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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
2.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Air contamination happens when unsafe or inordinate amounts of substances including gases, particles, and organic atoms are brought into Earth's climate. Objective: This review article defines air pollution, describes the types of pollutants, enumerates the various causative factors, enumerates the ways it impacts human health and suggests preventive measures to reduce the impact of air pollution on human health. Methods: Literature was studied extensively and effects of air pollution on human health have been described. Results and Conclusion: Air pollution has tremendous effects on human health in the form of respiratory diseases and aggravations in the form of asthma and lung cancer, cardiovascular dysfunctions, and malignant growth. An affiliation has been found to exist between male infertility and air pollution and a relationship has been established between air contamination and higher danger of immune dysfunction, neuroinflammation, neurobehavioral hyperactivity, crime, age-unseemly behaviours, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Traffic-related air pollutants have been found to affect skin aging and cause pigmented spots on the face. An association exists between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes. Chronic exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy has been associated with adverse effects on the developing foetus in the form of low birth weight and still birth. Air contamination has been seen as a significant supporter of the expanded predominance of allergic diseases in children.


Subject(s)
Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Disease/etiology , Costa Rica , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
3.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 310-315, nov. 5, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145353

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the influence of the manual manipulation of two composite resins: Filtek™ Z350XT (3M ESPE) and Herculite Précis® (Kerr), with latex gloves contaminated with powder, human saliva and alcohol, on the microhardness values. Material and Methods: Manual manipulation was evaluated using latex gloves with powder, latex gloves without powder, latex gloves without powder with saliva, latex gloves without powder with alcohol, and without hand manipulation or contaminants (control). Each resin was manually manipulated for 10 seconds and photoactivated for 20 seconds with a light intensity of 1000mW/cm2 using a VALO ­Ultradent LED light­ cured unit, and then each sample was evaluated on the microhardness Vickers tester Leitz (Wetzlar). The collected data were analyzed using Kruskal ­Wallis and Mann ­ Whitney post-test (p<0.05). Results. Microhardness values showed a significant difference between the evaluated and control groups, showing lower microhardness values in the group of latex glove with powder for Filtek™ Z350XT and the group of latex glove without powder with saliva for Herculite Précis®. Conclusion. The manual manipulation of composite resins decreases their surface microhardness.


Propósito: Este estudio in vitrotuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia de la manipulación manual de dos resinas compuestas: Filtek ™ Z350XT (3M ESPE) y Herculite Précis® (Kerr), con guantes de látex contaminados con polvo, saliva humana y alcohol, sobre los valores de microdureza. Material y Métodos: La manipulación manual se evaluó utilizando guantes de látex con polvo, guantes de látex sin polvo, guantes de látex sin polvo con saliva, guantes de látex sin polvo con alcohol, y sin manipulación manual o contaminantes (control). Cada resina fue manipulada manualmente durante 10 segundos y fotoactivada durante 20 segundos con unaintensidad de luz de 1000mW/cm2 usando una unidad de fotocuración LED VALO - Ultradent, y luego cada muestra fue evaluada en el tester de microdureza Vickers Leitz (Wetzlar). Los datos recopilados se analizaron utilizando Kruska ­Wallis y post-test Mann­ Whitney (p<0.05). Resultados: Se observó una diferencia significativa en los valores de microdureza entre los grupos evaluados y el grupo control, con valores más bajos de microdureza en el grupo de guantes de látex con polvo para Filtek™ Z350XT y el grupo de guantes de látex sin polvo con saliva para Herculite Précis®. Conclusión. La manipulación manual de resinas compuestas disminuye su microdureza superficial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Composite Resins , Dental Materials/adverse effects , Gloves, Surgical , Hardness Tests , Permeability , In Vitro Techniques , Physical Contaminants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Latex/chemistry
4.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática; abr. 2019. 56 p. (Colección poblaciones vulnerables).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022047

