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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 243-252, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is a serious health problem, and several factors contribute to its occurrence. Longitudinal and qualified monitoring of primary health care (PHC) may contribute to the management of atherosclerosis and reduction of avoidable hospital admissions. Objectives: To estimate the trend in hospitalizations for atherosclerosis and the impact of PHC coverage on its evolution from 2008 to 2018 in Brazil. Methods: An ecological time series analytical study based on the outcomes of hospital admissions for atherosclerosis in Brazil. Time in years, PHC coverage, and Family Health Strategy (FHS) services were considered independent variables. A Prais-Winsten model was used to estimate the outcome trend, and α < 0.05 was adopted. Results: We observed a mean increase of 1.81 hospitalizations for atherosclerosis per 100 000 inhabitants annually (p = 0.002) in Brazil. This growth was evidenced in the Northeast (p < 0.001), Southeast (p = 0.003), and South (p < 0.001) regions, being stable in the North (p = 0.057) and Midwest (p = 0.62) regions. Men presented twice the growth in hospitalizations from the fifth decade of life on (p < 0.01). An inversely proportional relationship was observed for PHC coverage (B = -0.71; p < 0.001) and the proportion of FHS services (B = -0.59; p < 0.001) with the rate of admissions due to atherosclerosis in Brazil. Conclusions: Although hospitalizations for atherosclerotic complications are increasing in Brazil, they present regional and individual gender and age discrepancies, as well as a mitigating effect exerted by PHC coverage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/methods , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Environmental Health , Family Health Strategy , Ecological Studies , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology
2.
Rev. cienc. salud ; 20(1): 1-23, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367565

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se buscó analizar la prevalencia de enfermedades dermatológicas de la población de un asentamiento urbano precario próximo al vertedero municipal de Asunción (Paraguay), atendiendo a la exposición de las condiciones socioambientales. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal con una muestra no probabilística intencional que incluyó a 77 personas de entre 5 meses y 76 años. Resultados: en el momento del examen físico, el 96.2 % de las personas presentó, al menos, una lesión cutánea, y el 79.2 %, una o más enfermedades infecciosas de piel; sin embargo, el 77.9 % no había recu-rrido a consulta médica. Las más sobresalientes fueron las micosis (35.1 %), las bacterianas (35.1 %) y las ectoparasitosis (27.3 %). Se identificó que la prevalencia de enfermedades bacterianas de piel apunta a una posible mayor exposición a condiciones adversas como: un clima subtropical de altas temperaturas y húmedo, una alta relación de convivientes en el hogar por dormitorio, problemas de provisión de agua y suelos de arena en los hogares, así como un sistema de evacuación de excretas deficiente, la presencia de animales con escasa vigilancia sanitaria, la proximidad a arroyos y cauces al aire libre depositarios de materia cloacal y el impacto recurrente de raudales los días de intensa lluvia. Conclusión: los resul-tados sugieren que la alta prevalencia de enfermedades cutáneas infecciosas podría relacionarse con una mayor exposición a condiciones socioambientales locales adversas, que son factores relevantes por tener en cuenta para mejorar la atención a la salud de las enfermedades dermatológicas de la población urbana que habita en un asentamiento urbano precario


Introduction: This study analyzes the prevalence of dermatological diseases in the population of a precarious urban settlement near the municipal landfill of Asunción (Paraguay), in relation to expo-sure to socio-environmental conditions. Materials and methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic purposive sample that included 77 people aged between 5 months and 76 years. Results: at the time of physical examination, 96.2% of the people presented at least one skin lesion and 79.2% one or more infectious skin diseases, but 77.9% had not consulted a doctor. The most prominent were mycoses (35.1%), bacterial (35.1%) and ectoparasitoses (27.3%). It was identified that the preva-lence of bacterial skin diseases points to possible increased exposure to adverse conditions such as: a subtropical climate with high temperatures and humidity, a high ratio of people living in the household per bedroom, water supply problems and sandy soils in homes, as well as a deficient excreta disposal system, the presence of animals with poor sanitary surveillance, proximity to streams and open-air waterways that deposit sewage and the recurrent impact of floods on days of heavy rainfall. Conclusion:the results suggest that the high prevalence of infectious skin diseases could be related to increased exposure to adverse local socio-environmental conditions, which are relevant factors to be taken into to improve the health care of skin diseases in the urban population living in a slum settlement


