uruguaiana, Brazil. Population and methods. We included parents/legal guardians (n = 714) of children seen at Policlinica Infantil de Uruguaiana between January and October 2021, who completed the environmental history- taking in pediatrics (Brazilian Society of Pediatrics). Collected data were analyzed based on place of residence (urban or rural) or household income. Results. The comparison between inhabitants of the urban area (n = 660) and the rural area (n = 54) established that, among those living in the rural area, activity with chemical substances (15% versus 32.7%; p = 0.004), living near a plantation (7.5% versus 74.5%; p < 0.001) or near a source of contamination (4.8% versus 32.7%; p < 0.001), having a dog (62% versus 87.3%; p < 0.001), using pesticides (0.6% versus 32.7%; p < 0.001), and exposure to chemical contamination (2.6% versus 18.2%; p < 0.001) were significantly higher. In the urban area, exposure to vehicle traffic near the house (85% versus 48.1%; p < 0.001), an average income below 3 minimum wages (90%), and a low level of education predominated. Conclusion. Environmental history-taking is critical for the detection of environmental threats present in the areas where children and adolescents live, learn, play, and study


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Rural Population , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Urban Population , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Dogs
3.
Med. lab ; 27(1): 13-24, 2023. ilus, Grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412739

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cáncer de mama es el tipo de cáncer que genera más muertes en mujeres en el mundo. Aunque se reconoce el aporte de factores genéticos, hormonales y de estilos de vida como sus principales causas, las hipótesis que señalan que la contaminación del ambiente juega un papel importante en su desarrollo, han tomado mucha fuerza en los últimos años. Estas hipótesis surgen debido a que el aumento en la incidencia del cáncer de mama coincide con procesos de industrialización, además de mayor presencia en regiones urbanas y con altos niveles de contaminación. El objetivo de este artículo fue consolidar información sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que puedan explicar la relación entre cáncer de mama y la contaminación por material particulado. Metodología. Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura en PubMed, Google Académico y Epistemonikos para documentos publicados sobre el tema desde enero de 2016 hasta el 3 de agosto de 2022. Resultados. Se encontró que algunos de los mecanismos que podrían explicar dicha relación incluyen: alteraciones endocrinas que favorecen cambios hormonales, induciendo el crecimiento mamario; cambios en las características histológicas del tejido normal, como involución reducida de unidades lobulares ductales terminales; formación de aductos de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos-ácido desoxirribonucleico (HAP-ADN), con mutación específica del gen TP53; activación de la proliferación en la línea celular MCF-7; y, alteraciones en la metilación del ADN. Conclusión. Si bien órganos distales como la mama no son la primera entrada de los contaminantes ambientales al cuerpo, estos sí pueden verse afectados tras la exposición a largo plazo, a través de diferentes mecanismos de disrupción endocrina y daño al ADN principalmente


Breast cancer is the type of cancer that causes the most deaths in women worldwide. Although the contribution of genetic, hormonal and lifestyle factors are recognized as its main causes, the hypotheses that indicate that environmental pollution has an important role in its development have taken on great strength during the last years. These hypotheses are based on the increase in the incidence of breast cancer that coincides with industrialization processes, in addition to its greater presence in urban regions with high levels of pollution. The aim of this study was to consolidate information on the pathophysiological mechanisms that can explain the relationship between breast cancer and air pollution by particulate matter. Methodology. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, Google Scholar and Epistemonikos for documents published on this topic from January 2016 until August 3rd 2022. Results. Some of the mechanisms that could explain this association include endocrine alterations that favor hormonal changes, inducing breast growth; changes in the histological characteristics of normal tissue such as reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units; formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-deoxyribonucleic acid (PAH-DNA) adducts, with specific mutation of the TP53 gene; an increase in cell proliferation in the MCF-7 cell line; and alterations in DNA methylation. Conclusion. Although distal organs such as the breast are not the entry site of environmental pollutants into the body, they can be affected after prolonged exposure, mainly through different mechanisms of endocrine disruption and DNA damage


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology , Air Pollution
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 287-294, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970049