ABSTRACT

En el marco de la política institucional de explotación y difusión de los datos censales que permiten, entre otros aspectos, identificar grupos de población en condición de vulnerabilidad, el Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática ­ INEI, pone a disposición de sus usuarios el documento HOGARES EN LOS QUE COCINAN CON COMBUSTIBLES CONTAMINANTES. Población involucrada y distribución territorial, que muestra la magnitud y características de la población y jefes/as de hogares que todavía utilizan leña, carbón, bosta o estiércol y residuos agrícolas (combustibles de biomasa) calificados como combustibles contaminantes, para la cocción de sus alimentos. Asimismo, mediante mapas departamentales georreferenciados se identifican los distritos más vulnerables. La información que se presenta brinda un panorama de aquellos hogares y población que, directa o indirectamente, se encuentra expuesta a la contaminación que genera la combustión de biomasa empleada, principalmente, para cocinar. La incidencia de estos factores de riesgo que se manifiesta en problemas de salud ha sido validada con diversos estudios epidemiológicos, a nivel nacional e internacional. El mayor número y porcentaje de hogares que utilizan los combustibles contaminantes para la cocción de sus alimentos se encuentran ubicados en el área rural del país con 70,1% y en la Sierra con 59,3%. Asimismo, solo el 37,9% y 17,2% de los hogares que cocinan con leña y similares cuentan con servicio de agua y servicio higiénico por red pública dentro de la vivienda, respectivamente. Estos indicadores, entre otros, demostrarían que la pobreza sería la principal barrera para el empleo de combustibles más limpios, es decir, menos contaminantes como el gas o la electricidad. El INEI reitera su agradecimiento a quienes proporcionaron información, lo que ha hecho posible la elaboración de este documento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Health , Fuels , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Health of Specific Groups , Peru
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 225 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023159

ABSTRACT

Zeólitas e carvão ativado são materiais eficazes para o tratamento de efluentes devido a sua grande área superficial e possibilidades de funcionalização, que permitem o desenvolvimento de novos materiais derivados visando a processos de concentração/remoção de contaminantes, por exemplo, em águas. A preparação de nanocompósitos magnéticos e sua aplicação na remoção seletiva de poluentes em meio aquoso tornou-se viável devido as interações distintas que ocorrem entre zeólita e carvão ativado com compostos orgânicos, íons metálicos e compostos nitrogenados. Assim, novos materiais voltados para sistemas de tratamento de águas residuais e monitoramento ambiental foram desenvolvidos com base em materiais bem estabelecidos. Os nanocompósitos foram caracterizados estrutural e morfologicamente por técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, termogravimetria, espectroscopia no infravermelho, espalhamento de luz, difração de raios x, bem como suas capacidades de adsorção. Foi avaliado também a viabilidade de aplicações em métodos analíticos, como pré-concentração por extração em fase sólida magnética (M-SPE), e, para tratamento de efluentes em amostras reais. Contaminação por cromo (VI), outras espécies potencialmente tóxicas e amônio foram removidos de águas residuais, gerando produtos tratados com níveis de contaminantes suficientemente baixos para atenderem as recomendações da EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) e CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente), permitindo seu descarte na natureza. Os materiais demonstraram ser adequados para pré-concentração rápida, eficiente, economicamente competitiva e ambientalmente amigável de amostras por M-SPE para quantificação analítica de espécies orgânicas ou inorgânicas, por técnicas analíticas convencionais. Assim, foi demonstrado a possibilidade de determinação simultânea de elementos potencialmente tóxicos e de outros cátions metálicos em concentrações traço (ppb), diretamente no material compósito magnético, por espectroscopia de fluorescência de raios X de energia dispersiva (EDX), além da quantificação de traços de compostos orgânicos semi-voláteis por cromatografia emfase gasosa com detector por espectrometria de massas, aumentando a sensibilidade para além do limite nominal de detecção por essas técnicas