Introdução: este estudo analisa a prevalência de doenças dermatológicas na população de um assen-tamento urbano precário próximo ao aterro sanitário municipal de Asunción (Paraguai) em relação à exposição às condições socioambientais. Materiais e métodos: estudo descritivo, transversal, com uma amostra não-probabilística de propósito que incluiu 77 pessoas com idade entre 5 meses e 76 anos. Resultados: no momento do exame físico, 96,2% das pessoas tinham pelo menos uma lesão de pele e 79,2% tinham uma ou mais doenças infecciosas de pele, mas 77,9% não tinham consultado um médico. As mais importantes foram micoses (35,1%), bacterianas (35,1%) e ectoparasitoses (27,3%). A preva-lência de doenças bacterianas da pele foi identificada como apontando para um possível aumento da exposição a condições adversas tais como: um clima subtropical com altas temperaturas e umidade, uma alta proporção de pessoas vivendo na casa por quarto, problemas de abastecimento de água e solos arenosos nas habitações, bem como um sistema de eliminação de excrementos deficiente, a presença de animais com vigilância sanitária deficiente, proximidade a riachos e cursos de água abertos que depositam águas residuais, e o impacto recorrente de enchentes em dias de chuvas fortes. Conclusão:Os resultados sugerem que a alta prevalência de doenças infecciosas de pele pode estar relacionada ao aumento da exposição a condições sócio-ambientais locais adversas, que são fatores relevantes a serem considerados para melhorar os cuidados com doenças de pele na população urbana que vive em uma favela


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Health , Paraguay , Skin Diseases , Urban Population , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 95 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363995

ABSTRACT

As emissões de poluentes atmosféricos causam um grande problema à saúde. A maior parte da poluição gerada no Estado de São Paulo é proveniente de veículos automotores, que são responsáveis pela emissão de 96% do CO, 73% de HC, 62% de NOX e 40% de MP10, sendo os veículos diesel os maiores responsáveis pelas emissões de MP e NOX no Estado. No Brasil, as medidas tomadas pelo PROCONVE, que visam a mitigação da poluição causada por veículos, se mostram eficazes para homologação de veículos novos, porém requerem que a continuidade do trabalho seja realizada com inspeções dos veículos em uso. A tecnologia de sensoriamento remoto, desenvolvida no final dos anos 1980, tem sido amplamente utilizada para de monitoramento de frotas, assim como em programas de Inspeção e Manutenção em diversos locais do mundo. Os resultados alcançados são satisfatórios e, de forma geral, indicam grandes reduções nos níveis de emissão de poluentes. Estudos apontam que as emissões de NOX foram as que tiveram menores reduções reais entre fases das regulamentações. O Estado de São Paulo possui controle de poluentes de veículos do ciclo diesel em uso através de fiscalizações por opacidade, Escala de Ringelmann e sistema SCR. O sistema de sensoriamento remoto mostra-se como um bom complemento ao que é realizado atualmente. Foram propostos dois sistemas de legislação de inspeções veiculares que contemplam o SR como ferramenta de seleção dos veículos diesel. Além disso, foi mostrado como poderiam ser escolhidos limites para high e low emitters, assim como procedimentos para escolha dos pontos de instalação do sistema.


Emissions of air pollutants cause a big health problem. Most of the pollution generated in the State of São Paulo comes from motor vehicles, which are responsible for the emission of 96% of CO, 73% of HC, 62% of NOX, and 40% of PM10, with diesel vehicles being the biggest responsible for the emissions of PM and NOX in the state. In Brazil, the actions taken by PROCONVE, aimed at mitigating pollution caused by vehicles, prove to be effective for the approval of new vehicles but require that the continuity of the work be carried out by inspections of in-use vehicles. Remote sensing technology, developed in the late 1980s, has been widely used for fleet monitoring, as well as in Inspection and Maintenance programs in many locations around the world. The results achieved are satisfactory and, in general, indicate large reductions in pollutant emission levels. Studies show that NOX emissions were the ones that had the smallest real reductions between phases of regulations. The State of São Paulo controls in-use diesel vehicles pollutants by inspections of opacity, Ringelmann Scale, and SCR system. The remote sensing system proves to be a good complement to what is currently performed. Two systems of procedures for diesel vehicle inspections were proposed, which include the SR as a tool for the selection of diesel vehicles. In addition, it was shown how limits for high and low emitters could be chosen, as well as procedures for selecting the system installation points.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Air Pollution , Remote Sensing Technology , Legislation, Environmental , Motor Vehicles
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; dic. 21, 2021. 20 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354115

ABSTRACT

La Dirección de Salud Ambiental (DISAM) a través de la Unidad Ambiental, formula la presente Política Ambiental Institucional, que contiene las estrategias y acciones a implementar con la finalidad de proteger y conservar el ambiente, englobadas en los componentes de saneamiento ambiental, agua y cambio climático. Estrategias que contribuyan a proteger el ambiente a través de acciones del personal que labora en las diferentes dependencias del MINSAL


The Environmental Health Directorate (DISAM) through the Environmental Unit, formulates this Institutional Environmental Policy, which contains the strategies and actions to be implemented in order to protect and conserve the environment, encompassed in the components of environmental sanitation, water and climate change. Strategies that contribute to protecting the environment through actions of the personnel that work in the different dependencies of the MINSAL


Subject(s)
Sanitation , Environmental Health , Environmental Policy , Climate Change , Water
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 660-675, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355741