ABSTRACT

In China, the level of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution far exceeds the air quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Moreover, the health effects of PM 2.5 exposure have become a major public health issue. More than half of PM 2.5 -related excess deaths are caused by cardiopulmonary disease, which has become a major health risk associated with PM 2.5 pollution. In this review, we discussed the latest epidemiological advances relating to the health effects of PM 2.5 on cardiopulmonary diseases in China, including studies relating to the effects of PM 2.5 on mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These data provided important evidence to highlight the cardiopulmonary risk associated with PM 2.5 across the world. In the future, further studies need to be carried out to investigate the specific relationship between the constituents and sources of PM 2.5 and cardiopulmonary disease. These studies provided scientific evidence for precise reduction measurement of pollution sources and public health risks. It is also necessary to identify effective biomarkers and elucidate the biological mechanisms and pathways involved; this may help us to take steps to reduce PM 2.5 pollution and reduce the incidence of cardiopulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Diseases , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 174-179, junio 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368143

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La exposición ambiental a plomo (Pb) aún constituye un problema de salud pública, particularmente para los niños. El estrés oxidativo podría representar un mecanismo primario asociado a su toxicidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los niveles de Pb en sangre (Pb-S) en niños de 1 a 6 años de La Plata y alrededores con exposición ambiental, y su relación con biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo. Población y métodos. Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Se evaluaron niños clínicamente sanos de 1 a 6 años. Se determinaron los niveles de Pb-S, las actividades de enzimas antioxidantes y el grado de peroxidación lipídica. Se utilizó el paquete estadístico R versión 3.5.1. Resultados. Participaron 131 niños, mediana de edad 2,33 años. La media geométrica de los niveles de Pb-S fue 1,90 µg/dL; el 32 % presentó plombemias cuantificables y el 3 %, niveles ≥5 µg/dL (referencia internacional). Al comparar los biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo según los niveles de Pb-S, solo se observó diferencia significativa entre las medianas de las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS): 12,0 versus 10,0 nmol MDA/mL plasma; p = 0,02. Asimismo, la correlación entre las plombemias y las TBARS fue positiva (r = 0,24; p = 0,012). Conclusiones. La mayoría de los niños mostraron niveles de Pb-S menores a los límites recomendados por agencias internacionales, que si bien, no producen alteraciones en la actividad de enzimas antioxidantes, sí inducen peroxidación lipídica. Estos resultados reflejan la utilidad de este biomarcador como una herramienta diagnóstica temprana para evaluar los efectos subtóxicos del Pb.


Introduction. Environmental exposure to lead is still a major public health problem, especially in children. Oxidative stress may be a primary mechanism associated with toxicity. Theobjective of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLLs) in children aged 1 to 6 years expos to lead in La Plata and suburban areas and their relation to oxidative stress biomarkers. Population and methods. Cross-sectional,analytical study. Clinically healthy children aged1 to 6 years were analyzed. BLLs, antioxidant enzyme activity, and extent of lipid peroxidation were measured. The statistical softwarepackage R, version 3.5.1, was used. Results. A total of 131 children participated; their median age was 2.33 years. The geometric mean of BLLs was 1.90 µg/dL; 32% showed a measurable BLL and 3%, BLLs ≥ 5 µg/dL (international reference). The comparison ofoxidative stress biomarkers based on BLshowed a significant difference in median thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS):12.0 versus 10.0 nmol MDA/mL of plasma;p = 0.02. In addition, the correlation between BLLs and TBARS was positive (r = 0.24; p = 0.012 Conclusions. Most children had a BLL below the limit recommended by international agencies; although such BLLs do not affantioxidant enzyme activity, they can induce lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate theusefulness of this biomarker as an early diagnosistool to assess subtoxic lead effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Lead/analysis , Lead Poisoning/diagnosis , Argentina , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Oxidative Stress , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Antioxidants
6.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 59-59, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pregnancy , Biomarkers/blood , Child Health , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Japan/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
7.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 31-31, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The industrial revolution has resulted in increased synthesis and the introduction of a variety of compounds into the environment and their potentially hazardous effects have been observed in the biota. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effects of chronic exposure to the low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) in male rats.@*METHODS@#Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats (22 days old) were either exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPS (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks in the chronic exposure study. After completion of the experimental period, animals were dissected and different parameters (hormone concentrations, histology of testis and epididymis, oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in the testis, daily sperm production (DSP), and sperm parameters) were determined.@*RESULTS@#Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organ weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, daily sperm production, and the number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in the 50 μg/L-exposed group. Histological observations involved a significant reduction in the epithelial height of the testis along with disrupted spermatogenesis, an empty lumen of the seminiferous tubules, and the caput region of the epididymis.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L of BPS for the chronic duration started from an early age can induce structural changes in testicular tissue architecture and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system which may lead to infertility in males.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Biomarkers , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Phenols/toxicity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfones/toxicity , Testis/physiopathology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
8.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 20-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women.@*METHODS@#Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM@*RESULTS@#The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Infertility, Female/etiology , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Republic of Korea
9.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 15-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution may increase stroke risk, but the results remain inconsistent. Evidence of more recent studies is highly warranted, especially gas air pollutants.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies till February 2020 and conducted a meta-analysis on the association between air pollution (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 68 studies conducted from more than 23 million participants were included in our meta-analysis. Meta-analyses showed significant associations of all six air pollutants and stroke hospital admission (e.g., PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to air pollution was positively associated with an increased risk of stroke hospital admission (PM


