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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00242320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345626

ABSTRACT

On March 24, 2020, a partial lockdown was decreed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, as a measure to hinder the spread of COVID-19, which consisted in prohibiting crowding and advising people to stay home, except for urgent or extremely necessary matters. Based on studies performed in other countries, this study aims to assess the impacts of the lockdown on the air quality of five cities in the state of São Paulo. Our study was conducted by using particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide as air quality indicators, and by correlating the contaminants concentrations with weather data. The results showed an increase in these contaminants in all cities within the first weeks after the lockdown compared with the weeks before the decree and with the same period in previous years. This result is inconsistent with the literature. Therefore, a secondary goal was set to investigate the possible cause (or causes) of such deterioration in air quality, which led to the increased number of wildfires. The anomalous dry weather favored the burning of vegetation in agricultural rural areas and in small, vegetated areas near the municipalities, and limited pollution scavenging by rainfall, both of which contributed to higher pollution concentration. We hypothesize the possible effects of worse air quality on the aggravation of COVID-19, but further research is necessary to obtain a complete assessment.


Em 24 de março de 2020, foi decretado confinamento parcial no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, como medida para desacelerar a disseminação da COVID-19. O decreto consistia na proibição de aglomerações e na recomendação para as pessoas permanecerem em casa, exceto em situações urgentes ou de extrema necessidade. Na esteira de estudos realizados em outros países, o artigo busca avaliar os impactos do confinamento na qualidade do ar em cinco cidades no Estado de São Paulo. Nosso estudo foi realizado com o material particulado e dióxido de nitrogênio enquanto indicadores da qualidade do ar e pela correlação das concentrações dos contaminantes com dados meteorológicos. Os resultados mostraram um aumento desses contaminantes em todas as cinco cidades dentro das primeiras semanas depois do confinamento, comparado às semanas que antecederam o decreto e com o mesmo período em anos anteriores. O resultado é inconsistente com os achados usualmente relatados em outros estudos. Portanto, foi definido um objetivo secundário a fim de investigar a possível causa (ou causas) da piora na qualidade do ar, o que revelou um aumento no número de incêndios. O tempo anormalmente seco favoreceu a queima de vegetação nas áreas agrícolas rurais e em pequenas áreas de vegetação próximas às cidades, além do limitado escoamento da poluição pela chuva, o que contribuiu à maior concentração de poluentes. Os achados sugerem hipóteses sobre os possíveis efeitos dessa situação de pior qualidade do ar sobre o agravamento de casos de COVID-19, porém são necessários mais estudos para uma avaliação completa.


El 24 de marzo de 2020 se decretó un confinamiento parcial en el estado de São Paulo, Brasil, como medida para evitar la propagación de la COVID-19, que consistió en prohibir aglomeraciones de personas y avisar a la gente que permaneciera en casa, salvo para asuntos urgentes o extremadamente necesarios. Siguiendo algunos estudios realizados en otros países, el objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los impactos del confinamiento en la calidad del aire de ciudades en el estado de São Paulo. Nuestro estudio fue realizado usando material particulado y dióxido de nitrógeno, como indicadores de la calidad del aire, y mediante la correlación de las concentraciones de contaminantes con los datos meteorológicos. Los resultados mostraron un incremento en estos contaminantes en todas las ciudades dentro de las primeras semanas tras el confinamiento, comparando las semanas antes del decreto y dentro del mismo periodo en los años previos. Este resultado es inconsistente con aquellos que han sido informados en otros estudios. Por ello, un objetivo secundario fue investigar la posible causa (o causas) de tal deterioro en la calidad del aire, que conduce a un incremento en el número de incendios. La climatología seca anómala favoreció la quema de vegetación en las áreas rurales agrícolas, y en áreas con poca vegetación cerca de las ciudades, y la eliminación limitada de la contaminación gracias a la lluvia, ambos contribuyeron a una mayor concentración de contaminación. Se especula que los posibles efectos de esta situación de una peor calidad del aire podrían afectar en el agravamiento de los casos de COVID-19, pero son quizás necesarias más investigaciones para conseguir una evaluación completa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200939, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340098

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arsenic contamination in the environment and groundwater is a major global public health problem. Several researchers suggest that the toxicity of arsenic could be related to oral cancer development, usually resulting from potentially malignant lesions. During pathological processes, salivary proteins suffer modifications, which could lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. Objective To analyze the protein profile in human saliva samples from a rural population exposed to high levels of arsenic in drinking water and its association with potentially malignant lesions. Methodology This observational, analytic and cross-sectional design included 121 patients from the state of Graneros (Tucumán, Argentina). Arsenic concentration in drinking water was determined and, according to the values obtained, individuals were divided into 2 groups: exposed group and non-exposed group. Saliva samples were obtained, and total protein concentration was measured by Bradford method. Finally, Laemmli SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted to obtain the protein profile. Results Total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Average areas of 20 and 42 KDa bands were significantly lower in exposed group than non-exposed group. Conclusion Chronic intake of high arsenic concentrations in drinking water produces changes in the salivary protein profile, which is associated with the presence of potentially malignant lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Arsenic/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Drinking Water/analysis , Argentina , Rural Population , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Pilot Projects , Environmental Monitoring , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 75-80, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116352