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Los conflictos armados afectan los territorios ricos en recursos y biodiversidad; el daño ambiental causado por las acciones violentas puede afectar la salud de las poblaciones. Objetivos. Evaluar los riesgos para la salud humana debidos a la degradación ambiental asociada con tres acciones violentas en el marco del conflicto armado colombiano: la voladura de oleoductos, la minería informal con mercurio y la aspersión de cultivos ilícitos con glifosato. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una evaluación cuantitativa de los riesgos para la salud individual asociados con actividades del conflicto armado, usando metodologías que tienen en cuenta la ruta de dispersión de los contaminantes, su concentración en el ambiente, la exposición de los individuos y los riesgos de efectos cancerígenos y no cancerígenos. Resultados. La evaluación de los riesgos asociados con las acciones en el marco del conflicto armado analizadas, evidenció un riesgo cancerígeno intolerable y uno no cancerígeno inaceptable debidos al consumo de agua y peces contaminados por hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, mercurio y glifosato. Conclusiones. El estudio reafirmó las conexiones inextricables que existen entre ambiente, sociedad y salud, y las implicaciones de la violencia ambiental para la salud pública de los grupos poblacionales vulnerables y, en general, para el bienestar de todos los seres vivos afectados por el conflicto armado.


Abstract | Introduction: Armed conflicts affect territories rich in resources and biodiversity. As a result of the environmental damage caused by violent actions, the health of populations can be affected. Objectives: To assess the risks to human health due to environmental degradation associated with three violent actions in the context of the Colombian armed conflict: Pipeline bombing, informal mining with mercury, and spraying of illicit crops with glyphosate. Materials and methods: We conducted a quantitative evaluation of the risks to individual health associated with armed conflict activities using methodologies focused on the routes of pollutants dispersion, their concentrations in the environment, the exposure of the individuals, and the risks of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results: The risk assessment of the armed conflict-related actions under study evidenced intolerable carcinogenic risk and unacceptable non-carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of water and fish contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mercury, and glyphosate. Conclusions: The study reiterates the inextricable connections existing among the environment, society, and health, as well as the implications of environmental violence for the public health of vulnerable population groups and, in general, for the well-being of all living beings affected by the armed conflict.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Armed Conflicts , Environmental Pollution , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Risk Assessment , Mercury , Mining
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 1029-1041, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344163

ABSTRACT

Durante a trajetória na prática clínica e na pesquisa, o médico, professor e pesquisador Airton Tetelbom Stein compreendeu que para ser um bom médico é necessário um embasamento científico aprofundado. Em entrevista à Reciis, Stein discute sobre o conceito de Saúde Baseada em Evidências (SBE) na sua relevância de integrar as melhores evidências com a experiência clínica e os valores e as preferências do paciente. A partir da sua experiência na Medicina de Família e Comunidade (MFC), Stein enfatiza que epidemias e pandemias, como a da covid-19, revelam o impacto das mudanças climáticas na saúde da população. Ressalta que um dos pilares da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) é o entendimento sobre as causas do surgimento das doenças no âmbito populacional. Nesse sentido, nas dinâmicas sociais, sobretudo as midiáticas acerca da covid-19, o pesquisador esclarece que as decisões sobre o tratamento precoce, sobre tomar ou não a vacina, dizem respeito à valorização de pressupostos baseados em informações não sistematizadas em detrimento de metodologias robustas, referem-se às decisões individuais que impactam na saúde da população. "As pessoas que têm se negado a realizar a vacinação precisam entender que isso não é apenas uma liberdade individual". Airton Tetelbom Stein é professor titular da Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA) e médico da família e comunidade do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição.


During his trajectory in clinical practice and in research, the physician, professor and researcher Airton Tetelbom Stein understood that, in order to be a good doctor, a deep scientific foundation is necessary. In an interview with Reciis, Stein discusses the concept of Evidence-Based Health in its relevance to integrate the best evidence with clinical experience and patients' values and preferences. Based on his experience in Family Practice, Stein emphasizes that epidemics and pandemics, such as covid-19, reveal the impact of climate change on the population's health. He also emphasizes that one of the pillars of Primary Health Care is the understanding of the causes of the emergence of diseases within the population. In this sense, in social dynamics, especially the mediatic dynamics about covid-19, Stein clarifies that decisions about early treatment, whether to vaccinate or not, concern the valuation of assumptions based on non-systematized information to the detriment of robust methodologies, refer to individual decisions that impact the health of the population. "People who have refused to vaccinate need to understand that this is not just a matter of individual freedom." Airton Tetelbom Stein is full professor of Public Health at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre (UFCSPA) and a family practice physician at Conceição Hospital Group.


Durante su trayectoria en la práctica clínica y la investigación, el médico, profesor e investigador Airton Tetelbom Stein comprendió que, para ser un buen médico, es necesaria una base científica profunda. En entrevista a Reciis, Stein analiza el concepto de Salud Basada en Evidencias (SBE) en su relevancia para integrar la mejor evidencia con la experiencia clínica y los valores y preferencias del paciente. Basado en su experiencia en Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria (MFC), Stein enfatiza que las epidemias y pandemias, como covid-19, revelan el impacto del cambio climático en la salud de la población. Destaca que uno de los pilares de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) es la comprensión de las causas de la aparición de enfermedades en el ámbito poblacional. En este sentido, en dinámica social, especialmente en los medios de comunicación sobre covid-19, Stein aclara que las decisiones sobre el tratamiento temprano, la decisión de vacunarse o no, tienen que ver con la valoración de supuestos basados en información no sistematizada en detrimento de metodologías robustas, se refieren a decisiones individuales que impactan en la salud de la población. "Las personas que se han negado a vacinarse deben comprender que esto no es solo una cuestión de libertad individual". Airton Tetelbom Stein es profesor de salud colectiva en la Universidad Federal de Ciencias de la Salud de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA) y médico de familia y comunidad en Grupo Hospitalar Conceição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Environmental Health , Information , Evidence-Based Practice , Pandemics , Communication , Earth, Planet , Epidemics
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(8): 3087-3098, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285972