Zeolites and activated carbon are effective materials for the treatment of effluents due to their large surface area and functionalisation possibilities, which allow the development of new derived materials aiming at the concentration/removal of contaminants from water, for example. The preparation of magnetic nanocomposites and their application in the selective removal of pollutants in aqueous media has become feasible due to the distinct interactions that occur between zeolite and activated carbon with organic compounds, metal ions and nitrogen compounds. Thus, new materials for wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring systems were developed based on well-established materials. The nanocomposites were structural and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, light scattering, x-ray diffraction, as well as their adsorption capacities, viability of applications in analytical methods such as preconcentration by extraction in magnetic solid phase, M-SPE, were evaluated, and the composite materials Cmag and Zmag applied for treatment of real samples. Chromium (VI) contamination, heavy metal cations and ammonium were removed from wastewater, generating treated products with levels of contaminants low enough to meet the EPA and CONAMA recommendations, allowing their disposal in the wild. The materials have been shown to be suitable for rapid, efficient, economically competitive and environmentally friendly preconcentration of samples per M-SPE for analytical quantification of organic or inorganic species by conventional analytical techniques. Thus, it was demonstrated the possibility of simultaneous analysis of heavy metals and other metal cations in trace concentrations (ppb), directly in the magnetic composite material, by dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDX), in addition to the quantification of traces of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector, increasing the sensitivity beyond the nominal limit of detection by these techniques


Subject(s)
Industrial Effluent Treatment/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Solid Phase Extraction , Thermogravimetry/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Charcoal/analysis , Zeolites/analysis
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(spe): e01003, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974427

ABSTRACT

Urban population around the globe is direct exposed to the pollution caused by several sources (vehicles, industries, smokes etc.) and primary pollutants are divided in particulate matter and toxic gases. Current researches in populous countries indicated that exposure to pollution could affect sebum composition, stratum corneum quality and signs of skin aging. Hair and scalp are also affected by the excessive exposure to pollutants, resulting in a dull, dry and lifeless appearance. Cosmetics have been evolved conceptual and scientifically to achieve substantial effectiveness against pollution damaging on the cutaneous tissue, involving the development of innovative multipurpose active ingredients and efficacy tests, skilled to prove the protection and benefits of such personal care products. In this review, we highlighted the skin and hair/scalp damages provoked by the main environmental pollutants and the active substances used in antipollution cosmetics/personal care products with the respective mechanisms of action. Likewise, in vitro and in vivo efficacy tests were discussed concerning the antipollution claim substantiating


Subject(s)
Efficacy , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Hygiene , Integumentary System/abnormalities , Cosmetic Technology
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(3): 261-266, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741260

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the anaerobic components of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and of the 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAnT). Nine male physical education students performed: a) a maximal incremental exercise test; b) a supramaximal constant workload test to determine the anaerobic components of the MAOD; and c) a 30-WAnT to measure the peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). The fast component of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and blood lactate accumulation were measured after the supramaximal constant workload test in order to determine the contributions made by alactic (ALMET) and lactic (LAMET) metabolism. Significant correlations were found between PP and ALMET (r=0.71; P=0.033) and between MP and LAMET (r=0.72; P=0.030). The study results suggested that the anaerobic components of the MAOD and of the 30-WAnT are similarly applicable in the assessment of ALMET and LAMET during high-intensity exercise.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Nitrates/urine , Perchlorates/urine , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Hormones
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(3): 193-200, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723845

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have revealed that eye contact with either air pollutants or adverse indoor and/or outdoor environmental conditions can affect tear film composition and ocular surface components. These effects are mediated by selective binding of the environmental agents to ocular surface membrane receptors, leading to activation of pro inflammatory signaling pathways. The aim of the current review was to examine the published evidence associated with environmental factors and ocular surface disease and dry eye. Specifically, the reader will appreciate why it is possible to refer to them as mediators of Environmental Dry Eye Disease (EDED), a singular clinical entity inside DED context, directly caused by pollutants and/ or adverse climatic conditions. The indicators and clinical findings are described along with EDE differential diagnosis in its acute and the chronic phases. Based on strong existing evidence of clinical reports and epidemiological observations regarding DED and environmental factors we conclude that there is a straight cause-and-effect relationship between ambient stresses and DED. International standards and web-based tools are described for monitoring worldwide environmental conditions referring localities and populations susceptible to EDED. This information is beneficial to health providers to pinpoint the individuals and predisposed groups afflicted with DED. Such insights may not only improve the understanding and treatment of DED but also help to identify the contributing factors and lower the frequency and progression of EDED.