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality
10.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 7-7, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become a severe global burden in terms of both health and the economy. Few studies, however, have thoroughly assessed the influence of air pollution on COPD-related mortality among elderly people in developing areas in the hinterland of southwestern China. This study is the first to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient airborne pollutants and COPD-related mortality among elderly people in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China.@*METHODS@#Data on COPD-related mortality among elderly people aged 60 and older were obtained from the Population Death Information Registration and Management System (PDIRMS). Data on airborne pollutants comprised of particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM@*RESULTS@#A total of 61,058 COPD-related deaths of people aged 60 and older were obtained. Controlling the influences of daily temperature and relative humidity, interquartile range (IQR) concentration increases of PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increased concentrations of ambient airborne pollutants composed of PM


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Time Factors
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(5): 468-476, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390309

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Estimar el riesgo de mortalidad asociado con la exposición a partículas finas (PM2.5) y gruesas (PM2.5-10) en la Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey (ZMM). Material y métodos: Estudio ecológico con análisis retrospectivo de series de tiempo (2004-2014) de mortalidad total y específica diaria, y promedio de PM2.5y PM2.5-10. Modelos aditivos generalizados Poisson con rezagos distribuidos ajustados por tendencia, estacionalidad, día de la semana, condiciones meteorológicas y contaminantes gaseosos. Resultados: El promedio (DE) de PM2.5y PM2.5-10fue 26.59 (11.06) y 48.83 (21.15) μg/m3. Cada 10 μg/m3de aumento de PM2.5(lag 0) incrementó el riesgo de mortalidad respiratoria en menores de cinco años 11.16٪ (IC95% 1.03-21.39) y de neumonía e influenza en mayores de cinco años 11.16٪ (IC95% 3.91-9.37). El riesgo de mortalidad asociado con las PM2.5-10fue menor. Conclusiones: Se observaron asociaciones positivas y significativas entre exposición a material particulado y la mortalidad diaria en población de la ZMM.


Abstract Objective: To estimate the mortality risk of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM). Materials and methods: A retrospective ecological time-series analysis (2000-2014) was conducted using total and specific causes of mortality, and daily mean PM2.5and PM2.5-10. Generalized additive distributed lag models controlling for trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological conditions and gaseous pollutants. Results: Mean (SD) PM2.5and PM2.5-10concentrations were 26.59 μg/m3 (11.06 μg/m3) and 48.83 μg/m3(21.15 μg/m3). An increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (lag 0) was associated with 11.16% (95%CI:1.03-21.39) increased risk of respiratory mortality in children <=5 years old and 6.6% (95%CI 3.31-9.37) increased risk of pneumonia-influenza in adults >=65 years old. The risk of mortality associated with the concentration of coarse particles was lower. Conclusions: Positive and significant associations were observed between exposure to particulate matter and daily mortality in the MAM´s population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Humans , Mortality , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Retrospective Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 274-283, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131044