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Programa Bolsa Família e intervenções em saneamento são políticas públicas que podem ter efeito combinado positivo no enfrentamento das iniquidades em saúde. O Programa Bolsa Família busca propiciar melhoria das condições de saúde, diminuição da insegurança alimentar e aumento da renda familiar. Intervenções em saneamento objetivam garantir a saúde pública e a proteção do meio ambiente. O estudo objetivou revisar a literatura, procurando indícios de interações entre estas duas intervenções, influenciando nos desfechos morbidade e mortalidade por diarreia e desnutrição em menores de cinco anos. Foi realizada busca nas bases LILACS, SciELO e PubMed e a metodologia dos artigos foi avaliada por meio de escores da escala de Downs & Black adaptada. Foram identificados 1.658 artigos, dos quais quatro apresentaram todos os critérios para inclusão no estudo. Os estudos selecionados mostraram evidências do efeito positivo do Programa Bolsa Família e de intervenções em saneamento relacionados aos desfechos de interesse, quando analisados de forma independente um do outro. No entanto, nenhum artigo apresentou resultados que pudessem esclarecer o efeito conjunto destas políticas públicas em um modelo de interação, revelando lacuna na literatura nestas doenças particularmente atribuíveis à pobreza.


Abstract The Bolsa Família Programme and environmental health interventions are public policies that can have a combined positive effect on health inequities. The Bolsa Família Programme is designed to improve health conditions, reduce food insecurity and increase family incomes. Environmental health interventions aim to ensure public health and environmental protection. This study reviewed the literature for possible interactions between these two types of intervention that influence morbidity and mortality outcomes due to diarrhoea and malnutrition in the under-fives. A total of 1,658 articles were identified in the LILACS, SciELO and PubMed databases. The studies' methodologies were evaluated by scores on an adapted Downs & Black scale and four met all the study inclusion criteria. The findings showed evidence of the positive independent effects of the Bolsa Família Programme and of environmental health interventions in reducing illness and death from diarrhoea and malnutrition in the study age group. However, none of the articles offered results that might elucidate a joint effect of these public policies on an interaction model, revealing a gap in the literature on these diseases attributable particularly to poverty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Brazil , Environmental Health , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Income
9.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; 20210705. 336 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343228

ABSTRACT

Este livro é composto por documentos que fazem uma revisão do dossiê científico e técnico contra o Projeto de Lei do Veneno (PL 6.299/2002) e a favor do Projeto de Lei que institui a Política Nacional de Redução de Agrotóxicos (PNARA) da Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (ABRASCO) e da Associação Brasileira de Agroecologia (ABA) publicado em julho de 2018. Na edição atual, incluiu um esforço colaborativo das editoras Expressão Popular, Hucitec, Abrasco e Rede Unida. Conforme explica Wanderlei Pignati, doutor e pesquisador do NEAST da UFMT, na apresentação da edição atual, "este novo Dossiê expressa mais um importante estímulo aos movimentos em defesa da vida e contra o uso e abuso de agrotóxicos pelo agronegócio ecocida". "Ele relata as diversas manobras do Congresso Nacional nas tentativas de aprovar o "Pacote do Veneno" ou Projeto de Lei n.º 6.299/2002 e analisa e denuncia as propostas perversas do agronegócio e das indústrias agroquímicas e seus aliados no Executivo e Legislativo, no sentido de aumentarem ainda mais a venda e o uso de agrotóxicos, consequentemente, ampliando a intoxicação da vida (vegetal, animal e ambiental) no território brasileiro". "O livro aponta esperanças e alternativas para enfrentar este conluio de morte, mostrando práticas e trazendo propostas baseadas na produção agroecológica, de caráter coletivo, democrático, de promoção da vida e produção de alimentos saudáveis. Estes itens estão contidos na Política Nacional de Redução do Uso de Agrotóxicos ou PNARA ou Projeto de Lei n.º 6.670/2016, defendido neste Dossiê". "Espero que este novo grito de alerta nos leve a caminhar para outro modo de vida, com saúde, democracia, felicidade e poesia, necessários neste momento de crise sanitária e humanitária e de aprofundamento da colonização do mundo pelo poder do capital".