Diversos estudos têm demostrado que o contato ocular com poluentes ambientais afeta a composição do filme lacrimal e de estruturas da superfície ocular. Tais efeitos são mediados pela ligação de agentes ambientais com receptores na superfície ocular, levando a ativação de mediadores pró inflamatórios. Esta revisão propõe uma avaliação das evidências publicadas, que associam fatores ambientais as doenças de superfície ocular e ao olho seco. O leitor compreenderá que é possível inferir olho seco ambiental como uma entidade singular dentro do contexto da doença olho seco, diretamente causado pela exposição a poluentes e/ou condições climáticas adversas. Serão descritos os indicadores e achados clínicos, assim como o diagnóstico diferencial das fases aguda e crônica. A avaliação de relatos clínicos e observações epidemiológicas demonstra uma forte associação entre olho seco e fatores ambientais. O conhecimento sobre parâmetros internacionais e ferramentas de monitorização das condições ambientais no mundo, permite identificar localidades e populações mais suceptívies ao olho seco ambiental e pode auxiliar na identificação de indivíduos acometidos e grupos predispostos. E desta forma, melhorar o entendimento e tratamento dessa condição, diminuir os fatores associados, sua frequência e progressão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dry Eye Syndromes , Environmental Illness , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 99(2): 143-150, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699432

ABSTRACT

Since the initial description as an independent entity in 1989, there are various patients reported in the literature as suffering acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Despite its recognition as etiology of acute respiratory insufficiency, at present still remains weak the ability for diagnosis and treatment, in the opportune moment. The clinical features of a patient that followed algorthms of diagnosis, for acute repiratory insufficiency, are presented. The treatment employed is describe in the article.


Subject(s)
Aged , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis
11.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 81(1): 6-10, ene.-mar. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-750047

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La exposición ambiental a contaminantes aéreos ha sido relacionada con enfermedades respiratorias, el propósito de este estudio fue determinar esta relación en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedades respiratorias agudas en dos hospitales de Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal, los pacientes fueron captados en sala de inhaloterapia de la jornada matutina en Hospital Escuela Universitario e Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social, en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2012. Se calculó la muestra y previo consentimiento informado, se aplicó cuestionario con datos sociodemográficos, exposición intradomiciliaria a humo de tabaco, combustión de leña o biomasa y extradomiciliaria a humo por quema de basura, de fábricas y por combustión de combustible de automóvil. Resultados: se incluyeron 378 niños, el 51.7%(IC95%:46.6-56.9) tenía exposición a humo por combustión de combustible de automóvil, 42.6%(IC95%:37.6-47.8) a humo de combustión de leña o biomasa, 28%(IC95%:23.6-32.9) a humo por quema de basura, 25.9% (IC95%:21.6-30.7) a humo de tabaco. Los niños con exposición a humo de leña o biomasa poseían tres posibilidades más de padecer neumonía que otro tipo de los niños con otros diagnósticos de enfermedades respiratorias.Las familias de niños con exposición a humo de tabaco, biomasa, leña y humo por quema de basura, poseían menos ingresos que los que no tenían este tipo de exposición, p=0.01, p=0.000, p=0.02 respectivamente. Conclusiones: la relación que existe entre contaminantes aéreo y la presencia de enfermedades respiratorias quedan evidenciadas en este estudio, en un contexto de pobreza, por lo que se plantea la necesidad de tomar medidas para el contro...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Air Pollutants , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117702

ABSTRACT

Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., H2S, nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes. CO binds avidly to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissues at high concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a signal transduction molecule in the regulation of neural and vascular function and cellular homeostasis. CO has been demonstrated to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammation, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Additional experimental indications for this gas include pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, metabolic diseases, and preeclampsia. The development of chemical CO releasing compounds constitutes a novel pharmaceutical approach to CO delivery with demonstrated effectiveness in sepsis models. Current and pending clinical evaluation will determine the usefulness of this gas as a therapeutic in human disease.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Carbon Monoxide/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Gases , Heme/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Signal Transduction
15.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(2): 337-349, fev. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610688