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comprobar las diferencias morfológicas y funcionales del corazón en dos poblaciones latinoamericanas con distintas características raciales y condiciones de vida. Métodos: Mediante el ecocardiograma transtorácico se obtuvieron datos de 206 personas: 103 del poblado de Atahualpa, Ecuador (nivel del mar, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 53 mujeres) y 103 habitantes de la Ciudad de México (altitud de 2,300 m, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 52 mujeres). Resultados: Las diferencias significativas entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fueron frecuencia cardíaca, 66 vs. 80; diámetro diastólico ventricular izquierdo, 40.8 vs. 42.7; grosor del tabique, 9.8 vs. 11.6; pared posterior, 10.2 vs. 11.8; volumen-latido en centímetros cúbicos, 53.0 vs. 46.6; volumen auricular Izquierdo, 25.8 vs. 33.6; presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar, 27.1 vs. 42.0; gasto cardíaco, 3.1 vs. 4.8; cociente E/Ea, 6.4 vs. 9.2; área mitral, 3.4 vs. 3.0. El comparativo de la función diastólica entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fue: tipo 0: 2 vs. 1; tipo 1: 96 vs. 81; tipo 2: 5 vs. 20; tipo 3: 0 vs. 1. Conclusión: Las características ecocardiográficas que identifican los cambios adaptativos del corazón en Atahualpa coinciden con personas que viven a nivel del mar y con buena actividad física y en México con los habitantes de grandes altitudes y expuestos a contaminación ambiental. La función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo fue similar en ambas poblaciones, lo que indica que los cambios adaptativos hacen posible que el corazón sea eficaz en diferentes circunstancias del ecosistema.


Abstract Objective: To compare morphological and functional differences of the heart in two Latin American populations with different ethnicity and living conditions. Methods: Using transthoracic echocardiogram we obtained data on 206 individuals: 103 from Atahualpa, Ecuador (living at sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 53 women) and 103 inhabitants from Mexico City (living at 2300 m above sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 52 women). Results: Significant differences between Atahualpa and Mexico were: Heart rate 66 versus 80 x’, left ventricular diastolic diameter 40.8 versus 42.7, septum thickness 9.8 versus 11.6, posterior wall 10.2 versus 11.8, stroke volume cc 53.0 versus 46.6, left atrial volume 25. 8 versus 33.6, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery 27.1 versus 42.0, cardiac output 3.1 versus 4.8, E/Ea ratio 6.4 versus 9.2, and mitral area 3.4 versus 3.0. Comparison of diastolic function between Atahualpa and Mexico was: Type 0; 2 versus 1. Type 1; 96 versus 81. Type 2; 5 versus 20 and Type 3; 0 versus 1. Conclusion: Echocardiographic characteristics that identify adaptive changes of the heart in Atahualpa are coincident with people living at sea level and with good physical activity, and Mexico City, with inhabitants living at high altitudes and exposed to environmental pollution. The systolic function of the left ventricle was similar in both populations, indicating that adaptive changes allow the heart to be effective in different circumstances of the ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Altitude , Mexico
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 204-210, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las placas pleurales por fibras de asbesto se caracterizan por lesiones compuestas por tejido fibroso que se ubican en la pleura parietal. Suelen aparecer hasta en un 3% a 58% de los trabajadores que estuvieron expuestos a fibras de asbesto, y en un 0,5% a 8% en población general. El OBJETIVO de este artículo es presentar dos casos clínicos de pacientes a los que se les detectó en la radiografía de tórax alteraciones pleurales posiblemente asociadas a la exposición a fibras de asbesto. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Caso 1. Paciente de sexo masculino de 49 años, trabajador de la construcción con antecedentes de exposición a fibras de asbesto. Se le realizó una radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT (Organización Internacional del Trabajo), la que evidenció alteraciones pleurales focales. Una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. Caso 2. Paciente de sexo femenino de 79 años, jefa de hogar, sin exposición laboral conocida a fibras de asbesto. En una radiografía de tórax anteroposterior, se observó la presencia de una placa pleural focal. Se solicitó una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, la que confirmó la presencia de placas pleurales. CONCLUSIÓN: La radiografía de tórax con técnica OIT es el instrumento básico para la identificación de enfermedades relacionadas con la exposición a fibra de asbesto. El estudio debe ser completado con una tomografía axial computarizada de tórax cuya sensibilidad es mayor permitiendo detectar tempranamente las anomalías pleurales. Es fundamental la historia ocupacional detallada ya que constituye el método más fiable y práctico para medir la exposición a fibra de asbesto.