Subject(s)
Agrochemicals , Ecology , Environment , Sustainable Agriculture , Environmental Health
10.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(2): e2419, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341485

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El daño al medio ambiente es cada vez mayor, los problemas ambientales globales crecen por día, ya sea por causas naturales o antrópicas. Esto provoca la aparición y agravamiento de diversas enfermedades por lo que existe una relación entre los problemas ambientales y los problemas de salud. Por esta razón los médicos deben conocer profundamente dicha relación lo que permitirá desempeñar mejor sus variadas funciones y entre ellas las educativas. Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la dimensión ambiental en estudiantes de sexto año de la carrera de Medicina y residentes de primer año de Medicina General Integral. Métodos: Se aplicó una encuesta de conocimientos, a través de la plataforma Moodle, sobre conceptos, factores y problemas relacionados con el medio ambiente y sus vínculos con problemas de salud, a 32 estudiantes de sexto año terminado de la carrera de Medicina correspondiente al 35,55 por ciento del total de la matrícula, así como a 29 residentes de medicina general integral también con primer año de la residencia finalizado para un 55,76 por ciento de los matriculados. Las muestras pertenecientes a las facultades de ciencias médicas Manuel Fajardo y Salvador Allende se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria. Resultados: El resultado general de la encuesta fue de un 21,88 por ciento de aprobados para los estudiantes y de un 27,59 por ciento para los residentes. Estos concordaron con un bajo porciento de aciertos en diferentes preguntas, por ejemplo, las que exploraron conceptos importantes como medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible, así como la de los problemas ambientales de Cuba y sus efectos, como el deterioro de la condición higiénico-sanitaria (ambientales) en los asentamientos humanos, entre otros. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimiento mostrado por los estudiantes y los residentes, acerca de la dimensión ambiental, evidencia insuficiencias cognoscitivas en esta esfera y en su relación con la actividad profesional(AU)


Introduction: Environmental damage is increasing over time; global environmental problems are growing every day, whether due to natural or man-made causes. This brings about the appearance and worsening of various diseases, based on the relationship between environmental problems and health problems. For this reason, physicians must have deep understanding of this relationship, which will allow them to carry out their various functions better, including educational ones. Objective: To assess, in sixth-year medical students and in first-year residents of Family Medicine, their level of knowledge about the environmental dimension. Methods: A knowledge survey was applied, using the Moodle platform, about concepts, factors and problems related to the environment and their links with health problems. The respondents were 32 students in the sixth academic year of the Medicine major, a figure accounting for 35.55 percent of the total enrollment; as well as 29 Family Medicine residents also with the first academic year of their residency completed, which accounted for 55.76 percent of those enrolled. The samples belonging to Manuel Fajardo and Salvador Allende medical schools were randomly selected. Results: The general result of the survey was 21.88 percent of approved respondents for students and 27.59 percent for residents. These coincided with a low percentage of correct answers in different questions; for example, those that explored important concepts such as environment and sustainable development, as well as that of Cuba's environmental problems and their effects, such as the deterioration of the hygienic-sanitary condition (environmental) in human settlements, among others. Conclusions: The level of knowledge shown by students and residents about the environmental dimension shows cognitive deficiencies in this sphere and in its relationship with professional activity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Health/education , Environmental Health Education/policies , Education, Medical , Medical Staff, Hospital/education , Cuba
11.
Rev. APS ; 22(3): 495-509, 20210601.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252893

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer as ações de saúde ambiental realizadas por enfermeiros que atuam na Estratégia Saúde da Família de Pelotas/Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em Pelotas/Rio Grande do Sul, com cinco enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família rural e urbana, em 2013. Os dados foram analisados pela proposta temática. Resultados: apenas um dos participantes referiu que a temática saúde ambiental foi abordada na graduação. Todos os entrevistados reconheceram que o ambiente está diretamente ligado ao processo saúde-doença, identificaram diversos problemas ambientais em seus territórios e relataram realizar várias ações ambientais para minimizar os danos à saúde da população. Considerações finais: considera-se importante que os enfermeiros trabalhem questões ambientais em seu cotidiano e atuem em conjunto com a população para minimizá-los.


Objective: to understand the environmental health actions performed by nurses who act in the Family Health Strategy in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: it is a qualitative research, carried on in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, with five nurses who worked in the Family Health Strategy, in the countryside and in the urban area, in 2013. Data was analyzed by the thematic proposal. Results: only one participant reported that the thematic "environmental health" was approached during the graduation. All of the interviewed people acknowledged that the environment is directly connected to the health-disease process, identified several environment problems in their territories and reported that they execute diverse environmental actions to minimize the damage that can affect the population's health. Final Considerations: nurses must work on environmental issues in their daily activities and act with the population to minimize possible hazards.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Primary Health Care , Health-Disease Process , Family Health Strategy , Environment , Population Health , Nurses
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(5): 1833-1846, maio 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249492

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is an integrative literature review to discuss the emergence and construction of the definition of sustainable diets, to bring the current panorama of what has been studied about it and to point to a new research agenda in Brazil. The searches conducted between April and July 2018, were carried out in the databases Science Direct, Pubmed, Periódicos Capes, Google Academic, Banco de Teses, in addition to the use of the method snowball, reaching 365 articles analyzed. The concern with sustainable diets is related to the redirection of the dominant food system in the achievement of environmental and health goals, considering the culture and the economy. The main focus of the articles were: theoretical efforts to conceptualize what are sustainable diets; analysis of different types of diets; factors involved in consumers' choices/behaviors; size of food production; of health; of the economy; culture and society; policies and governance; and discussion on the methodologies used to measure and analyze the different aspects of sustainable diets. In Brazil, only 19 papers were found, which points to the gap in this area of research and the need to create this agenda of studies in the country, given its importance for public and environmental health.