ABSTRACT

No artigo são apresentados dois estudos de caso sobre contaminação por chumbo no Brasil. As situações estudadas referem-se a Santo Amaro da Purificação, nordeste, e Adrianópolis, sul, onde comunidades convivem com a contaminação ambiental e a exposição humana ao chumbo em decorrência das atividades industriais e de mineração desenvolvidas durantes décadas, por uma mesma empresa, de forma inconsistente com os padrões ambientais e de mineração, com pouco controle dos impactos ambientais e à saúde humana advindos. Os principais objetivos da investigação realizada foram analisar as estratégias de comunicação de risco adotadas junto às comunidades locais e avaliar o engajamento delas no processo de gerenciamento do risco. A metodologia aplicada incluiu análise de notícias jornalísticas e entrevistas realizadas com diferentes atores sociais, como moradores, jornalistas, pesquisadores e autoridades. Os resultados indicaram a necessidade de promover o envolvimento público no debate e no processo decisório. Os resultados validaram também a hipótese de que os modelos associativos (representados por associações de moradores, por exemplo) são importantes na promoção e no estímulo da participação pública no gerenciamento do risco.


This investigation focused on lead contamination case studies in Brazil. The situations studied involve communities living in Santo Amaro da Purificação and Adrianópolis, in the north-east and south of Brazil, respectively. These communities have all had to live with environmental contamination and human exposure to lead as a consequence of industrial, mining and processing activities that were conducted by the same company for decades in a manner inconsistent with modern mining and industrial standards, with little control of environmental and human health impacts. The investigation sought to analyze the strategies of risk communication to local people, and to evaluate their engagement in risk management. The methodological approach included the analysis of newspaper articles, and interviews conducted with different stakeholders, such as residents, journalists, researchers and authorities. The results indicated the need to promote public involvement in the debate and in the decision-making process. The results also confirmed the hypothesis that associative models (represented by local neighborhood associations, for instance) are important for promoting and eliciting public participation in risk management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollution , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Lead/adverse effects , Risk Management , Brazil
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation is now thought to play a key pathogenetic role in the associations of obesity with insulin resistance and diabetes. Based on our recent findings on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including the lack of an association between obesity and either insulin resistance or diabetes prevalence among subjects with very low concentrations of POPs, we hypothesized that POP concentrations may be associated with inflammation and modify the associations between inflammation and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations among serum POPs, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were investigated in 748 non-diabetic participants aged > or =20 years. Nineteen types of POPs in 5 subclasses were selected because the POPs were detectable in > or =60% of the participants. RESULTS: Among the five subclasses of POPs, only organochlorine (OC) pesticides showed positive associations with CRP concentrations, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) showed inverse associations with CRP concentrations. There were statistically significant interactions between CRP and OC pesticides and between CRP and PCBs, in estimating HOMA-IR (P for interaction <0.01 and <0.01, respectively). CRP was not associated with HOMA-IR among subjects with low concentrations of OC pesticides or PCBs, while CRP was strongly associated with HOMA-IR among subjects with high concentrations of these POPs. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, OC pesticides were associated with increased levels of CRP, a marker of inflammation, and both OC pesticides and PCBs may also modify the associations between CRP and insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/adverse effects , Inflammation/chemically induced , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Pesticides/adverse effects , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/adverse effects
17.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 27(3): 396-405, jul.-set. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-615502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El parasitismo intestinal de conjunto con otras enfermedades infecciosas trasmisibles, constituye el motivo por el cual un gran número de pacientes acude a los consultorios populares en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela; dentro de ellos predominan los niños y adolescentes, debido a la pobre condición higiénico- sanitaria de las barriadas. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de algunos factores ambientales condicionantes en niños parasitados, del sector Altos de Milagro Norte, Maracaibo estado Zulia, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para determinar el comportamiento de la parasitosis intestinal en los niños del sector y su relación con algunos factores ambientales, para lo cual se utilizó una encuesta realizada por la autora, con la finalidad de obtener la información relacionada con las diferentes variables a estudiar. RESULTADOS: Fueron atendidos 56 pacientes, 51,7 por ciento representó al sexo masculino, este último fue el más parasitado con un 42,7 por ciento, predominaron las edades comprendidas entre 1-4 años con 39,2 por ciento, la disposición inadecuada de excretas estuvo presente en un 86,6 por ciento, así como la presencia de vectores en un 94,6 por ciento, y 26 pacientes consumían agua no tratada (57,8 por ciento). CONCLUSIONES: Existió una elevada presencia de la enfermedad, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado; sin embargo no mostró diferencias significativas con el otro sexo. Predominó el grupo etario de 1-4 años. El alto porcentaje obtenido en los factores ambientales estudiados, mostró que fueron importantes en el comienzo, transmisión y propagación de la parasitosis. Se recomendó efectuar programas de intervención comunitaria que impidan o limiten la aparición de estas enfermedades