INTRODUCTION: Asbestos fiber pleural plaque is characterized by lesions composed of fibrous tissue that are located in the parietal pleura. They usually appear in up to 3 to 58% of workers who were exposed to asbestos fiber, and 0.5 to 8% in the general population. The OBJECTIVE of this article is to present two clinical cases of patients who were detected in the chest radiograph pleural alterations associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. CLINICAL CASES: First case: 49-year-old male patient, building worker with a history of exposure to asbestos fibers. Focal pleural alterations were detected by a chest x-ray performed according ILO (International Labour Organization) technique. The presence of pleural plaques was confirmed in a computed tomography of the chest. Second case: Holder, without occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. An anteroposterior chest radiography showed the presence of focal pleural plaque in a CT scan of the chest. CONCLUSION: Chest x-ray with ILO technique is the basic instrument for the identification of diseases related to asbestos fiber exposure. The study should be completed with a CT scan of the chest whose sensitivity is greater, allowing early detection of pleural abnormalities. Detailed occupational history is essential, as it is the most reliable and practical method to measure asbestos fiber exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pleural Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Asbestos/adverse effects , Pleura/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Inhalation Exposure , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e48-e52, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095869

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Guillain-Barré constituye una entidad de etiología diversa, que se caracteriza por debilidad muscular aguda, simétrica, ascendente y progresiva, y es una de las polineuropatías adquiridas más frecuentes en la infancia. Entre los diagnósticos diferenciales, deben considerarse las neuropatías producidas por metales pesados, mercurio y plomo, y metaloides, como el arsénico, plaguicidas organofosforados y el tetracloruro de carbono.Se presenta a un paciente de 14 años con diagnóstico de síndrome de Guillain-Barré sin respuesta al tratamiento convencional con gammaglobulina. Considerando otras etiologías, se sospechó neuropatía producida por metales pesados, y se confirmó intoxicación por mercurio.El objetivo de esta presentación es concientizar a los pediatras acerca del impacto de los tóxicos ambientales en la salud infantil para realizar un diagnóstico precoz pesquisando datos clave a través de la historia clínica ambiental


