Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 65
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878325

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) has been inconclusive. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study in northwestern China to investigate the effect of outdoor temperature on BP and effect modification by season.@*Methods@#A total of 32,710 individuals who participated in both the baseline survey and the first follow-up in 2011-2015 were included in the study. A linear mixed-effect model and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) were applied to estimate the association between outdoor temperature and BP after adjusting for confounding variables.@*Results@#The mean differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between summer and winter were 3.5 mmHg and 2.75 mmHg, respectively. After adjusting for individual characteristics, meteorological factors and air pollutants, a significant increase in SBP and DBP was observed for lag 06 day and lag 04 day, a 0.28 mmHg (95% @*Conclusions@#This study demonstrated a significant negative association between outdoor temperature and BP in a high-altitude environment of northwest China. Moreover, BP showed a significant seasonal variation. The association between BP and temperature differed by season and individuals' demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI), unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and chronic disease status (CVDs, hypertension, and diabetes).


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons , Temperature
2.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 14(2): 29-42, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128982

ABSTRACT

En el sector de Quintero, desde los últimos 50 años han existido diversos hitos relacionados con la contaminación medioambiental. Iniciando con la instauración de la termoeléctrica "Ventanas" en 1950, Chilectra en 1958. En el año 1993 el ministerio de Agricultura de Chile declaró a Puchuncaví y Quintero como una "zona saturada de contaminación" por dióxido de azufre (SO2) y material particulado (MP10). En el año 2011, 135 trabajadores del complejo Ventana fallecieron producto del cáncer. Durante el 2014 hubo un derrame de petróleo en la Bahía de Quintero, 2015 un informe del Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) arrojó cifras de arsénico que superan 23 veces la norma establecida por el Código Sanitario de Alimentos. Frente a dicho escenario, se hace evidente la necesidad de comprender cómo es la situación de los pobladores de dichas comunas. La presente investigación busca asociar los niveles de contaminación de las comuna de Quintero y el número de hospitalizaciones durante los años 2012 hasta el 2018.


In Quintero, since the last 50 years there have been various milestones related to environmental pollution. Starting with the installation of the "Ventanas" thermoelectric plant in 1950, Chilectra in 1958. In 1993, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture declared Puchuncaví and Quintero as a "zone saturated with contamination" by sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (MP10). In 2011, 135 workers at the Ventana complex died of cancer. During 2014 an oil spill emerged in Quintero Bay, 2015 a report by the Institute for Fisheries Development (IFOP) showed arsenic figures that exceed 23 times the norm established by the Sanitary Food Code. Faced with this scenario, the need to understand what the situation of the residents of said communes is like is evident. The present investigation seeks to associate the levels of contamination of the commun of Quintero and the number of hospitalizations during the years 2012 to 2018.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ozone/analysis , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Chile , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Government Regulation , Methane/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
3.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200027, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101593

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de exposição a agrotóxicos e fatores associados entre moradores de zona rural. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado com 1.518 indivíduos, em 2016. Foram aleatoriamente selecionados 24 setores censitários de oito distritos rurais de Pelotas, RS. Indivíduos ≥ 18 anos residentes nos domicílios aleatoriamente selecionados eram elegíveis. Foi realizada análise descritiva e apresentada prevalência de contato com os agrotóxicos. A associação entre desfecho e variáveis independentes deu-se por regressão de Poisson, conforme modelo hierárquico. As variáveis foram ajustadas para todas do mesmo nível, além daquelas que foram mantidas no modelo do nível anterior e das com valor p < 0,20. Resultados: A prevalência de contato com agrotóxicos no último ano foi de 23,7%, e, entre esses participantes, 5,9% relataram intoxicação por agrotóxicos alguma vez na vida. A probabilidade de contato com agrotóxicos no último ano foi maior entre os homens (razão de prevalência - RP = 2,00; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 1,56 - 2,56); entre aqueles com idades entre 40 e 49 anos (RP = 1,44; IC95% 1,12 - 1,80); entre os menos escolarizados (RP = 2,06; IC95% 1,39 - 3,10); os que exerciam trabalho rural (RP = 2,87; IC95% 2,05 - 4,01); e aqueles que moraram na zona rural a vida inteira (RP = 1,28; IC95% 1,00 - 1,66). Conclusões: Aproximadamente um em cada quatro adultos da zona rural de Pelotas entrou em contato com agrotóxicos no ano anterior ao estudo. Os achados evidenciam a existência de desigualdades sociais relacionadas à exposição aos agrotóxicos e fornecem informações para ações visando à redução da exposição e intoxicação por esses produtos.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of pesticide exposure and associated factors among rural residents. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study conducted with 1,518 individuals in 2016. We randomly selected 24 census tracts from the eight rural districts of the city of Pelotas, RS. All individuals aged 18 years or older, living in the randomly selected households were eligible. A descriptive analysis was performed and the prevalence of contact with pesticides was presented. The association between outcome and independent variables was analyzed using Poisson regression according to the hierarchical model. The variables were all adjusted to the same level, including those at the previous level and those with p<0.20 were kept in the model. Results: The prevalence of contact with pesticides in the past year was 23.7% and among the participants, 5.9% reported having pesticide poisoning at some time in their lives. The probability of contact with pesticides in the past year was higher among men (PR=2,00; 95%CI 1.56 - 2.56), among those aged 40-49 years (PR = 2.00; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.80), among individuals with lower levels of education (PR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.39 - 3.10), in those who performed rural work (PR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.39 - 3.10) and in those who had lived in rural areas all their lives (PR = 1.28 95%CI 1.00 - 1.66). Conclusions: Approximately one in four adults in rural Pelotas had come into contact with pesticides in the year before the study. The findings show the existence of social inequalities related to exposure to pesticides and provide information for action aimed at reducing exposure and poisoning from these products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pesticides/poisoning , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 591-600, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127322