ABSTRACT

Os fungos desempenham vários papéis que impactam a humanidade de diversas maneiras. Suas características metabólicas são importantes na biotecnologia, porém, tais microrganismos podem desencadear alguns problemas de saúde pública e até mesmo serem letais. Objetivo: detectar a presença de fungos no acervo de uma biblioteca no município de São José do Rio Preto. Metodologia: foram coletadas quarenta amostras nas superfícies inanimadas (livros, estantes, documentos, mapas, artigos e revistas) das principais salas da biblioteca com o auxílio de swabs umedecidos em solução salina estéril, posteriormente encaminhados ao laboratório de Biomedicina da Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP. As amostras foram semeadas em meio de cultura ágar Sabouraud Dextrose (SDA), tendo adicionado cloranfenicol e incubadas a 30 °C. Foi realizada a colônia gigante em todas as cepas crescidas em SDA para a realização da técnica de microcultivo para a identificação dos fungos, de acordo com o Manual de Detecção e Identificação dos Fungos de Importância Médica da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resultados: Houve positividade em trinta e uma amostras (78%) e em quatro delas foi observado mais de um tipo de colônia (13%). Das vinte e duas superfícies de livros analisadas, foram isolados e identificados: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. e Nigrospora sp. Nas oito superfícies de estantes: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. e Scopulariopsis sp. e, nos dez documentos: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. e Trichoderma sp. Conclusão: Os fungos encontrados estão amplamente distribuídos no ambiente como solo e ar e, por diversos fatores, instalam-se em locais como bibliotecas. Em condições favoráveis, podem infectar o homem e causar perdas patrimoniais para os acervos.


Fungi play many roles that impact humankind in different ways. Their metabolic characteristics are important in biotechnology; however, these microorganisms can trigger some public health problems or may even be lethal. Objective: detect the presence of fungi in the collection of a public library in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. Methods: a total of forty samples were collected from inanimate surfaces (books, shelves, documents, maps, articles and magazines) located in the main rooms of the library with swabs soaked in sterile saline solution and sent to the Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP laboratories. The samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 °C. The colonies that grew in SDA were isolated in Potato Dextrose Agar for performing the slide culture technique for the identification of the fungi, performed according to the Manual of Detection and Identification of Fungi of Medical Importance from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Results: Thirty-one samples (78%) were positive, and in four of them more than one fungus genus was observed (13%). From the twenty-two book surfaces analyzed, the following fungi were isolated and identified: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. and Nigrospora sp. On the eight shelves: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. and Scopulariopsis sp. The ten documents analyzed presented the following fungi: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. and Trichoderma sp.. Conclusion: These fungi are widely distributed in the environment such as in the soil and air, and due to several factors, they colonize public places, such as libraries. In favorable conditions, they may infect humans and cause diseases.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Library Materials , Fungi , Penicillium , Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus niger , Trichoderma , Biotechnology , Cladosporium , Cunninghamella , Agar , Infections
4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(2): 145-150, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130589

ABSTRACT

Conocer el rol del medio ambiente es fundamental para evitar las infecciones intra-hospitalarias. Con ese objetivo, se planteó evaluar la prevalencia de contaminación ambiental por microorganismos multirresistentes (MMR) antes y después de la limpieza terminal de habitaciones de pacientes colonizados y establecer si la aparatología de uso común actuaba como reservorio de estos en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UTI). Se obtuvieron muestras ambientales de las habitaciones, 48 h posteriores a la detección de colonización y luego de las limpiezas. Los resultados mostraron que luego de ambos procedimientos de limpieza se logró reducir de 28,2% a 2,6% la contaminación por Acinetobacter spp. multirresistente (AMR). También, se tomaron muestras de aparatología de uso común encontrándose entre 1,8 y 5,4% de contaminación por MMR. La limpieza y desinfección reducen significativamente la contaminación ambiental. Sin embargo, la colonización de equipos por MMR y el incumplimiento de precauciones universales representan una posibilidad de transmisión cruzada.


It is essential to understand the role of the environment in order to avoid intrahospital infections. To achieve this objective, this research proposes to assess the prevalence of the environmental contamination caused by multi-resistant microorganisms (MRM) before and after terminal disinfection in rooms with colonized patients, but also to establish whether the commonly used device acts as a reservoir of those micro-organisms in an intensive care unit (ICU). Environmental samples were obtained from the rooms, 48 hours after detecting colonization and also after the first and second final cleaning. The results showed that after both procedures, there was a reduction from 28.2% to 2.6% of contamination caused by multi-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (AMR). Samples from appliances and supplies were taken as well, in which case, between 1.8 and 5.4% of contamination levels induced by MMR were found. Cleaning and disinfecting significantly reduce environmental contamination. However, both MMR bacterial colonization and the lack of universal precautions enforcement represent a possibility of cross-transmission.


É essencial conhecer o papel do meio ambiente para evitar as infecções intra-hospitalares. Com esse objetivo, planejou-se avaliar a prevalência de contaminação ambiental por microorganismos multirresistentes (MMR) antes e depois da limpeza final dos quartos de pacientes colonizados e estabelecer se os aparelhos de uso comum atuavam como um reservatório deles na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Obtiveram-se amostras ambientais dos quartos 48 horas após a detecção da colonização e logo após as limpezas finais. Os resultados mostraram que depois dos dois procedimentos de limpeza se obteve uma redução de 28,2% para 2,6% da contaminação por Acinetobacter spp. multirresistente (AMR). Foram obtidas também amostras de aparelhos de uso comum onde se encontraram entre 1,8% e 5,4% de contaminação por MMR. A limpeza e a desinfecção reduzem significativamente a contaminação ambiental. Contudo, a colonização de equipamentos por MMR e o não cumprimento de providências universais representam uma possibilidade de transmissão cruzada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter/pathogenicity , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Housekeeping, Hospital , Housekeeping, Hospital/ethics , Intensive Care Units , Research , Role , Patients' Rooms , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Prevalence , Environment , Housekeeping, Hospital/standards , Infections , Methods
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 746-754, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139367