Resumo Trata-se de revisão de literatura integrativa para discutir o surgimento e construção da definição de dietas sustentáveis, trazer o panorama atual dos estudos sobre o tema e apontar para uma nova agenda de pesquisa no Brasil. As buscas foram realizadas entre abril e julho de 2018, nas bases de dados Science Direct, Pubmed, Periódicos Capes, Google Acadêmico, Banco de Teses, além do uso do método snowball, resultando em 365 artigos analisados. A preocupação com dietas sustentáveis está relacionada ao redirecionamento do sistema alimentar dominante no alcance de metas ambientais e de saúde, considerando a cultura e a economia. Os principais focos de interesse dos artigos foram: esforços teóricos para conceituar o que são dietas sustentáveis; análise de diferentes tipos de dietas; fatores intervenientes nas escolhas/comportamentos dos consumidores; dimensão da produção de alimentos; da saúde; da economia; da cultura e sociedade; políticas e governança; e discussão sobre as metodologias utilizadas para medir e analisar os diferentes aspectos das dietas sustentáveis. No Brasil foram encontrados apenas 19 trabalhos, dentre os quais, nove artigos, o que aponta para a lacuna nesta área de pesquisa e a necessidade de criar esta agenda de estudos no país, dada sua importância para a saúde pública e ambiental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Health , Diet , Brazil
13.
San Salvador; MINSAL; mar. 08, 2021. 32 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1281022

ABSTRACT

El presente documento normativo tiene el propósito de exponer la conformación organizativa de la Dirección de Salud Ambiental y las dependencias que la conforman, dependencia del Viceministerio de Operaciones en Salud. A efecto de desarrollar las funciones de manera integrada, eficiente, transparente y oportuna


The purpose of this normative document is to expose the organizational composition of the Environmental Health Directorate and the dependencies that comprise it, a dependency of the Vice Ministry of Health Operations. In order to develop the functions in an integrated, efficient, transparent and timely manner


Subject(s)
Records , Environmental Health , Health Surveillance
14.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-6, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1247367

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las zoonosis son enfermedades compartidas entre animales vertebrados y humanos. La secuencia de transmisión comienza con la exposición del humano a elementos infectivos en el ambiente. Muchas patologías mantienen su reservorio en la población canina. Según estudios previos en la región, un 47% de las muestras de heces caninas ambientales (HCA) recolectadas en plazas y paseos públicos contenían al menos una especie parasitaria. El objetivo del trabajo fue actualizar la frecuencia de aparición de parásitos de importancia zoonótica en HCA recogidas en plazas de dos barrios costeros de la ciudad de Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut) entre marzo y diciembre de 2018. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en Caleta Córdova (BCC) y Stella Maris (BSM), donde se recolectaron por conglomerados en forma de guarda griega, aleatoria y sistemática, 156 muestras de HCA. RESULTADOS: Se concentraron y observaron muestras al microscopio, resultando positivas para parásitos 83%; 63% presentó más de un género parasitario. Se destacaron 15 géneros con capacidad para infectar al humano. Los parásitos más abundantes fueron Toxocara spp. y Blastocystis spp. en BCC y Toxocara spp. y Giardia spp. en BSM. En BCC se reportó Mesostephanus spp. por primera vez en Argentina. DISCUSIÓN: Es necesario dimensionar la contaminación ambiental por parásitos zoonóticos, a fin de implementar intervenciones de salud pública adecuadas a cada escenario y contexto epidemiológico.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Zoonoses , Environmental Health , Public Health , Epidemiology
15.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-4, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1291275

ABSTRACT

La publicación de este artículo es una iniciativa organizada por la Alianza Global por el Clima y la Salud (GCHA, por sus siglas en inglés) a través de la Alianza de Salud del Reino Unido sobre el Cambio Climático (UKHACC, por sus siglas en inglés) y los miembros del Grupo de Trabajo Latinoamericano sobre Cambio Climático y Salud. La convocatoria tiene un doble objetivo: que los líderes mundiales acuerden los cambios necesarios para mantener el aumento de la temperatura global por debajo de 1,5°C y que los profesionales de la salud adquieran una mayor relevancia en el debate global sobre la crisis climática y la pérdida de la biodiversidad. La convocatoria se desarrolla en el contexto de la próxima celebración de la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas que se iniciará el 14 de septiembre de 2021, así como también de la celebración de la conferencia climática COP26 que este año se realizará en Glasgow. Este artículo, cuya autoría pertenece principalmente a editores de 18 prestigiosas revistas científicas ampliamente representativas de los continentes y disciplinas de la salud del mundo, ya ha sido publicada simultáneamente en más de 200 revistas científicas internacionales (https://www.bmj.com/content/full-list-authors-and-signatories-climate-emergency-editorial-september-2021). En esta ocasión, la Revista Argentina de Salud Pública se suma a esta iniciativa conjunta a través de la publicación del artículo en español, con el fin de promover su difusión en los países de la Región. El editorial expresa también la necesidad de restablecer la diversidad biológica y proteger la salud, y de que los países de altos ingresos hagan mayores recortes en sus emisiones de carbono y transfieran fondos a los países de ingresos bajos y medianos. Además, exhorta a la intervención de los gobiernos en el rediseño de los sistemas de transporte, las ciudades, la producción y distribución de alimentos, los mercados para las inversiones financieras, los sistemas de salud, entre otros aspectos, lo que redundaría en amplios beneficios para la salud.