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados con la exposición al humo de tabaco de segunda mano (HTSM) en lugares públicos y privados. Material y métodos: Se analizó la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas, Alcohol y Tabaco 2016. La exposición al HTSM se evaluó mediante modelos Poisson multinivel. La muestra del estudio incluye únicamente no fumadores. Resultados: La exposición al HTSM fue similar en los estados que tienen prohibición total para fumar en espacios cerrados en comparación con estados con prohibición parcial. Adultos jóvenes, hombres y personas con nivel educativo alto tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en bares y restaurantes. Los hombres tienen mayor exposición al HTSM en el trabajo, los adultos de mayor edad en el transporte público, mientras las mujeres y adolescentes en el hogar. Conclusiones: La exposición al HTSM continúa elevada y afecta diferencialmente a la población mexicana. Para reducirla, se requiere aplicar totalmente el artículo octavo del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco.


Abstract: Objective: To assess the correlates of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in public and private settings. Materials and methods: Data came from the 2016 National Survey of Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco use. Multilevel Poisson models were conducted to evaluate factors associated with SHS. Results: Having a higher education, being male and being a young adult were associated with higher SHS in bars and restaurants. Men had greater SHS at work, while women and adolescents had greater exposure at home. Adults older than 45 years had higher SHS on public transportation compared to adolescents between 12-17 years old. Conclusions: Exposure to SHS remains high and affects the population differentially. To reduce SHS, it is necessary to apply Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Public Facilities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Private Facilities , Correlation of Data , Mexico
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 166-174, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003734

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Santiago de Chile con 7 millones de habitantes alcanza elevados niveles de contaminación atmosférica en invierno, el material particulado habitualmente excede los estándares de la OMS. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la influencia de la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado en las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños, entre 2001 y 2005 en la Región Metropolitana de Chile, independientemente de la presencia ambiental de virus sincicial respiratorio (VRS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: 72.479 hospitalizaciones públicas y privadas por enfermedades respiratorias de niños menores de 15 años residentes en la región del estudio se analizaron con un diseño de caso control alternante, con estratificación temporal. Se evaluó principalmente: hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias (J00-J99), neumonía (J12-J18); asma (J21.0 - J21.9) y bronquiolitis (J45 - J46). Recopilándose diariamente temperatura, MP10, MP2,5, ozono, virus respiratorios (VRS) y humedad ambientales. RESULTADOS: Los promedios de MP10 y MP2,5 fueron 81,5 y 41,2 pg/m3 respectivamente. El promedio de temperatura fue 12,8 °C y de la humedad del aire 72,6 %. Un aumento de 10 pg/m3 de MP25 con 1 y 2 días de rezago se asoció con un incremento de las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias cercano a 2%, este porcentaje aumentó a 5% cuando la exposición fue con 8 días de rezago, reflejando sinergismo entre material particulado y virus respiratorio (VRS). CONCLUSIÓN: La exposición breve a contaminación atmosférica puede provocar hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias en niños.


INTRODUCTION: With seven million inhabitants, Santiago de Chile reaches high levels of air pollution in winter, the particulate matter usually exceeds WHO standards. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of air pollution caused by particulate matter on children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases between 2001 and 2005 in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, independently from the environmental presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 72,479 public and private hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases of children under 15 years of age residing in the study region were analyzed using a time-stratified alternating case-control design. The main evaluations were: hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases (J00-J99), pneumonia (J12-J18); asthma (J21.0 - J21.9), and bronchiolitis (J45 - J46). Daily compilation of temperature data, PM10, PM2,5, ozone, respiratory virus (RSV), and environmental humidity. RESULTS: Mean values of PM10 and PM2.5 were 81.5 and 41.2 pg/m3 respec tively. The average temperature was 12.8 °C and air humidity 72.6%. An increase of 10 pg/m3 of PM25 with one and two days of lag was associated with an hospitalizations increase due to respiratory diseases close to 2%, this percentage increased to 5% when the exposure was with eight days of lag, reflecting synergism between particulate matter and respiratory viruses (RSV). CONCLUSION: Short air pollution exposure can lead to children's hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cross-Over Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/analysis
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 172-181, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001149