ABSTRACT

Background: The presence of toxic metals in human populations is strongly associated with chronic diseases. Aim: To determine levels of lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury and inorganic arsenic (AsIn) in the general population aged over 5 years in Antofagasta, Chile. Material and Methods: People living in Urban Antofagasta for at least five years were considered eligible. Biological samples were obtained to measure heavy metals. Results: One thousand two hundred three participants with a median age of 43 years (656 women) were studied. Their mean time of residence in the city was 30 years, and 52% smoked. Eight percent of the adult population and 12% of children had AsIn values above 35 µg/L, while 75% of the population had levels below 21.9 µg/L. The other metals were below the risk levels defined by the health authority (10 µg/L for chromium, 10 µg/L for mercury, 2 µg/L for cadmium, 5 and 10 μg/dL for blood lead for children and adults, respectively). The factors associated with high levels of AsIn in adults were male sex, living more than 200 meters from monitoring points, and low schooling. In children, the associated variables were high intake of seafood products and having a caregiver with less than 8 years of schooling. Contrary to expectations, the greatest risk of presenting altered levels of the metals occurred in the population living more than 500 meters from the identified risk sources (90% of the population). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that all potential sources of exposure to AsIn should be evaluated, and surveillance actions should be established to reduce involuntary exposure to this metalloid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Metals, Heavy/urine , Lead/blood , Chile/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring
6.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 170-182, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118439

ABSTRACT

Reliable environmental monitoring and evaluation require high-quality maps of land use and land cover. For the Amazon biome, the TerraClass and MapBiomas projects apply different methodologies to create these maps. We evaluated the agreement between land cover and land use maps generated by TerraClass and MapBiomas (Collections 2 and 3) for the Brazilian Amazon biome, from 2004 to 2014. Specifically, we: (1) described both project legends based on the LCCS (Land Cover Classification System); (2) analyzed the differences between their classes; and (3) compared the mapping differences among the Brazilian states that are totally or partially covered by the Amazon biome. We compared the classifications with a per-pixel approach and performed an evaluation based on agreement matrices. The overall agreement between the projects was 87.4% (TerraClass x MapBiomas 2) and 92.0% (TerraClass x MapBiomas 3). We analyzed methodological differences to explain the disagreements in class identification. We conclude that using these maps together without a properly adapted legend is not recommended for the analysis of land use and land cover change. Depending on the application, one mapping system may be more suitable than the other. (AU)


Subject(s)
Land Use , Amazonian Ecosystem , Remote Sensing Technology , Environmental Monitoring
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 215-228, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089301

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Cautin river is located in the 137 years old Araucania region, Chile (38°S), and is characterized by alterations through human interference due agriculture and towns in its surrounding basin, the presence of salmonids, and by its mixed regime, originated from snow melting in summer and rains in winter. The aim of the present study was to make a review of the inventory and ecological role of the benthic inland water macroinvertebrates of the River Cautin, in order to understand their importance in the ecosystem of the river. The fauna of this river includes a fauna composed of endemic and introduced fish, which has, however, been only poorly studied until now. The literature revealed the presence of abundant populations of Diptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera larval stages, and few crustaceans specifically amphipods and freshwater crabs along the river's course. Many of these macroinvertebrates are prey for both introduced salmonids and native fishes. Similar results have been reported for other southern Argentinean and Chilean Patagonian rivers.


Resumo O rio Cautin está localizado na região de Araucania, no Chile (38°S), é caracterizado por alterações através da interferência humana devido à agricultura e as cidades da bacia circundante, a presença de salmonídeos e pelo seu regime misto, originado pela queda de neve verão e chuvas no inverno. O objetivo do presente estudo foi fazer uma revisão do papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos das águas interiores do rio Cautin, para entender sua importância no ecossistema do rio. A fauna deste rio inclui uma fauna composta de espécies de peixes endêmicos e introduzidos, que, no entanto, tem sido mal estudada até agora. A literatura revelou a presença de abundantes populações de estádios de larvas Diptera, Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera, e poucos crustáceos especificamente anfípodes e caranguejos de água doce ao longo do curso do rio. Muitos desses macroinvertebrados são presas tanto para salmonídeos introduzidos quanto para peixes nativos. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros rios sul da Patagônia Chilena e Argentina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Fishes , Invertebrates , Chile , Population Dynamics , Environmental Monitoring , Food Chain , Rivers
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829011

ABSTRACT

Objective@#High PM concentration is the main feature of increasing haze in developing states, but information on its microbial composition remains very limited. This study aimed to determine the composition of microbiota in PM in Guangzhou, a city located in the tropics in China.@*Methods@#In Guangzhou, from March 5 to 10 , 2016, PM was collected in middle volume air samplers for 23 h daily. The 16S rDNA V4 region of the PM sample extracted DNA was investigated using high-throughput sequence.@*Results@#Among the Guangzhou samples, , , , , and were the dominant microbiota accounting for more than 90% of the total microbiota, and was the dominant gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 21.30%-23.57%. We examined the difference in bacterial distribution of PM between Beijing and Guangzhou at the genus level; was found in both studies, but was only detected in Guangzhou.@*Conclusion@#In conclusion, the diversity and specificity of microbial components in Guangzhou PM were studied, which may provide a basis for future pathogenicity research in the tropics.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Air Pollutants , Bacteria , Classification , China , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Microbiota , Particle Size , Particulate Matter , RNA, Bacterial , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826316

ABSTRACT

Well water could be a stable source of drinking water. Recently, the use of well water as drinking water has been encouraged in developing countries. However, many kinds of disorders caused by toxic elements in well drinking water have been reported. It is our urgent task to resolve the global issue of element-originating diseases. In this review article, our multidisciplinary approaches focusing on oncogenic toxicities and disturbances of sensory organs (skin and ear) induced by arsenic and barium are introduced. First, our environmental monitoring in developing countries in Asia showed elevated concentrations of arsenic and barium in well drinking water. Then our experimental studies in mice and our epidemiological studies in humans showed arsenic-mediated increased risks of hyperpigmented skin and hearing loss with partial elucidation of their mechanisms. Our experimental studies using cultured cells with focus on the expression and activity levels of intracellular signal transduction molecules such as c-SRC, c-RET, and oncogenic RET showed risks for malignant transformation and/or progression arose from arsenic and barium. Finally, our original hydrotalcite-like compound was proposed as a novel remediation system to effectively remove arsenic and barium from well drinking water. Hopefully, comprehensive studies consisting of (1) environmental monitoring, (2) health risk assessments, and (3) remediation will be expanded in the field of environmental health to prevent various disorders caused by environmental factors including toxic elements in drinking water.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic , Toxicity , Barium , Toxicity , Drinking Water , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Health , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Mice , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Toxicity , Water Wells
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826303