Subject(s)
Temperature , Environmental Health , Biodiversity , Emergencies , Global Warming , COVID-19
16.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 34(1): 1-11, 17/02/2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344164

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar fatores associados ao bem-estar subjetivo (BES) em profissionais da Atenção Primária a Saúde (APS). Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em 2017 com 142 profissionais da APS de um município paulista que responderam aos instrumentos: Escala de BES (EBES), Escala de Conexão com a Natureza (ECN); Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); Estado de Saúde Autorreferido (ESA); Questionário sociodemográfico. Aplicou-se análise estatística, ajustados modelos de regressão linear múltipla, com resposta normal para explicar pontuações dos 3 domínios da escala EBES, em função das variáveis independentes estatisticamente mais fortes (p<0,20), em análise prévia bivariada. Considerou-se estatisticamente significativo se p<0,05. Resultados: Amostra com predomínio de pessoas do sexo feminino (n=116; 81,7%), cor da pele autoatribuída branca (n=123;86,6%), idade até 35 anos (n=77; 54,2%), casadas ou em união estável (n= 91; 64,1%), com graduação ou pós (n=83; 58,5%) e trabalhadoras da saúde há mais de 5 anos (n= 102; 71,8). Maiores níveis de BES associados à escolaridade (ter graduação ou pós, p=0,039) e menores à idade (acima de 35 anos, p=0,025), ESA ruim ou muito ruim (p=0,005 para satisfação com a vida e p=0,028 para afetos positivos), hospitalização no último ano (p=0,017), morar sozinho (p=0,007) e burnout (p=0,004 na pontuação geral e p=0,030 na dimensão despersonalização" do MBI). Conclusão: Aspectos sociodemográficos (idade acima de 35 anos e residir sozinho) impactam negativamente o bem-estar dos profissionais investigados, assim como condição ruim de saúde e grau de estresse relacionado ao trabalho. Ter graduação ou pós pode favorecer a satisfação com a vida.


Objective: To investigate factors associated with subjective well-being (SWB) in Primary Health Care (PHC) professionals. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 with 142 PHC professionals from a city in São Paulo State who answered the instruments: SWB Scale (SWBS), Connectedness to Nature Scale (CNS); Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); Self-Reported Health Status (SRHS); sociodemographic questionnaire. Statistical analysis was applied and adjusted for multiple linear regression models, with normal responses to explain scores of the three domains of the SWBS scale as a function of the statistically stronger independent variables (p<0.20) in former bivariate analysis. It was considered statistically significant if p<0.05. Results: Sample with a predominance of females (n=116; 81.7%), white self-assigned skin colour (n=123; 86.6%), aged up to 35 years (n=77; 54.2%), married or in a stable relationship (n=91; 64.1%), graduated or postgraduate (n=83; 58.5%) and health workers for more than 5 years (n= 102; 71.8). Higher levels of SWB associated with schooling (being undergraduate or graduate, p=0.039) and underage (over 35 years, p=0.025), bad or very bad SRHS (p=0.005 for life satisfaction and p=0.028 for positive affects), hospitalization in the last year (p=0.017), living alone (p=0.007) and Burnout (p=0.004 in the overall score and p=0.030 in the depersonalization dimension of the MBI). Conclusion: Sociodemographic aspects (over 35 years old and living alone) negatively impact the well being of the professionals investigated as poor health status and work-related stress level. Having an undergraduate or graduate degree can promote life satisfaction.