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure is the major risk factor for skin cancer. Thus, sun exposure behavior is the major focus for prevention of this disease, since it is potentially modifiable. Increasing the knowledge on sun related habits and other skin cancer risk factors is fundamental in the development of preventive programs, especially when directed to young people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the photoprotection habits and the knowledge about skin cancer in college students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from Oct. 16 to Feb. 17, including 371 students from the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The level of knowledge about skin cancer and photoprotection was unsatisfactory in more than 10% of the students. The occurrence of sunburn was extremely high among students, and 25% reported at least one episode of second degree sunburn. Proper use of sunscreen was referred by only 34% of individuals. Students who reported having received photo education in college were associated with a more consistent use of sunscreen. STUDY LIMITATIONS: health area represented a large part of the sample; instrument validated outside Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are unaware of basic information about sun protection and exposure. Even among those with proper knowledge, the use of photoprotective measures is very low. The sun exposure has shown to be excessive in most of the students, which makes this population an important target for photo-educational measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Sunlight , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Habits , Skin Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunburn/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Skin Pigmentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 13-24, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004750

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on knowledge/attitudes regarding the dangers of exposure to secondhand smoking (SHS) among women. The relationship between exposure to SHS, socioeconomic status (SES) and knowledge/attitudes regarding the risks of SHS has often been ignored. We therefore aimed to examine (1) whether SES and exposure to SHS were independently associated with knowledge/attitudes regarding the risks of SHS; and (2) whether women with low SES and exposure to SHS were uniquely disadvantaged in terms of deficient knowledge and more dismissive attitudes towards the risks of SHS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 541 women were interviewed. Knowledge of and attitudes towards the risks of SHS were the outcomes of interest. RESULTS: A majority of the respondents were exposed to SHS at home (49.0%). Only 20.1% had higher levels of knowledge, and only 37.3% had non-dismissive attitudes towards the risks of SHS. Participants in the low SES group and those exposed to SHS had lower odds of higher knowledge and their attitudes towards the risks of SHS were more dismissive. Regarding deficient levels of knowledge and scores indicating more dismissive attitudes, women in the low SES group and who were exposed to SHS were not uniquely disadvantaged. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SHS and low SES were independently associated with deficient knowledge and scores indicating more dismissive attitudes. Regarding knowledge/attitudes, the negative effect of exposure to SHS extended across all socioeconomic backgrounds and was not limited to women in either the low or the high SES group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Spouses , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Bangladesh , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Self Report
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(4): 218-221, out.-dez. 2018. tab., graf.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025912

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico da mortalidade por causas externas. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, de abordagem quantitativa. A população estudada correspondeu a vítimas que foram a óbito por causas externas, por local de ocorrência, no Estado do Tocantins, de 2010 a 2015. Os dados foram extraídos do banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. As variáveis analisadas foram faixa etária, sexo, municípios de ocorrência e categorias da décima edição da Classificação Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. Resultados: Nos anos de 2010 a 2015, foram registrados 7.691 óbitos por causas externas no Tocantins. Destes, 7.142 corresponderam apenas às categorias consideradas por este estudo, dentre as quais acidentes de transporte e agressões obtiveram maior número de casos, com 43,92% e 29,98%, respectivamente. Da mortalidade por acidentes de transporte, 33,5% corresponderam a motociclistas. Os homens representaram a maioria das ocorrências (82,46%). A faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos foi a mais acometida (24,85%), mas óbitos por quedas e por afogamentos ocorreram mais nas faixas etárias de 80 anos ou mais (207 óbitos) e 30 a 39 anos (72 óbitos), respectivamente. As cidades com maiores resultados foram Palmas (20,71%) e Araguaína (16,5%). Conclusão: Os dados demonstram a magnitude do problema a nível estadual e os impactos causados à saúde pública e à sociedade como um todo. Revelam, ainda, a necessidade de políticas públicas de valorização da vida e da promoção de oportunidades, que visem à igualdade entre os cidadãos. (AU)


OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological profile of mortality from external causes. METHODS: This is a retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study. The population studied consists of victims who died from external causes, by place of occurrence, in the state of Tocantins from 2010 to 2015. Data were extracted from the Mortality Information System database of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The analyzed variables were age, gender, municipalities of occurrence, and categories of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases. RESULTS : Between the years 2010 and 2015, there were 7691 deaths due to external causes in Tocantins. Of these, 7142 corresponded only to the categories considered by this study, such as transportation accidents and assaults that obtained the highest number of cases, with 43.92% and 29.98%, respectively. The mortality due to transportation accidents had 33.5% consisting of motorcyclists. Besides, men represent the majority of occurrences (82.46%). The age range of 20-29 years was the most affected (24.85%), but deaths from falls and drowning occurred more frequently in the age range of 80 years or more (207 deaths), and 30-39 years (72 deaths), respectively. The cities with the highest results were Palmas (20.71%), and Araguaína (16.5%). CONCLUSI ON: Data demonstrate the magnitude of the problem at the state level, and the impacts caused to the public health and society as a whole. They also reveal the need for public policies to value life and promote opportunities for equality among citizens. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , External Causes , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Health Profile , Accidental Falls/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Age Factors , Self-Injurious Behavior/mortality , Sex Distribution , Qualitative Research , Drowning/mortality , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Social Factors , Motorcyclists , Sociodemographic Factors
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 245-250, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962716