ABSTRACT

Plastics are extensively used in our daily life. However, a significant amount of plastic waste is discharged to the environment directly or via improper reuse or recycling. Degradation of plastic waste generates micro- or nano-sized plastic particles that are defined as micro- or nanoplastics (MNPs). Microplastics (MPs) are plastic particles with a diameter less than 5 mm, while nanoplastics (NPs) range in diameter from 1 to 100 or 1000 nm. In the current review, we first briefly summarized the environmental contamination of MNPs and then discussed their health impacts based on existing MNP research. Our review indicates that MNPs can be detected in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide and be ingested and accumulated by animals along the food chain. Evidence has suggested the harmful health impacts of MNPs on marine and freshwater animals. Recent studies found MPs in human stool samples, suggesting that humans are exposed to MPs through food and/or drinking water. However, the effect of MNPs on human health is scarcely researched. In addition to the MNPs themselves, these tiny plastic particles can release plastic additives and/or adsorb other environmental chemicals, many of which have been shown to exhibit endocrine disrupting and other toxic effects. In summary, we conclude that more studies are necessary to provide a comprehensive understanding of MNP pollution hazards and also provide a basis for the subsequent pollution management and control.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Microplastics , Water Pollutants
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(6): e00246118, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124289

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Coyhaique, en el sur de Chile, es una de las ciudades más contaminadas de América, debido a la quema de leña. En 2016, se lanzó una sustitución masiva de la tecnología de calefacción residencial para disminuir las concentraciones de partículas de aire en el invierno. Basado en análisis de series de tiempo, el artículo analiza el efecto de esta medida en los niveles de MP2,5 y en las hospitalizaciones por afecciones respiratorias agudas en personas menores de 15 años.


Abstract: Coyhaique (Southern Chile) is one of the most polluted cities in the Americas due to the burning of firewood. In 2016, a mass substitution of residential heating technology was launched to decrease the air concentrations of particulate matter in the winter. Based on time series analyses, the article discusses the effect of this measure on PM2.5 levels and hospitalizations for acute respiratory conditions in individuals under 15 years of age.


Resumo: Coyhaique, no sul de Chile, é uma das cidades mais poluídas devido a queima de lenha nas Américas. Em 2016 se deu início a uma massiva substituição da tecnologia de aquecimento do interior das vivendas para diminuir as concentrações atmosféricas de material particulado no inverno. Através de análises de séries temporais, o artigo discute o efeito desta medida nos níveis de MP2,5 e nas internações por urgências respiratórias em menores de 15 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Seasons , Technology , Brazil , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis , Heating , Hospitalization
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(7): e00177719, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124301

ABSTRACT

A exposição ao material particulado fino (MP2,5) está associada a inúmeros desfechos à saúde. Desta forma, monitoramento da concentração ambiental do MP2,5 é importante, especialmente em áreas amplamente industrializadas, pois abrigam potenciais emissores do MP2,5 e de substâncias com potencial de aumentar a toxicidade de partículas já suspensas. O objetivo desta pesquisa é estimar a concentração diária do MP2,5 em três áreas de influência do Complexo Industrial e Portuário do Pecém (CIPP), Ceará, Brasil. Foi aplicado um modelo de regressão não linear para a estimativa do MP2,5, por meio de dados de profundidade óptica monitorados por satélite. As estimativas foram realizadas em três áreas de influência (Ai) do CIPP (São Gonçalo do Amarante - Ai I, Paracuru e Paraipaba - Ai II e Caucaia - Ai III, no período de 2006 a 2017. As médias anuais das concentrações estimadas foram inferiores ao estabelecido pela legislação nacional em todas as Ai (8µg m-3). Em todas as Ai, os meses referentes ao período de seca (setembro a fevereiro) apresentaram as maiores concentrações e uma predominância de ventos leste para oeste. Os meses que compreendem o período de chuva (março a agosto) apresentaram as menores concentrações e ventos menos definidos. As condições meteorológicas podem exercer um papel importante nos processos de remoção, dispersão ou manutenção das concentrações do material particulado na região. Mesmo com baixas concentrações estimadas, é importante avaliar a constituição das partículas finas dessa região, bem como sua possível associação a efeitos adversos à saúde da população local.


Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. Thus, monitoring the environmental concentration of PM2.5 is important, especially in heavily industrialized areas, since they harbor potential emitters of PM2.5 and substances with the potential to increase the toxicity of already suspended particles. This study aims to estimate daily concentrations of PM2.5 in three areas under the influence of the Industrial and Port Complex of Pecém (CIPP), Ceará State, Brazil. A nonlinear regression model was applied to estimate PM2.5, using satellite-monitored optical depth data. Estimates were performed in three areas of influence (Ai) of the CIPP (São Gonçalo do Amarante - AiI, Paracuru and Paraipaba - AiII, and Caucaia - AiIII), from 2006 to 2017. Estimated mean annual concentrations were lower than established by Brazil's national legislation in all three Ai (8µg m-³). In all the Ai, the months of the dry season (September to February) showed the highest concentrations and a predominance of east winds, while the months of the rainy season (March to August) showed the lowest concentrations and less defined winds Weather conditions can play an important role in the removal, dispersal, or maintenance of concentrations of particulate matter in the region. Even at low estimated concentrations, it is important to assess the composition of fine participles in this region and their possible association with adverse health outcomes in the local population.