Guillain-Barré syndrome is an entity of diverse etiology, characterized by acute, symmetric, ascending and progressive muscle weakness, being one of the most frequent acquired polyneuropathies in childhood. Neuropathies produced by heavy metals, mercury and lead, and metalloids, such as arsenic, organophosphorus pesticides and carbon tetrachloride, should be considered among the differential diagnoses.We present a 14-year-old patient with a presumptive diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome without response to conventional treatment with gamma globulin. Considering other etiologies, heavy metal neuropathy was suspected, and mercury poisoning was confirmed.The aim of this presentation is to make pediatricians aware about the impact of environmental toxic agents on children's health in order to make an early diagnosis by researching key data through the environmental clinical history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies , Heavy Metal Poisoning, Nervous System/drug therapy , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
15.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018177, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate context of overweight adolescents from the semiarid and rural areas of Pernambuco, considering the multifactorial nature of the determinants of being overweight, and the food and nutritional insecurity conditions of the region. Methods: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2015. The nutritional status of adolescents was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and classified by the BMI/Age indicator, according to sex. To analyze the factors associated with being overweight, the variables were grouped into: socioeconomic, demographic, environmental, lifestyle, psychological, biological and food and nutritional security. Poisson regression was used to verify the association between being overweight and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of excessive weight found was 20.1%, namely: 13.4% overweight and 6.7% obese. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the variables: occupancy situation (rented house), alcohol consumption, food security and light food insecurity, body perception (overweight and obese) and age range (10 to 14 years), were associated with being overweight. High food and nutritional insecurity was identified in 80.4% of the population. The moderate and severe forms were more frequent, and precarious social conditions were still prevalent in the region. Conclusions: The prevalence of being overweight was high, exceeding the expected for a population with better living conditions. The determinants of being overweight were: alcohol consumption, occupancy situation, self-perceived weight, age and food security/mild food insecurity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar o excesso de peso em adolescentes do Sertão e Agreste de Pernambuco, considerando a multifatoriedade dos determinantes do excesso de peso e as condições de insegurança alimentar e nutricional da região. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado no período de setembro a outubro de 2015. O estado nutricional dos adolescentes foi avaliado pelo índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e classificado pelo indicador IMC/idade, segundo o sexo. Para analisar os fatores associados ao excesso de peso, as variáveis foram agrupadas em: socioeconômicas, demográficas, ambientais, de estilo de vida, psicológicas, biológicas e segurança alimentar e nutricional. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para verificar a associação entre o excesso de peso e as variáveis independentes. Resultados: A prevalência de excesso de peso encontrada foi de 20,1%, sendo 13,4% de sobrepeso e 6,7% de obesidade. Após o ajuste para as variáveis de confusão, as variáveis regime de ocupação (casa cedida, alugada), consumo de álcool, segurança alimentar, insegurança alimentar leve, percepção corporal (sobrepeso e obesidade) e faixa etária (10 a 14 anos) mostraram-se associadas ao excesso de peso. Destaca-se a elevada insegurança alimentar e nutricional, em 80,4% da população, sendo as formas moderadas e graves as mais frequentes, como também as precárias condições sociais ainda prevalentes na região. Conclusões: A prevalência de excesso de peso foi elevada, superando o esperado para uma população com melhores condições de vida. Os determinantes do excesso de peso foram: consumo de álcool, regime de ocupação, autopercepção do peso, faixa etária e segurança alimentar/insegurança alimentar leve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Nutritional Status/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Food Supply/standards , Self Concept , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Demography/trends , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Overweight/psychology , Underage Drinking/psychology , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 71, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1127243

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the many factors regarding socioeconomic and healthcare-related variables linked to maternal diseases and the possible impact of the environmental disaster of Mariana, given the prenatal exposure to different water sources for human consumption that were associated with low birthweight in full-term live births in the Municipal Hospital of Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais. METHODS Case-control study, carried out with live births at the Municipal Hospital of Governador Valadares, from May 2017 to July 2018. The case group consisted of full-term live births and low birthweight, and the control group consisted of full-term live births with adequate weight, matched by gender and date of birth. For each case, two controls were selected. Data collection was performed through interviews with the puerperal women, and complementary information was obtained by analyzing the prenatal card and medical records. For data analysis, logistic regression was performed. RESULTS The study included 65 live births from the case group and 130 from the control group. After the analysis was adjusted for other factors under study, we found that the higher risks of low birthweight are associated with the first childbirth (OR = 2.033; 95%CI = 1.047-3.948; p = 0.036), smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.850; 95%CI = 1.013-8.021; p = 0.047) and consumption of water supplied by the municipalities affected by the tailings from the Fundão dam failure (RC = 2.444; 95%CI = 1.203-4.965; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS The variables "water consumed during pregnancy," "previous pregnancies" and "maternal smoking" were associated with low birthweight in the population studied. The importance of epidemiological studies that assess water quality and its adverse health effects is reinforced, as well as greater prenatal control of first-time pregnant women and greater support of policies against smoking, especially during pregnancy.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar os fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, ambientais, reprodutivos, comportamentais, de assistência à saúde, doenças maternas e, sobretudo, o possível impacto do desastre ambiental ocorrido em Mariana, pela exposição pré-natal a diferentes fontes de água para consumo humano, associados ao baixo peso ao nascer em nascidos vivos a termo no Hospital Municipal de Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS Estudo caso-controle, realizado com nascidos vivos no Hospital Municipal de Governador Valadares, no período de maio de 2017 a julho de 2018. O grupo caso foi composto por nascidos vivos a termo e baixo peso ao nascer e o grupo controle, por nascidos vivos a termo e com peso adequado, pareados por sexo e data de nascimento. Para cada caso foram selecionados dois controles. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista com as puérperas e informações complementares foram obtidas pela análise do cartão de pré-natal e prontuários. Para análise dos dados, foi realizada regressão logística. RESULTADOS Participaram do estudo 65 nascidos vivos pertencentes ao grupo caso e 130 ao grupo controle. Após a análise ajustada para os demais fatores em estudo, verificou-se que os riscos mais elevados de baixo peso ao nascer estão associados aos primeiros filhos (RC = 2,033; IC95% = 1,047-3,948; p = 0,036) e aos nascidos vivos cujas mães utilizaram cigarro durante a gestação (RC = 2,850; IC95% = 1,013-8,021; p = 0,047) e consumiram a água fornecida pelos serviços de abastecimento dos municípios atingidos pelos rejeitos provenientes do rompimento da barragem de Fundão (RC = 2,444; IC95% = 1,203-4,965; p = 0,013). CONCLUSÕES A água consumida na gestação, primiparidade e tabagismo materno apresentaram associação com baixo peso ao nascer na população estudada. Reforça-se a importância de estudos epidemiológicos, que avaliem a qualidade da água e seus efeitos adversos na saúde, assim como maior controle no pré-natal das gestantes que terão o primeiro filho e maior apoio das políticas contra o tabagismo, especialmente durante a gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cities , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(supl.2): 4225-4230, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1133185