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases among children. DESIGN AND SETTING: An ecological time series study was carried out to identify the role of coarse fractions of particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in hospitalizations among children up to 10 years of age, in Piracicaba (SP) in the year 2015. METHODS: A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the risk of hospitalization due to acute laryngitis and tracheitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and asthma. Lags of 0 to 7 days were considered, and the model was adjusted for the temperature and relative humidity of the air and controlled for short and long-term exposure. Proportional attributable ratios, population-attributable fractions and hospital costs were calculated with increasing concentrations of these pollutants. RESULTS: 638 hospitalizations were evaluated during this period, with a mean of 1.75 cases per day (standard deviation, SD = 1.86). The daily averages were 22.45 µg/m3 (SD = 13.25) for the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) and 13.32 µg/m3 (SD = 6.38) for the fine fraction. Significant risks of PM10-2.5 exposure were only observed at lag 0, with relative risk (RR) = 1.012, and at lag 6, with RR = 1.011. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in the coarse fraction concentration implied an increase in the relative risk of hospitalizations of up to 4.8%, with an excess of 72 hospitalizations and excess expenditure of US$ 17,000 per year. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the impact of coarse-fraction exposure on hospital admissions among children due to respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Patient Admission/economics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Seasons , Temperature , Time Factors , Brazil , Poisson Distribution , Risk , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humidity
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 553-556, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899758

ABSTRACT

Resumen El virus Zika ha despertado una alarma mundial en los últimos años, representando un problema importante para la salud pública. En este estudio evaluamos el riesgo potencial de exposición a virus Zika en Chile, asociado a la probabilidad de establecimiento del vector Aedes aegypti en el país. Se utilizaron técnicas de modelación de nicho para proyectar los requerimientos bioclimáticos del vector (nicho global), identificando las zonas de alta idoneidad para la especie en el país. Luego, se superpuso la distribución potencial del vector en Chile con la densidad de población humana, estimando en forma espacialmente explícita el riesgo asociado a la co-ocurrencia potencial de ambos. Identificamos que existe idoneidad bioclimática para A. aegypti en Chile continental, desde el área tropical del norte hasta regiones templadas, principalmente en zonas costeras. La población potencialmente expuesta podría alcanzar 1,8 millones de personas, con 1,3 millones en nivel medio y 21.000 en niveles altos de riesgo potencial de exposición. Los resultados expuestos aquí muestran que existe una significativa probabilidad de éxito de colonización del vector principal de virus Zika en Chile continental en caso de una introducción. Por lo tanto, la prevención, monitoreo y control se vuelven un tema importante para evitar la llegada de este vector a Chile continental.


The Zika virus has raised world alarm in recent years, representing a major public health problem. In this study we evaluated the potential risk of exposure to Zika virus in Chile, associated with the probability of establishment of the vector Aedes aegypti in the country. Niche modelling techniques were used to project the bioclimatic requirements of the vector (global niches), identifying zones of high suitability for the species within the country. Then, the potential distribution of the vector in Chile was overlapped with the human population density, estimating the risk associated to the potential co-occurrence of both in a spatially explicit manner. We identified bioclimatic suitability for A. aegypti in continental Chile, from the northern tropical area to temperate regions, mainly in coastal zones. The exposed population could reach 1.8 million people, with 1.3 million in a medium level of potential risk and 21,000 in a high level. These results support that there is a significant probability of success for the Zika virus main vector to colonize continental Chile in case of an introduction. Therefore, prevention, monitoring, and control play an important role in avoiding the arrival of this vector to our country.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/physiology , Aedes/virology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Chile , Risk Factors , Population Density , Ecosystem , Risk Assessment/methods , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Animal Distribution
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(6): 619-624, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894074