La exposición al material particulado fino (MP2,5) está asociada a innumerables problemas de salud. Por ello, la supervisión de la concentración ambiental del MP2,5 es importante, especialmente en áreas ampliamente industrializadas, puesto que albergan potenciales emisores de MP2,5 y de sustancias con potencial de aumentar la toxicidad de partículas ya suspendidas. El objetivo de esta investigación es estimar la concentración diaria del MP2,5 en tres áreas de influencia del Complejo Industrial y Portuario de Pecém (CIPP), Ceará, Brasil. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión no lineal para la estimación del MP2,5, mediante datos de profundidad óptica supervisados por satélite. Las estimaciones fueron realizadas en tres áreas de influencia (Ai) del CIPP (São Gonçalo do Amarante - Ai I, Paracuru y Paraipaba - Ai II y Caucaia - Ai III en el período de 2006 a 2017. Las medias anuales de las concentraciones estimadas fueron inferiores a lo establecido por la legislación nacional en todas las Ai (8µg m-³). En todas las Ai, los meses referentes al período de sequía (de setiembre a febrero) presentaron las mayores concentraciones y una predominancia de vientos este a oeste, los meses que comprenden el período de lluvia (marzo a agosto) presentaron las menores concentraciones y vientos menos definidos. Las condiciones meteorológicas pueden ejercer un papel importante en los procesos de eliminación, dispersión o mantenimiento de las concentraciones del material particulado en la región. Incluso con bajas concentraciones estimadas es importante que se evalúe la constitución de las partículas finas de esta región, así como su posible asociación con efectos adversos para la salud de la población local.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Particulate Matter/analysis
13.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 84, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of two interventions (implementation and suspension of mandatory vehicle inspection) on morbidity and mortality due to conditions related to air pollution, from 2008 to 2017. METHODS Interrupted time series (ARIMA models), using data available in public repositories. RESULTS A total of 229,337 children of up to 5 years old were hospitalized due to respiratory diseases, and 1,053 died (average monthly mortality ratio for this population: 1.12/100,000). Exact 137,876 individuals over 40 years old were hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction, and 19,492 died (3.7/100,000). A total of 11,010 individuals over 40 years old were hospitalized with malignant neoplasms of the respiratory system; 2,898 died (0.5/100,000). A total of 20,807 individuals over 60 years old were hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; 2,627 died (1.5/100,000). As for strokes, 69,180 individuals were hospitalized, and 10,866 died (2.1/100,000). We found no significant regression coefficient for the implementation or suspension of the program regarding hospitalizations and deaths. 38,207 children of up to 14 years old were hospitalized with asthma, and 25 of them died (0.007/100,000). The coefficients show a monthly increase of 0.05 deaths/100,000 people (p = 0.01) in the post-inspection period. We found no correlation between the measured concentrations of the pollutants PM2.5 and CO - in a monitoring station, in the central region of the municipality - and the implementation or suspension of the inspection. CONCLUSIONS No evidence confirms that the program had a measurable beneficial impact on morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and circulatory diseases.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto de duas intervenções (introdução e suspensão da inspeção veicular obrigatória) sobre a morbidade e mortalidade por condições associadas à poluição do ar no período de 2008 a 2017. MÉTODOS Séries temporais interrompidas (método Arima), com dados disponíveis em repositórios públicos. RESULTADOS Houve 229.337 internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças até 5 anos de idade, com 1.053 óbitos (coeficiente médio de mortalidade mensal para a população da idade: 1,12/100.000). Para infarto agudo do miocárdio em maiores de 40 anos, houve 137.876 internações, com 19.492 óbitos (3,7/100.000). Para as neoplasias malignas do aparelho respiratório em maiores de 40 anos, foram 11.010 internações, com 2.898 óbitos (0,5/100.000). Para doenças pulmonares obstrutivas crônicas em maiores de 60 anos, foram 20.807 internações, com 2.627 óbitos (1,5/100.000). Para os acidentes vasculares cerebrais, foram 69.180 internações e 10.866 óbitos (2,1/100.000). Não houve nenhum coeficiente de regressão significativo para a introdução ou suspensão do programa em relação às internações e óbitos. Para asma em crianças até 14 anos, houve 38.207 internações e 25 óbitos (0,007/100.000), e os coeficientes mostram aumento de 0,05 óbitos/100.000 pessoas por mês (p = 0,01) no período pós-introdução da inspeção. Em modelo para os poluentes MP2,5 e CO, em estação de monitoramento da região central do município, não houve correlação entre as concentrações medidas e a introdução ou a suspensão da inspeção. CONCLUSÕES Não há evidências de que o programa tenha tido qualquer efeito benéfico mensurável sobre a morbidade e a mortalidade por doenças respiratórias e do aparelho circulatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Vehicle Emissions , Public Health , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Traffic-Related Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Middle Aged
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 678-685, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering that area and edge effects are the most important factors that lead to landscape changes from the fragmentation of terrestrial communities, the present study aimed to analyze changes in the structure of vegetation classes of a fragmented landscape. The methodology employed was based on a model of patch dynamics for the years between 1979 and 2015. The analysis was performed with quantitative (area, shape and edge effect) and qualitative (low declivity of the terrain, fire resistance and tolerance to variation in light) variables of the classes of vegetation. Processes of retraction and expansion of the vegetation classes were identified, as well as the alteration of the structure of the fragments, which resulted in the intensification of the edge effect.


Resumo Considerando que os efeitos de área e os efeitos de borda são os mais importantes fatores que levam às alterações na paisagem através da fragmentação de comunidades terrestre, o presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar as mudanças em área e estrutura das classes de vegetação de uma paisagem fragmentada. Para tanto, a metodologia foi baseada no modelo de dinâmica de manchas entre os anos de 1979 e 2015 e a análise por meio de variáveis quantitativas (área, formato e efeito de borda) e qualitativas (baixa declividade do terreno, resistência ao fogo e tolerância à variação de luz) das classes de vegetação. O presente estudo identificou processos de retração e expansão das classes de vegetação e a alteração na estrutura dos fragmentos resultando na intensificação do efeito de borda.