INTRODUCTION: The intestinal parasitism together with other transmissible and infectious disease is the reason by which many patients come to popular consulting rooms in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela including the predominance of children and adolescents due the poor hygienic health condition in the neighborhoods. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of some environmental factors present in parasitized children from the Altos de Milgro Norte Maracaibo, Zulia state, from December, 2008 to December, 2009. METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to determine the behavior of the intestinal parasitosis in children from that sector and its relation to some environmental factors using a survey carried out the author. RESULTS: Fifty six patients were cared, the 51.7 percent was of male sex, this latter was the more parasitized with a 42.7 percent, there was predominance of ages from 1 to 4 years with a 39.2 percent, the inappropriate disposition of excretes was present in a 86.6 percent, as well as the presence of vectors in a 94.6 percent and 26 patients drank non-prepared water (57.8 percent). CONCLUSIONS: There was high presence of disease where the male sex was the more involved; however, there was not significant differences with the female one and predominance of age group from 1 to 4 years. The high percentage obtained in study environmental factors showed that it was important in appearance, transmission and widespread of the parasitosis. Authors recommended designing programs of community interventions to avoid or to limit the appearance of these diseases


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/prevention & control , Vector Control of Diseases , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
18.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 12(2): 151-162, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-590781

ABSTRACT

La producción de alimentos se basa en el uso de diferentes tecnologías agrícolas, que pueden derivar en conflictos entre medioambiente y agricultura. Es significativo estudiar el impacto ambiental de las nuevas tecnologías aplicadas a la agricultura, la más importante de las cuales es la transgénesis. Este trabajo se realizó en la zona algodonera del municipio del Espinal, departamento del Tolima, para la cosecha de algodón del primer semestre de 2009, usando las metodologías de Brookes y Barfoot (2006) y Kovach y colaboradores (1992). Se estudió el efecto ambiental de la aplicación de agroquímicos y el uso de maquinaria agrícola en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional. Se recogió información mediante encuestas en veinte fincas productoras de algodón. El análisis de las encuestas se realizó de forma descriptiva, determinando diferencias de tipo cuantitativo y cualitativo para los predios que utilizan la tecnología convencional o la tecnología transgénicas (doble gen, Bt/RR), para luego realizar una correlación con el “Enviromental Index Quotient” (EIQ). No se encontraron diferencias entre el EIQ de campo de las dos tecnologías, aunque la tecnología transgénica tiene ventajas ambientales en el control de algunas plagas de lepidópteros. En relación con el uso de maquinaria agrícola, se encontró que la tecnología convencional genera menor liberación de CO2, gas de efecto invernadero. La metodología de Brookes y Barfoot puede adaptarse para estudios comparativos de tecnologías agrícolas en países tropicales.


Food production is based on the use of various agricultural technologies, which can lead to conflicts between environment and agriculture. It is important to study the environmental impact of new technologies applied to agriculture, the most important of which is transgenesis. This work was carried out in the cotton belt of the town of Espinal, Tolima Department for the cotton crop in the first half of 2009, through methodologies Brookes & Barfoot (2006) and Kovach et al (1992). We studied the environmental impact of pesticide application and use of agricultural machinery for cultivation of transgenic and conventional cotton. Information was collected through surveys of 20 farms producing cotton. The analysis of the survey was conducted descriptively, by determining differences in quantitative and qualitative for the sites that use conventional technology, and transgenic (Bt gene and double RR / RR), and then make a correlation with the Environmental Index Quotient (EIQ). No differences were found between the fields EIQ the two technologies, although transgenic technology has environmental advantages in the control of some lepidopteran pests. In connection with the use of agricultural machinery, was found to conventional technology generates less release of CO2, greenhouse gas. The Brookes and Barfoot methodology could be adapted in comparative studies of agricultural technologies in tropical countries.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Gossypium/growth & development , Gossypium/adverse effects , Gossypium/enzymology , Gossypium/physiology , Gossypium/genetics , Gossypium/immunology , Gossypium/parasitology , Gossypium/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control
19.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 27(4): 512-519, dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-573928