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Resumo Há evidências plausíveis de que os sobreviventes a longo prazo da exposição a gás de 1984 e isocianato de metila (CIM), em Bhopal, e seus filhos nascidos após esse fato estão suscetíveis a doenças infecciosas/transmissíveis e não transmissíveis. A taxa de fatalidade COVID-19 de Bhopal sugere que os sobreviventes da tragédia do gás MIC estão em maior risco, devido a um sistema imunológico enfraquecido e comorbidades. Essa situação nos encorajou a refletir sobre o que sabemos, o que não sabemos e o que devemos saber sobre a suscetibilidade deles ao COVID-19. Este artigo objetiva responder a essas três perguntas que surgem na mente dos funcionários de saúde pública sobre estratégias de prevenção contra o COVID-19 e promoção da saúde na população afetada pelo Bhopal MIC (BMAP). Nossas visões e opiniões apresentadas neste artigo chamam a atenção para prevenir e reduzir as consequências do COVID-19 no BMAP. Da perspectiva da profilaxia com COVID-19, os indivíduos de alto risco do BMAP com condições comórbidas precisam ser identificados por meio de uma visita de porta em porta nas regiões severamente afetadas por gases e aconselhados a manter uma boa higiene respiratória, ingestão regular de dieta que estimule o sistema imunológico e seguir práticas de estilo de vida saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Survivors , Isocyanates/toxicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Care , Communicable Disease Control , Immunocompromised Host , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Disasters , Betacoronavirus , India/epidemiology
18.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 68-68, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 μm (PM@*METHODS@#We obtained DNA methylation and exercise data of 496 participants (aged between 30 and 70 years) from the Taiwan Biobank (TWB) database. We also extracted PM@*RESULTS@#DLEC1 methylation and PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We found significant positive associations between PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , DNA Methylation/drug effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Exercise , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Taiwan , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 324-333, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1057396

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leptospirosis is important in Uruguay due to the economic loss caused by the diseases of production animals, mainly bovines, and also due to frequent human infection. We decided to study anti-Leptospira antibodies in the sera of dairy workers, rice laborers, veterinarians, suburban slum dwellers and garbage recyclers. Our aims were to estimate the seroprevalence of infection by Leptospira spp. in these people at risk, the relative importance of the known risk factors associated with infection, and the impact of human infections in each setting. Groups at risk were identified and 35 visits to their locations were made, conducting field surveys and exchange talks for information and education. Simple epidemiological questionnaires were administered and sera samples were taken from 308 persons. The microagglutination Technique (MAT) and the IgM Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) assay were employed to detect antibodies. Environmental water samples, canine and equine sera were also examined. More than 45% of human sera were reactive and the studied groups were confirmed to be widely exposed to infection. Female sera were frequently reactive, though most illnesses occur in men, and the most severe cases in elderly males; the emergence and evolution of the disease may strongly depend on the host condition and functions. Animal contact and unsafe water usage were the main identified risk factors to be considered in prevention. Fifty per cent of the studied horses showed a positive MAT reaction. The underdiagnosis of the illness and its long-term symptoms require further study, as well as greater health and social attention efforts.