Subject(s)
Forests , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Brazil
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 722-734, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) have been considered as an alternative for the generation of electricity with reduced environmental impacts. Nevertheless, no studies have addressed changes in a particular kind of river macrohabitat commonly affected by SHPs, the knickzones. This study aimed to assess the impact of a SHP construction on the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna associated with two basaltic knickzones located in Sapucaí-Mirim River, Southeast Brazil. The first, considered as a functional knickzone, follows the natural dynamics of the river flow and preserves the original rock substrate. The second, considered as non-functional knickzone, was permanently flooded after the SHP construction and the consolidated rock substrate was changed by fine sediment. Sampling was carried out in two seasonal periods and the data were analysed through multivariate analysis. It was observed differences in composition and structure of the macroinvertebrates community between the knickzones and periods. The functional knickzone exhibited a much higher richness, 72 taxa compared to 44 in the non-functional, as well as a large number of exclusive taxa (38, being only nine exclusive to the non-functional). Diversity, equitability and density mean values were also higher in the functional knickzone. The limnological parameters varied significantly between dry and rainy seasons but not between the distinct knickzones. This kind of macrohabitats and its potential role for the rivers biodiversity is practically unknown. In the scenery of fast SHP expansion, further studies and protection measures are necessary.


Resumo Atualmente, a instalação de pequenas centrais hidrelétricas (PCHs) tem sido a alternativa mais visada quando a questão é suprir a demanda energética, considerando-se os menores impactos ambientais possíveis. Contudo, são escassos os trabalhos que avaliam as alterações causadas por esses empreendimentos, principalmente no que se diz respeito a um tipo de macro-habitat de rios, os pedrais. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da construção de uma PCH na fauna de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associada a dois pedrais basálticos, localizados no rio Sapucaí-Mirim, no Sudeste do Brasil. O primeiro, considerado como um pedral funcional, segue a dinâmica natural do fluxo do rio e possui o substrato rochoso original. O segundo, considerado como pedral não funcional, foi permanentemente inundado após a construção da PCH e o substrato consolidado foi alterado por sedimentos finos. A amostragem foi realizada em dois períodos sazonais e os dados foram analisados através de análise multivariada. Foram observadas diferenças na composição e estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados entre os pedrais e períodos. O pedral funcional apresentou uma riqueza muito maior, 72 táxons em comparação com 44 no não funcional, bem como um grande número de táxons exclusivos (38, sendo apenas nove exclusivos do não-funcional). Os valores médios da diversidade, equitabilidade e densidade também foram maiores no pedral funcional. Os parâmetros limnológicos variaram significativamente entre as estações seca e chuvosa, mas não entre os diferentes pedrais. Este tipo de macro-habitat e seu potencial papel para a biodiversidade dos rios são praticamente desconhecidos. Assim, mais estudos e medidas de proteção são necessários, principalmente diante do atual cenário de rápida expansão das PCHs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Power Plants , Biota/physiology , Rain , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Limnology/methods , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers , Floods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Invertebrates/classification , Invertebrates/physiology
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 712-712, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging contaminant, regularly detected in aquatic ecosystems, considered as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). Caffeine is another chemical related to human activity, often found in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk due to BPA and caffeine in water samples from the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Water samples were collected at three sites monthly from May 9 th, 2016 to April 11th, 2017 (n = 36). BPA concentrations in water samples collected were in the range of not detected to 517 ng L-1 and caffeine concentrations in the range of 41.7 to 28,439.6 ng L-1. The concentration of BPA in the analyzed samples had a moderate correlation with caffeine (rs = 0.402). High ecotoxicological risk for BPA was characterized in 77.77% of samples, with 11.11% presenting medium and 11.1% presenting low risk. For caffeine 13.9%, 50% and 36.11% of the samples presented high, medium and low risk, respectively. Caffeine concentrations in water can be used as predictors of BPA concentrations above 10 ng L-1, the lower concentration of ecotoxicological risk, with specificity of 66.7% and sensitivity of 70.4%. The assessment of aquatic risks has shown that both investigated compounds pose risks to organisms in the studied surface waters, mouth of the Pampa stream, mouth of the Luiz Rau stream and catchment point for public supply in Lomba Grande.


Resumo Bisfenol A (BPA) é um contaminante emergente regularmente detectado em ecossistemas aquáticos, é considerado um agente modificador endócrino (EDC). Além disso, outro produto químico relacionado com atividade humana, encontrado com frequência nas águas superficiais, é a cafeína. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de risco ecotoxicológico devido a BPA e cafeína em amostras de água da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Sinos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de água em três locais mensalmente no período de 9 de maio de 2016 a 11 de abril de 2017 (n = 36). As concentrações de BPA em amostras de água coletadas estavam na faixa de não detectada a 517 ng L-1 e concentrações de cafeína na faixa de 41,7 a 28,439,6 ng L-1. A concentração de BPA nas amostras analisadas apresentou correlação moderada com a cafeína (rs = 0,402). Alto risco ecotoxicológico para BPA foi caracterizado em 77,77% das amostras, com 11,11% apresentando médio e 11,1% apresentando baixo risco. Para cafeína 13,9%, 50% e 36,11% das amostras apresentaram risco alto, médio e baixo, respectivamente. Concentrações de cafeína em água podem ser utilizadas como preditoras de concentrações de BPA acima de 10 ng L-1, menor concentração de risco ecotoxicológico, com especificidade de 66,7% e sensibilidade de 70,4%. A avaliação dos riscos aquáticos revelou que ambos os compostos investigados representam risco para os organismos nas águas superficiais estudadas, foz do arroio Pampa, foz do arroio Luiz Rau e ponto de captação para abastecimento público em Lomba Grande.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenols/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Benzhydryl Compounds/analysis , Caffeine/analysis , Rivers/chemistry , Brazil/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 659-664, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001473