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. Subjects and method: This was a cross-sectional study in children (n = 400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. Results: The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45 ± 3.90 µg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37 ± 7.94 µg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (p < 0.05). In Dokki, 20% of the studied group had blood lead levels ≥ 10 µg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level ≥ 10 µg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead level < 10 µg/dL (p < 0.05). Those living in Helwan area, those with bad health habits, and those living in housing with increased exposure were at a statistically significantly higher risk of having blood lead level ≥ 10 µg/dL. Conclusion: Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar os níveis de chumbo no sangue (NCSs) em crianças em idade escolar em duas áreas do Egito para entender a atual exposição à poluição por chumbo e seus fatores de risco, para melhorar as políticas de prevenção. Indivíduos e método: Este foi um estudo transversal em crianças (400) entre 6-12 anos recrutadas de duas áreas no Egito (industrial e urbana). Os NCSs foram medidos por um método de absorção atômica. Foram obtidos questionários detalhados sobre as fontes de exposição ao chumbo e o histórico de desempenho escolar e quaisquer alterações comportamentais. Resultados: O NCS na área urbana do Egito (Dokki) foi de 5,45 ± 3,90 µg/dL, ao passo que na área industrial (Helwan) foi de 10,37 ± 7,94 µg/dL, com uma diferença significativa entre ambas as áreas (p < 0,05). Na área de Dokki, 20% do grupo estudado apresentaram NCSs ≥10 µg/dL, ao passo que na área de Helwan foi 42%. Foi encontrada uma associação significativa entre as crianças com comportamento anormal e aquelas com palidez com NCS ≥ 10 µg/dL, em comparação com aquelas com NCS < 10 µg/dL (p < 0,05). Aquelas que moram na área de Helwan, aquelas com hábitos de saúde ruins e aquelas que moram em moradias com maior exposição estiveram significativamente em alto risco de apresentar NCS ≥ 10 µg/dL. Conclusão: O chumbo ainda é um problema de saúde pública no Egito. Altos NCSs foram significativamente associados a hábitos de saúde ruins e moradia com maior exposição, bem como comportamento anormal e palidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Lead/blood , Urban Population , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Egypt/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 117, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903172

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of air pollution on hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the largest Brazilian metropolis. METHODS This study was carried out at the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental data were obtained from the network of monitoring stations of nine municipalities. Air pollution exposure was measured by daily means of PM10 (particles with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) per municipality, while daily counts of hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases within the Brazilian Unified Health System were the outcome. For each municipality a time series analysis was carried out in which a semiparametric Poisson regression model was the framework to explain the daily fluctuations on counts of hospitalizations over time. The results were combined in a meta-analysis to estimate the overall risk of PM10 in hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. RESULTS Regarding hospitalizations for respiratory diseases, the effect estimates were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all municipalities, except Santo André and Taboão da Serra. The RR (Relative Risk) of this outcome for an increase of 10 µg/m3 in the levels of PM10 ranged from 1.011 (95%CI 1.009-1.013) for São Paulo to 1.032 (95%CI 1.024-1.040) in São Bernardo do Campo. The RR of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children for an increase of 10 µg/m3 of PM10 ranged from 1.009 (95%CI 1.001-1.017) in Santo André to 1.077 (95%CI 1.056-1.098) in Mauá. Only São Paulo and São Bernardo do Campo presented positive and statistically significant results for hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to estimate the risk of illness from air pollution in the set of municipalities of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Global estimates of the effect of exposure to pollution in the region indicated associations only with respiratory diseases. Only São Paulo and São Bernardo do Campo showed an association between the levels of PM10 and hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar o impacto da poluição do ar na maior metrópole brasileira sobre as internações por doenças respiratórias e cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS Foi realizado estudo com dados das estações de monitoramento de nove municípios da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, tendo o PM10 como indicador de poluição e as internações por doenças respiratórias e cardiovasculares como indicadores de efeito. Para cada município foi realizada uma análise de séries temporais usando modelos explicativos para contagens de internações ao longo do tempo via regressão de Poisson semi-paramétrica. Os resultados foram combinados em uma meta-análise de modo a estimar o risco global do PM10 na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. RESULTADOS Todos os municípios apresentaram estimativas estatisticamente significantes para as hospitalizações por doenças respiratórias com exceção de Santo André e Taboão da Serra. Os riscos relativos de admissão hospitalar para um aumento de 10 µg/m3 nos níveis de PM10 variaram de 1,011 (IC95% 1,009-1,013) para São Paulo a 1,032 (IC95% 1,024-1,040) em São Bernardo do Campo, para doenças respiratórias totais. O risco de internação por doenças respiratórias em crianças variou de 1,009 (IC95% 1,001-1,017) em Santo André a 1,077 (IC95% 1,056-1,098) em Mauá. Somente São Paulo e São Bernardo do Campo apresentaram resultados positivos e estatisticamente significantes para internações por doenças cardiovasculares. CONCLUSÕES Esse é o primeiro estudo a estimar o risco de adoecimento devido à poluição do ar no conjunto de municípios da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. As estimativas globais do efeito da exposição à poluição na região indicaram associações somente com as doenças respiratórias. Apenas São Paulo e de São Bernardo do Campo mostraram associação entre os níveis de PM10 e as internações por doenças cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter
13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 19(1): 14-25, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-781586