Resumen La leptospirosis es importante en Uruguay por las pérdidas económicas que ocasionan las enfermedades en los animales de producción, principalmente en los bovinos, y a causa de la frecuente infección humana. Decidimos estudiar anticuerpos anti -Leptospira en trabajadores de tambo y de plantaciones de arroz, así como en veterinarios, habitantes de asentamientos y recicladores de residuos. Buscamos evaluar la importancia de distintos factores de riesgo conocidos asociados con la infección por Leptospira spp., y estimar la frecuencia y el impacto de las infecciones humanas en la población expuesta. Se efectuaron 35 visitas a colectivos de riesgo, realizando relevamientos de campo e intercambios educativos, llenando formularios epidemiológicos sencillos y tomando muestras de sangre a 308 personas. Se investigaron anticuerpos séricos con técnicas de microaglutinación (MAT) e inmunofluorescencia indirecta para IgM. Se examinaron también, muestras de agua ambiental, y sueros caninos y equinos. Más del 45% de los sueros humanos fueron reactivos y se confirmó que los grupos estudiados estaban ampliamente expuestos a la infección. Los sueros de mujeres fueron frecuentemente reactivos, aunque la mayoría de las enfermedades ocurren en varones, y los casos más graves en varones añosos. La emergencia y la evolución de la afección pueden depender fuertemente del estado del huésped y su respuesta. El contacto con animales y el uso de agua insegura fueron los principales factores de riesgo identificados para considerar en la prevención. El 50% de los sueros equinos fueron reactivos por MAT. Es necesario incrementar los esfuerzos de atención social y sanitaria en estos sectores, superar el subdiagnóstico y estudiar la evolución y la sintomatología a largo plazo de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Leptospirosis/blood , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Social Conditions , Uruguay/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Leptospirosis/etiology
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(11): 4133-4140, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039528

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o impacto das emissões da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre o número de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em uma região canavieira. Registros de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias foram adquiridas a partir da base de dados referentes ao sistema de informações hospitalares do sistema único de saúde (SIH-SUS), no período de 28 de março de 2011 a 28 de dezembro de 2012. Níveis de MP10, NO2, O3, temperatura e umidade relativa foram registradas. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar a associação entre o número total de internações, poluentes atmosféricos e variáveis meteorológicas. Foram registradas 1.179 internações, dentre elas a pneumonia mostrou aumento significativo no período de queima (p = 0,005). Neste mesmo período observou-se que o cluster MP10 e NO2 influenciou 67,9% (IC95%: 11,111-2,537), seguido do cluster MP10, NO2, O3 e temperatura que influenciou 91,1% (IC95%: 1,116; 3,271) no número total de internações. Durante o período de queima houve maior número de internações por doenças respiratórias, principalmente de pneumonia, quando foi observada a influência dos poluentes e temperatura no processo de adoecimento da população.


Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the impact of emissions from sugarcane burning on hospital admission numbers for respiratory diseases in a sugarcane region. Hospital admission records for respiratory diseases were acquired from the database of the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in the period from March 28, 2011 to December 28, 2012. Levels of PM10, NO2, O3, Temperature and Relative Humidity were recorded. Logistic regression models were created to analyze the association between the total number of hospitalizations, atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. A total of 1,179 hospitalization admissions were recorded, with a significant increase in cases of pneumonia in the burning period (p = 0.005). Likewise, it was observed that the cluster of PM10 and NO2 was influenced 67.9% (95% CI: 11.111-2.537) followed by cluster PM10, NO2, O3 and Temperature that influenced 91.1% (95% CI: 1.116; 3.271) in the total number of hospitalization admissions. During the sugarcane burning period there were more hospitalization admissions due to respiratory tract diseases, mainly pneumonia, where the influence of air pollutants and temperature in the process of illness in the population was detected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Saccharum , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Temperature , Brazil , Databases, Factual , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fires , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humidity , National Health Programs
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