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Doce River basin has suffered the largest environmental accident ever occurred in Brazil with the influx of tailings from Fundão and Santarém, belonging to Samarco mining company, due to the disaster in Mariana. A spill between 50 and 60 million m3 of tailings was estimated by the company. According to Samarco, the wastewater was composed mainly of clay, silt and heavy metals like iron, copper and manganese. Thereby, the objective of the present study was evaluated the genotoxic damage in juvenile of Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) exposed to Doce river water before (DRWBA - Doce River water before acident) and after (DRWAA - Doce River water after acident) the influx of tailings from the Germano and Santarém Dam disasters in Mariana, MG, Brazil. For this, 24 individuals of the species G. brasiliensis (obtained on IFES/ALEGRE fish culture) were submitted to a bioassay with three treatments and eight replicates. The treatments were: 1) Control water (water from the urban water supply system, filtered with a 0.45 µm membrane), 2) DRBA and 3) DRAA. After 96 h, these fishes were anesthetized to remove blood for evaluation of genotoxic damage (micronucleus and comet). For the bioassay, a total of 80 L of The Doce River water were collected before the influx of tailings and after the influx and then submitted to metal quantification analysis. Fish exposed to DRWBA and DRWAA treatments showed a significant increase in both the number of erythrocyte micronuclei and the DNA damage index in relation to the control fish; however, they did not present any differences between the two treatments. The results demonstrate that the DRWBA treatment was already genotoxic for the fish, mainly due to dissolved Cu concentrations in the water. The DRWAA treatment probably presented genotoxicity due to the increase in the dissolved fraction and synergistic effects of several metals found in the tailings of the Mariana accident.


Resumo A bacia do Rio Doce sofreu o maior acidente ambiental com o influxo de rejeitos de Fundão e Santarém, pertencentes à empresa de mineração Samarco, devido ao desastre em Mariana. Um derramamento entre 50 e 60 milhões de m3 de rejeitos foi estimado pela empresa. De acordo com a Samarco, o rejeito despejado era composto principalmente de argila, silte e alguns metais pesados como ferro, cobre e manganês. Com isso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os danos genotóxicos em juvenis de Geophagus brasilienses expostos a água do rio Doce antes (DRWAA - água do Rio Doce antes do acidente) e depois (DRWBA- água do Rio Doce depois do acidente) da chegada dos rejeitos do rompimento das barragens de Germano e Santarém em Mariana, MG, Brasil. Para isso, 24 indivíduos da espécie G. brasilienses (obtidos na piscicultura do IFES/ALEGRE) foram submetidos a um bioensaio com três tratamentos e oito réplicas. Os tratamentos eram: 1) Controle (com água do abastecimento urbano, filtrada com filtro analítico de 0,45 µm); 2) DRWBA e 3) DRWAA. Após um período de 96 h, esses peixes foram anestesiados para retirada de sangue para avaliação dos danos genotóxicos (micronúcleo e cometa). Para a realização do bioensaio, um total de 80 L de água do Rio Doce foram coletados antes da chegada dos rejeitos e outros 80 L foram coletados depois da chegada dos rejeitos e ambas foram submetidas a análises de quantificação de metal. Os peixes expostos ao DRWBA e ao DRWAA apresentaram um aumento significativo na quantidade de micronúcleos eritrocitários e no índice de danos do DNA em relação aos peixes controle, no entanto não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a DRWBA já era genotóxica para os peixes, principalmente, em função das concentrações de Cu dissolvido na água. A DRWAA apresentou genotixicidade, provavelmente, em função do aumento da fração dissolvida e do efeito sinérgico de diversos metais presentes nos rejeitos do acidente de Mariana.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Damage/drug effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/classification , Cichlids/physiology , Cichlids/genetics , Disasters , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/classification , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Rivers/chemistry , Fresh Water/chemistry , Mining
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3079-3088, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011896

ABSTRACT

Resumo A poluição do ar em ambientes fechados é agravada pela queima de lenha em fogões rústicos e ambientes pouco ventilados. A exposição aos poluentes emitidos por este tipo de combustível resulta no aumento da morbidade e da mortalidade. No Brasil, os estudos e as estimativas são escassos. Visando entender esta problemática, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso de lenha utilizando as séries de dados das agências governamentais para estimar o número de pessoas expostas. Os resultados apontam que a lenha é o segundo combustível mais usado para cozinhar, sendo utilizada por uma parcela significativa da população, em torno de 30 milhões de brasileiros. Um fator decisivo no maior uso deste combustível é o nível socioeconômico da população associada ao preço do gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP). Os estudos realizados no país registraram concentrações altas de partículas durante a queima da lenha, excedendo os limites sugeridos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Também foram observadas associações entre a exposição aos poluentes gerados pela queima e o agravamento dos mais diversos problemas de saúde, dentre eles doenças respiratórias e câncer. A substituição da lenha e outros combustíveis sólidos por combustíveis mais limpos deve ser a meta do governo para minimizar custos com a saúde.