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Níveis importantes de exposição ao mercúrio associados à ingestão de pescado têm sido demonstrados em populações ribeirinhas residentes em áreas de exploração mineral, como na bacia do Tapajós e do Madeira. Na região do Tocantins, apesar de poucos estudos, não há evidência de exposição humana através da alimentação. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de exposição ao mercúrio em famílias de pescadores residentes em área ribeirinha do médio Tocantins, além de quantificar os níveis no pescado consumido por essas famílias. Método: Realizou se um estudo transversal envolvendo famílias de pescadores da comunidade Beira Rio, localizada às margens do Rio Tocantins no município de Imperatriz, Maranhão. Foram coletados dados de perfil sociodemográfico e alimentar, além de amostras de pescado e de cabelo, que foram analisadas através da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Resultados: O perfil sociodemográfico foi comum ao da população ribeirinha situada em outras bacias. O perfil alimentar não fugiu à regra do padrão, sendo o pescado a principal fonte de proteína da dieta. As espécies de hábitos piscívoro e zooplâncton apresentaram as maiores concentrações de mercúrio, sendo os valores médios do peixe cachorro 0,2775 µg/g e do mapará 0,1360 µg/g. Dentre as 25 famílias avaliadas, a menor concentração média total/família foi 0,186 ± 0,043 µg/g e a maior foi 5,477 ± 2,896 µg/g. Conclusão: Famílias de Imperatriz possuem baixos níveis de exposição em virtude do consumo alimentar de peixes com baixos níveis de contaminação, incluindo as espécies piscívoras, que se encontravam abaixo do limite máximo de segurança para consumo humano estabelecido pelas normas brasileiras, servindo de referência para outros estudos.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Significant levels of mercury exposure associated with fish intake have been demonstrated in riverine populations living in areas of mineral exploration as the basin of Tapajós and Madeira. In the Tocantins region, although few studies, there is no evidence of human exposure through food. Objective: To assess the levels of exposure to mercury in resident fishermen families in the riverside area of the middle Tocantins and to quantify the levels in fish consumed by these families. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study involving families of Beira Rio community fishermen, located on the Tocantins riverbanks in the city of Imperatriz, Maranhão. Brazil. Data were collected from socio demographic and food profile, as well as samples of fish and hair, which were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The socio demographic profile of families studied was common to the local population located in other basins. The food profile did not run the default rule, with the fish being the primary dietary protein source. The species of piscivorous and zooplancton habits had the highest mercury concentrations, and the mean values were 0.2775 µg/g in fish dog and 0.1360 µg/g in mapará. Among the 25 families evaluated, the lowest average concentration of family was 0.186 ± 0.043 µg/g and the higher was 5.477 ± 2.896 µg/g. Conclusion: Fishing families have low mercury exposure levels in the same order of magnitude, probably because of the food consumption of fish, including piscivorous species, which were found to be below the safe upper limit for human consumption established by Brazilian standards. This serves as a reference for other studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Eating , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Family Health , Fisheries , Fishes , Food Contamination/analysis , Hair/chemistry , Mercury/analysis , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urban Health
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(10): 1269-1276, oct. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771714

ABSTRACT

Background: Pesticides are widely used to increase crop yields and vector control. However, both acute and chronic exposure have health consequences. There is paucity of information about the global occurrence of pesticide poisonings. Aim: To characterize the reports of pesticide exposures received by a University Poison Information Center. Material and Methods: All pesticide exposures reported in Chile between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed. A data-collection sheet provided by the International Programme on Chemical Safety of the World Health Organization, was used to collect information. Results: In the study period, 13,181 reports were analyzed. The main age groups exposed were preschoolers and adults. Sixty one percent of exposures occurred accidentally and 24.8% were suicide attempts. Exposures to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors was reported in 29.3% of cases, to superwarfarin rodenticides in 28.5% and to pyrethroids in 24.0%. An increased risk of suicide attempts with pesticides was observed among women, when compared with men (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% confidence intervals: 1.4-1.6; p < 0.001). The risk was higher among teenage girls. Conclusions: The amount of cases under acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor exposure, the most toxic pesticides currently in use should be highlighted. Workers should be educated and all cases should be reported to take actions aiming at reducing these events.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pesticides/poisoning , Chile/epidemiology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/poisoning , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Information Centers , Population Surveillance , Poison Control Centers/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Seasons
15.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 80(5): 373-380, ago. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764067

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Los trabajadores agrícolas y habitantes rurales están expuestos a productos plaguicidas. Aun cuando las políticas sanitarias se preocupan de normarlos, diversos estudios demuestran exposición en trabajadores y residentes cercanos a las zonas productivas. Entre ellos se encuentran mujeres gestantes, consideradas población particularmente vulnerable frente a plaguicidas. OBJETIVO: Identificar el contacto con plaguicidas, así como conductas asociadas a su uso, en mujeres gestantes de dos comunas agrícolas de la V Región en control prenatal en Centros de Salud Familiar. MÉTODO: Estudio observacional transversal, realizado en una muestra de ochenta gestantes que ingresaron a control entre mayo 2013 y abril 2014. El instrumento de recolección de datos fue una encuesta, aplicada por el equipo de salud al ingreso. RESULTADOS: Las gestantes, en su gran mayoría, alguna vez han tenido contacto con plaguicidas, y cerca de la mitad lo tuvo en el mismo año en que se aplicó la encuesta. La exposición a plaguicidas se da tanto en los espacios productivos, como residenciales. Se observó que las medidas preventivas asociadas al contacto con agrotóxicos son insuficientes. A la vez, destaca la exposición a fumigaciones aéreas, frente a las cuales la posibilidad de prevención es aún menor. CONCLUSIÓN: En comunas rurales puede existir un contacto permanente de la población femenina gestante con plaguicidas, lo cual sucede sin las medidas de protección adecuadas, incrementando el riesgo de exposición a estas sustancias. Es pertinente entonces, desarrollar una labor educativa activa para mejorar las prácticas de uso de plaguicidas.