Objetivo: Investigar los factores asociados con el bienestar subjetivo (BES) de profesionales de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS). Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en 2017 con 142 profesionales de la APS de un municipio de São Paulo que contestaron a los siguientes instrumentos: la Escala de BES (EBES), la Escala de Conexión con la Naturaleza (ECN); el Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); el Estado de Salud Auto referido (ESA); el Cuestionario sociodemográfico. Se aplicó el análisis estadístico, ajustados modelos de regresión linear múltiple con respuesta normal para explicar las puntuaciones de los 3 dominios de la escala EBES, según las variables independientes estadísticamente más fuertes (p<0,20), en análisis previo bivariado. Se há considerado estadísticamente significativo si p<0,05. Resultados: Hubo el predominio de personas del sexo femenino (n=116; 81,7%), del color de piel blanco auto atribuido (n=123; 86,6%), edad hasta los 35 años (n=77; 54,2%), casadas o en unión estable (n= 91; 64,1%), con graduación o post grado (n=83; 58,5%) y trabajadoras del área de la salud desde hace más de 5 años (n= 102; 71,8). Mayores niveles de BES asociados con la escolaridad (tener graduación o post grado p=0,039) y los menores de edad (por encima de los 35 años, p=0,025), malo o muy malo ESA (p=0,005 para la satisfacción con la vida y la p=0,028 para los afectos positivos), la hospitalización del último año (p=0,017), vivir solo (p=0,007) y burnout (p=0,004 para la puntuación general y p=0,030 para la dimensión "despersonalización" del MBI). Conclusión: Los aspectos socio demográficos (por encima de los 35 años y vivir solo) impactan negativamente en el bienestar de los profesionales investigados, así como la mala condición de salud y el grado de estrés relacionado con el trabajo. Tener graduación o post grado puede favorecer la satisfacción con la vida.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Stress, Psychological , Environmental Health , Occupational Health , Health Personnel
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Graduates of environmental health engineering should be able to manage Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and acquire the essential competencies during their studies at university. This study was performed to determine the expected competencies of environmental health graduates in a way to be able to manage environmental and Social Determinants of Health according to their job description.@*METHODS@#This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using Delphi technique. First, the literature review was done and the Delphi technique was performed in three rounds. The purposeful sampling was used and 50 people were selected among the specialists in the field of environmental health engineering and SDH. Participants answered an open-ended question, for the first round. Then, a questionnaire with 8 areas was designed based on the results of the first round and distributed for the second round. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The third round was done to reach the agreement on final items.@*RESULTS@#The agreement on the items of the third round of Delphi was more than 70%. The final results showed eight competency areas under which 29 competencies were defined. Competency areas included expert knowledge, reasoning and planning, advocacy, system-based practice, professionalism, instructional expertise, social and personal skills and, research and self-development. The first three priorities of the required competency areas were expert knowledge (4.46 ± 0.55), professionalism (4.42 ± 0.64), and advocacy (4.32 ± 0.77).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is necessary that environmental health engineers achieve necessary competencies regarding managing SDH, upon their graduation. It is suggested to integrate these competencies into the curriculum of environmental and health engineering in Iran universities.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Curriculum , Delphi Technique , Environmental Health , Humans , Social Determinants of Health
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922194

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly becoming a threat to global public health, not least in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where it is contributing to longer treatment for illnesses, use of higher generation drugs, more expenditure on antimicrobials, and increased deaths attributed to what should be treatable diseases. Some of the known causes of AMR include misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in both humans and animals, unnecessary use of antimicrobials in animals as growth promoters, and lack of awareness among the public on how to protect antimicrobials. As a result, resistant organisms are circulating in the wider environment, and there is a need to consider the One Health approach to minimise the continuing development of AMR. Environmental Health, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), waste management, and food hygiene and safety, are key components of One Health needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms particularly in LMICs and reduce the AMR threat to global public health. The key Environmental Health practices in the prevention of AMR include: (1) adequate WASH through access and consumption of safe water; suitable containment, treatment and disposal of human excreta and other wastewater including from health facilities; good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap at critical times to prevent the spread of resistant microorganisms, and contraction of illnesses which may require antimicrobial treatment; (2) proper disposal of solid waste, including the disposal of unused and expired antimicrobials to prevent their unnecessary exposure to microorganisms in the environment; and (3) ensuring proper food hygiene and safety practices, such as sale and consumption of animal products in which adequate antimicrobial withdrawal periods have been observed, and growing vegetables on unpolluted soil. Environmental Health is therefore crucial in the prevention of infectious diseases that would require antimicrobials, reducing the spread of resistant organisms, and exposure to antimicrobial residues in LMICs. Working with other professionals in One Health, Environmental Health Practitioners have a key role in reducing the spread of AMR including health education and promotion, surveillance, enforcement of legislation, and research.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Environmental Health/standards , Food Safety , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Role , Sanitation/standards , Waste Management/standards
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a global health problem. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of most widely used environmental chemicals, is suspected to be a contributor to the development NAFLD. This study was performed to examine the relationship between human BPA levels and risk of NAFLD.@*METHODS@#The data (n = 3476 adults: 1474 men and 2002 women) used in this study were obtained from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey III (2015-2017). BPA levels were measured in urine samples. NAFLD was defined using hepatic steatosis index after exclusion of other causes of hepatic diseases.@*RESULTS@#There was a significant linear relationship between the elevated urinary BPA concentrations and risk of NAFLD. In a univariate analysis, odds ratio (OR) of the highest quartile of urinary BPA level was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.94] compared to the lowest quartile. After adjusted with covariates, the ORs for NAFLD in the third and fourth quartiles were 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.67] and 1.32 [95% CI 1.03-1.70], respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Urinary BPA levels are positively associated with the risk of NAFLD in adults. Further experimental studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of BPA on NAFLD prevalence.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Benzhydryl Compounds/urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Health , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Phenols/urine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
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