Abstract Indoor air pollution is exacerbated by the burning of firewood in rustic stoves and poorly ventilated environments. Exposure to the pollutants emitted by this type of fuel results in increased morbidity and mortality. In Brazil, studies and estimates regarding these conditions are scarce. In order to understand this problem, the objective of this work was to investigate the use of firewood using the data series of government agencies to estimate the number of exposed people. The results indicated that firewood is the second most used fuel for cooking, being used by a significant portion of the population, more than 30 million Brazilians. A decisive factor in the increased use of this fuel is the socioeconomic level of the population associated with the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The studies carried out in the country recorded high concentrations of particles during firewood burning, exceeding the limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Associations were also observed between the exposure to the pollutants generated by the burning and the aggravation of health problems, among them respiratory diseases and cancer. Replacing fuelwood and other solid fuels with cleaner fuels should be the government's goal to minimize health costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Cooking/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Ventilation/standards , Wood , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 110-118, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013359

ABSTRACT

Although Cr(VI)-reducing and/or tolerant microorganisms have been investigated, there is no detailed information on the composition of the microbial community of the biocathode microbial fuel cell for Cr(VI) reduction. In this investigation, the bacterial diversity of a biocathode was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. It was found that most bacteria belonged to phylum Proteobacteria (78.8%), Firmicutes (7.9%), Actinobacteria (6.6%) and Bacteroidetes (5.5%), commonly present in environments contaminated with Cr(VI). The dominance of the genus Pseudomonas (34.87%), followed by the genera Stenotrophomonas (5.8%), Shinella (4%), Papillibacter (3.96%), Brevundimonas (3.91%), Pseu-dochrobactrum (3.54%), Ochrobactrum (3.49%), Hydrogenophaga (2.88%), Rhodococcus (2.88%), Fluviicola (2.35%), and Alcaligenes (2.3%), was found. It is emphasized that some genera have not previously been associated with Cr(VI) reduction. This biocathode from waters contaminated with tannery effluents was able to remove Cr(VI) (97.83%) in the cathodic chamber. Additionally, through use of anaerobic sludge in the anodic chamber, the removal of 76.6% of organic matter (glucose) from synthetic waste water was achieved. In this study, an efficient biocathode for the reduction of Cr(VI) with future use in bioremediation, was characterized.


Aunque se ha investigado sobre los microorganismos reductores y/o tolerantes de Cr(VI), no hay información detallada sobre la composición de la comunidad microbiana del cátodo de una Celda de Combustible Microbiana para la reducción de Cr(VI). En esta investigación se analizó la diversidad bacteriana de un biocátodo usando pirosecuenciación 454 del gen 16S rRNA. Se encontró que la mayoría de las bacterias pertenecieron a los filos Proteobac-teria (78,8%), Firmicutes (7,9%), Actinobacteria (6,6%) y Bacteroidetes (5,5%), comúnmente presentes en ambientes contaminados con Cr(VI). Se encontró como género dominante a Pseudomonas (34,87%), seguido por los géneros Stenotrophomonas (5,8%), Shinella (4%), Papil-libacter (3,96%), Brevundimonas (3,91%), Pseudochrobactrum (3,54%), Ochrobactrum (3,49%), Hydrogenophaga (2,88%), Rhodococcus (2,88%), Fluviicola (2,35%) y Alcaligenes (2,3%). Se destaca que algunos géneros no han sido previamente asociados con la reducción de Cr(VI). Este biocátodo procedente de aguas contaminadas con efluentes de curtiembres fue capaz de remover Cr(VI) (97,83%) en la cámara catódica. Adicionalmente, a través del uso de lodo anaeróbico en la cámara anódica, se logró la remoción del 76,6% de materia orgánica (glucosa) a partir de agua residual sintética. En este estudio se caracterizó un eficiente biocátodo para la reducción de Cr(VI) con futuro uso en biorremediación.


Subject(s)
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Waste Water/microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Environmental Monitoring , Reducing Agents/analysis
20.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(1): [P9-P18], jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047012

ABSTRACT

Dentro del Proyecto CONACYT "Construyendo estándares socioambientales y de salud pública con el sector primario para incremento de la competitividad en los mercados PIN15-1103. CONACYT/ALTER VIDA" se aplicó un Cuestionario de Monitoreo Comunitario para la exposición y posibles impactos a la salud por el uso de plaguicidas; el objetivo de este artículo es validar el cuestionario de monitoreo comunitario y presentar los datos del trabajo de campo. El diseño del estudio fue observacional y descriptivo, se tomaron dos comunidades dedicadas a la producción agrícola, una en Caaguazú y otra en San Pedro. El muestro fue no probabilístico por bola de nieve comprendiendo a aquellos expuestos a plaguicidas en ambos distritos seleccionados, con una distancia máxima 1 kilómetro a los cultivos o plantaciones. Las variables analizadas incluyeron datos de filiación, uso y exposición de los agroquímicos, uso de equipos de protección individual, gestión de los residuos de plaguicidas, capacitación, salud. También se aplicó el alfa de Cronbach para estudiar la confiabilidad del instrumento. Todos los análisis fueron hechos con SPSS 25. Como conclusión, se ha detectado que la gestión en el uso de los agroquímicos en la población analizada debe ser reforzada en varios ejes, desde la capacitación, gestión en el uso, la disposición final, entre otras. El instrumento tiene buena consistencia y fiabilidad interna. Palabras clave: exposición ocupacional a agroquímicos, impactos a la salud, Paraguay.


Within the CONACYT Project "Building socio-environmental and public health standards with the primary sector to increase competitiveness in the markets PIN15-1103.CONACYT/ALTER VIDA" a Community Monitoring Questionnaire was applied for the exhibition and possible impacts on health for the use of pesticides, the objective of this article is to validate the community monitoring questionnaire and present the data of the field work. The design of the study was observational and descriptive, taking two communities dedicated to agricultural production, one in Caaguazú and the other in San Pedro. The sampling was not probabilistic by snowball comprising those exposed to pesticides in both selected districts, with a maximum distance of 1 kilometre to crops or plantations. The variables analyzed include filiation's data, use and exposure of agrochemicals, use of personal protection equipment, and management of pesticide residues, training, and health. Cronbach's alpha was also applied to study the reliability of the instrument. All analyzes were done with SPSS 25. In conclusion, it has been detected that the management in the use of agrochemicals in the analyzed population must be reinforced in several areas, from training, management in use, final disposal, among others. The instrument has good internal consistency. Key words: occupational exposure to agrochemicals; health impacts; Paraguay


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Monitoring , Agrochemicals , Risk Groups , Community Participation
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