BACKGROUND: Agriculture workers and rural dwellers are exposed to pesticide products. Sanitation policies attempt to regulate their use, but studies demonstrate that a significant percentage of workers and residents who are close to the productive zones are exposed to these chemicals. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to pesticides. AIM: To identify the risk of exposure to pesticides and practices of pesticide handling in women under pregnancy control programs in Family Health Care Centers in two rural districts of the 5th Region. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, conducted during May 2013 and April 2014 on eighty women, who entered pregnancy control programs in either rural district. The health professionals of the Centers collected the data in a survey. RESULTS: Most of the pregnant women declared having been in contact with pesticides at some point. Almost half of them had this contact in the same year of their interview, that is previous or during their pregnancy. The exposure to pesticides takes place in productive locations as well as residential areas. The preventive measures associated to the contact with pesticides are not sufficient. Rural populations are also exposed to aerial fumigations, which further limits preventive measures. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women living in a rural district may be permanently exposed to pesticides. Exposure to agrochemicals is not associated to safe prevention practices which increase the risk of exposure. Educational programs may aid to enhance safe pesticide use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pesticides/adverse effects , Primary Health Care , Maternal Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Rural Areas , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Agrochemicals , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pesticide Exposure , Agriculture , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3): 297-313, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749651

ABSTRACT

Abstract The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Sunlight/adverse effects , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Brazil , Climate Change , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection , South America , Sunbathing , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Stratospheric Ozone/chemistry , Time Factors , Vitamin D/metabolism
17.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(6): 1257-1268, 06/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752143

ABSTRACT

A forte relação das pessoas com o Rio Doce, bem como suas enchentes regulares, representam fator contínuo de exposição ao risco de doenças hídricas. Dada sua relevância epidemiológica, este estudo analisa a associação entre percepção de contaminação e uso do rio, bem como os mecanismos heurísticos empregados na formação da percepção de risco. Utilizou-se um modelo probit ordenado com variável instrumental e análise de redes temáticas aplicados a uma base de dados primária de 352 domicílios, representativa dos moradores de Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, para o ano de 2012. Os resultados indicam que embora a maioria (92,6%) dos moradores de Tumiritinga perceba o risco de contrair algum tipo de doença quando nada no Rio Doce, somente 11,4% informam não entrar na água. A análise de conteúdo sugere que esse paradoxo advém da falta de compreensão populacional sobre os mecanismos de transmissão de doenças hídricas, criando viés otimista sobre as chances de contaminação. Campanhas para promoção de comportamento preventivo devem, portanto, enfatizar as formas de contrair doenças hídricas na região.


The close relationship between local residents and the Rio Doce and the river’s recurrent flooding lead to continuous exposure of the population to waterborne diseases. Given the epidemiological importance of such diseases in the region, this study analyzes the association between risk perception of contamination and river water use, as well as the heuristic mechanisms used by individuals to shape their personal perception of risk. Regression models coupled with thematic network analysis were applied to primary data from 352 households in 2012. The data are representative of urban residents of Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results show that while 92.6% of respondents perceived high risk of waterborne diseases, only 11.4% reported not making direct use of the river. This apparent paradox is explained by the lack of information on transmission mechanisms, underestimating the perception of contamination. Public campaigns to promote preventive behavior should stress how waterborne diseases are transmitted, using simple examples to reach a wider local audience.


La fuerte relación que los residentes tienen con Río Doce, así como con sus inundaciones regulares, representan factores de exposición continua para el riesgo de enfermedades transmitidas por el agua. Este estudio examina la asociación entre la percepción de la contaminación y el uso del río, así como los mecanismos heurísticos usados en la formación de la percepción del riesgo. Se utilizó un modelo probit ordenado con variable instrumental y análisis de redes temáticas aplicadas a una base de datos primaria, representativa de los residentes de Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais, Brasil, para el año 2012. Los resultados indican que, aunque la mayoría de los residentes (92,6%) se dan cuenta del riesgo de contraer algún tipo de enfermedad, cuando se nada en Río Doce, sólo el 11,4% declara no entrar en el agua. El análisis de contenido sugiere que esta paradoja se debe a la falta de comprensión de la población de los mecanismos de transmisión de enfermedades hídricas, creándose un sesgo optimista sobre las posibilidades de contaminación.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Rivers , Water Supply , Water Pollution, Chemical/statistics & numerical data , Waterborne Diseases/transmission , Brazil , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Water Pollution, Chemical/analysis , Waterborne Diseases/classification , Waterborne Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(4): 475-483, abr. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-747554