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de enfermedades transmisibles, salud mental y exposición a contaminantes ambientales en la población aledaña al proyecto minero Las Bambas antes de la fase de explotación. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 453 personas (niños y adultos) residentes en tres distritos de la región Apurímac: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho y Progreso. Se evaluó el desarrollo psicomotor, coeficiente intelectual y niveles de ansiedad y depresión, así como la presencia de enfermedades transmisibles (sífilis, VIH, hepatitis viral B, C y Delta,) metales pesados (nivel de plomo en sangre, nivel de cadmio, arsénico y mercurio, en orina) y colinesterasa sérica. Resultados. La edad promedio fue de 29,0 ± 17,3 años, 59,2 por ciento fueron mujeres y el tiempo de residencia fue de 6 a 15 años. No se encontraron casos de VIH, hepatitis C y Delta, 1,4 por ciento fueron positivos a sífilis y en relación con hepatitis B se encontró 1,7 por ciento positivos a anti HBc total y 0,5 por ciento positivos a HBs Ag. Se encontraron valores por encima de lo permitido de mercurio en 1,8 por ciento de la población, arsénico en 4,6 por ciento, plomo en 24,3 por ciento y cadmio en 43,9 por ciento. Además, el 29,1 por ciento de la población tuvo valores de colinesterasa inferiores al rango referencial. En la población infantil, 12,5 por ciento presentaba riesgo en su desarrollo psicomotor; 2,1 por ciento y 3,1 por ciento presentaba retardo mental leve y fronterizo, respectivamente; 34,3 por ciento de los mayores de 12 años sufrían de ansiedad y 17,5 por ciento de depresión. Conclusiones. Existen evidencias de contaminación ambiental por metales pesados y presencia de enfermedades transmisibles en esta población. Una futura explotación minera irresponsable podría agravar dicha situación epidemiológica.


Objective. To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Material and methods. Cross sectional study performed in 453 subjects (children and adults) living in three Apurimac region districts: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho and Progreso. Psychomotor development, intelligence quotient, anxiety and depression levels and the presence of communicable diseases (viral hepatitis B, C and delta, syphilis and HIV) were evaluated, as well as heavy metals (lead in blood, and cadmium, arsenic and mercury in urine samples) and serum cholinesterase levels. Results. Mean age was 29 ± 17.25 years, 59.2 percent were female and a range of 6 to 15 years of living in the area was found. No cases of HIV, hepatitis C and delta were found, 1.4 percent were positive for syphilis and in relation to hepatitis B, we found 1,7 percent of subjects positive to total anti HBc and 0.5 percent positive for HBsAg. Heavy metal testing identified people with exceeding limits of mercury in 1.8 percent arsenic in 4.6 percent, lead in 24.3 percent and cadmium in 43.9 percent. Besides, 29.1 percent of the population had cholinesterase levels below normal range. Among children, 12.5 percent were at psychomotor development levels of risk; 2.1 percent and 3.1 percent suffered from mild and borderline intellectual disability (mental retardation), respectively. 34.3 percent of subjects older than 12 had anxiety and 17.5 percent depression. Conclusions. Evidence of heavy metal environmental pollution and presence of communicable diseases in this population were already found. Future careless mining activity could worsen the current health situation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mining , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Health , Peru/epidemiology
20.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 17(6): 560-562, jul. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-576289

ABSTRACT

Reconocer los factores individuales y sociales asociados con la falta de uso de equipos de protección personal por los trabajadores rurales que utilizan pesticidas es fundamental para comprender este importante aspecto de la salud laboral.


Subject(s)
Chemical Compound Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Pesticide Exposure , Pesticide Utilization , Rural Workers
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