ABSTRACT

Background: Several international studies show the effects of PM10 pollution on health but specific analyses for many cities in Chile are lacking. Aim: To relate PM10 concentrations to effects with population health and quantify the economic benefits of its reduction in Concepción Metropolitan Area. Material and Methods: Poisson regression and generalized additive models were used to analyze the short-term effects of PM10 on mortality and morbidity, controlling for lags, seasonal, trend and weather variables. The damage function method to determine the economic impact of pollution reduction was used. Results: The selected concentration-response (C-R) coefficients showed that PM10 concentrations had effects on hospital admissions with a two days lag for respiratory diseases in children under 15 years of age and with a one day lag for asthma in patients over 64 years. The effects on premature mortality had a six days lag. The decrease in 1 µg/m³ of PM10 concentration would generate benefits ranging from 1,025.8 to 32,490.9 million of Chilean pesos per year, with a confidence level of 95%, according the estimation based on concentration-response coefficients and their economic cost. Conclusions: Reduction of PM10 would have important health and economic benefits.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/economics , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Chile , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/economics , Linear Models , Morbidity , Mortality, Premature , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Seasons , Time Factors , Weather
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 17(1): 1-1, ene.-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755620

ABSTRACT

Objectives a) To identify possible risk factors associated with rural accidents in women, b) to describe women's knowledge about zoonosis, c) to describe women's risk perception about farming, d) to describe mother´s risk perception about children's activities in rural settings, e) to estimate the initial age of exposure to the rural setting and its dangers, and f) to identify possible risk factors associated with rural accidents in children. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design. Women with children that live in the countryside were surveyed (n=24). Structured questionnaire. Statistical analyses: χ2, Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression. Results Many women had suffered an accident in the countryside (65.6 %). Farm worker usually did not use personal protective equipment (PPE). Hearing protection, gloves, and safety goggles were rarely used. Working women showed a high risk perception for urban driving, the handling of agrochemicals, and driving on main roads (85.7 %, 70 % and 66.7 %). There was no significant association between risk perception and PPE use. Most mothers (87.5 %) thought that was good for children to learn how to perform farm chores starting at a young age. Children started to drive a tractors at 9 years of age; 12.23 years on average. More than 7 % of the children (7.14 %) have suffered an accident on the farm. The most frequent accidents were being trapped in machinery (60 %). No association was found between the independent variables and the dependent variable; farm-related accidents in children (p>0.2). Conclusions Risk communication is necessary to inform people involved and to reduce exposure.


Objetivos a) identificar posibles factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes rurales en mujeres, b) describir el conocimiento sobre zoonosis de las mujeres, c) describir la percepción de riesgos de las mujeres acerca de las actividades realizadas en el campo, d) describir la percepción de riesgos de las madres sobre las actividades de los niños en el campo, e) estimar la edad de exposición inicial de los niños al ambiente rural y sus peligros y f) identificar potenciales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes rurales en niños. Materiales y Métodos Diseño transversal. Fueron encuestadas las mujeres con hijos que vivían en el campo (n= 24). Cuestionario estructurado. Análisis estadístico: χ2, T Student, coeficiente de correlación de Pearson y Regresión Logística. Resultados Muchas de las mujeres sufrieron un accidente en el campo (65,6 %). Las trabajadoras rurales generalmente no usaban elementos de protección personal (EPP). Protección auditiva, guantes y antiparras eran escasamente utilizados. Las trabajadoras demostraron tener una percepción del riesgo alta sobre el manejo de vehículos en zonas urbanas, manipulación de agroquímicos y manejo de vehículos en rutas (85,7 %, 70 % y 66,7 %). No se encontró asociación significativa entre percepción de riesgos y uso de EPP. Muchas madres (87,5 %) pensaban que era bueno para los niños que aprendieran a realizar tareas del campo desde muy pequeños. Los niños comenzaban a manejar un tractor desde los 9 años, 12,23 años en promedio. Más del 7% de los niños (7,14 %) sufrieron un accidente en el campo. Los más frecuentes fueron atrapamiento por maquinaria (60 %). No se encontró asociación significativa entre las variables independientes y la variable dependiente accidente en un niño (p>0,2). Conclusiones Es necesaria la comunicación de los riesgos para informar a los involucrados y reducir la exposición.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Accidents, Occupational , Accidents, Traffic , Agriculture , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Occupational Injuries , Rural Health , Zoonoses , Accidents, Occupational/prevention & control , Accidents, Occupational/psychology , Accidents, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Accidents, Traffic/psychology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Injuries/epidemiology , Occupational Injuries/prevention & control , Occupational Injuries/psychology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/etiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL