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1.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 161-163, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362084

ABSTRACT

La contaminación ambiental afecta a más del 90% de la población mundial, y es considerado un factor de morbi-mortalidad respiratoria desde mediados de 1900. Sin embargo, al día de hoy las políticas públicas no han logrado mejorar en forma sustancial la calidad del aire. Siendo causante de más de 3.7 millones de muertes anuales según datos OMS. Los niños son los principales afectados debido a diferencias anatómicas, fisiológicas y de estilos de vida. Dentro de las complicaciones más frecuentes se encuentran las infecciones respiratorias, pero además puede verse afectado el desarrollo neurológico, patologías oncológicas, enfermedades crónicas (diabetes y asma), alteraciones cardiovasculares, malformaciones congénitas y salud mental entre otros. En el siguiente artículo se revisará la evidencia científica en relación a la contaminación ambiental, como afecta al sistema inmune y el microbioma, generando un aumento en las infecciones respiratorias de los niños.


Environmental pollution affects more than 90% of the world population, and is considered a factor of respiratory morbidity and mortality since the mid-1900s. However, to date public policies have not substantially improved air quality. Being the cause of more than 3.7 million deaths annually according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), children are more susceptible due to anatomical, physiological and lifestyle differences with adults. Respiratory infections are among the most frequent complications, but neurological development, oncological pathologies, chronic diseases (diabetes and asthma), cardiovascular disorders, congenital malformations and mental health, can be attributed to pollution. The following article will review the scientific evidence of environmental pollution, how it affects the immune system and the microbiome, generating an increase in respiratory infections in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18989, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345450

ABSTRACT

Hospital infections (HI) are a serious public health problem in many countries. Several studies have identified strains correlating to surgical site infections, many with multi-resistance. The goals of this study was to quantify, to identify and to verify the resistance profile of microorganisms collected at two hospitals settings, and to alert health professionals how environmental contamination can influence hospital infection rates. For air sampling in operating rooms, intensive care unit and materials sterilization center, the impaction method (Spin Air, IUL®) and passive sedimentation were used. For the isolation of bacteria on surfaces and uniforms contact plates (RODAC®) were used. Identification of the microorganisms was performed using Vitek® 2 Systems. The antibiograms were conducted according to the disk diffusion method recommended by CLSI. The surgical center of hospital B presented more than 500 CFU/m3 in aerial microbial load. In the aerial microbiota of the sampled areas of both hospitals, M. luteus, S. haemolyticus and S. hominis spp hominis were the prevalent microorganisms, with a percentage greater than 30%. On the surfaces and uniforms there was a prevalence of M. luteus (40%) and S. hominis spp hominis (20%) among others, and some of the resistant strains were isolated from environments with microbial load within the recommended limits.


Subject(s)
Hospitals/standards , Malpractice/classification , Drug Resistance , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Cross Infection/complications , Health Personnel/education , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Fires/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
4.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 274-283, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131044

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comprobar las diferencias morfológicas y funcionales del corazón en dos poblaciones latinoamericanas con distintas características raciales y condiciones de vida. Métodos: Mediante el ecocardiograma transtorácico se obtuvieron datos de 206 personas: 103 del poblado de Atahualpa, Ecuador (nivel del mar, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 53 mujeres) y 103 habitantes de la Ciudad de México (altitud de 2,300 m, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 52 mujeres). Resultados: Las diferencias significativas entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fueron frecuencia cardíaca, 66 vs. 80; diámetro diastólico ventricular izquierdo, 40.8 vs. 42.7; grosor del tabique, 9.8 vs. 11.6; pared posterior, 10.2 vs. 11.8; volumen-latido en centímetros cúbicos, 53.0 vs. 46.6; volumen auricular Izquierdo, 25.8 vs. 33.6; presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar, 27.1 vs. 42.0; gasto cardíaco, 3.1 vs. 4.8; cociente E/Ea, 6.4 vs. 9.2; área mitral, 3.4 vs. 3.0. El comparativo de la función diastólica entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fue: tipo 0: 2 vs. 1; tipo 1: 96 vs. 81; tipo 2: 5 vs. 20; tipo 3: 0 vs. 1. Conclusión: Las características ecocardiográficas que identifican los cambios adaptativos del corazón en Atahualpa coinciden con personas que viven a nivel del mar y con buena actividad física y en México con los habitantes de grandes altitudes y expuestos a contaminación ambiental. La función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo fue similar en ambas poblaciones, lo que indica que los cambios adaptativos hacen posible que el corazón sea eficaz en diferentes circunstancias del ecosistema.


Abstract Objective: To compare morphological and functional differences of the heart in two Latin American populations with different ethnicity and living conditions. Methods: Using transthoracic echocardiogram we obtained data on 206 individuals: 103 from Atahualpa, Ecuador (living at sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 53 women) and 103 inhabitants from Mexico City (living at 2300 m above sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 52 women). Results: Significant differences between Atahualpa and Mexico were: Heart rate 66 versus 80 x’, left ventricular diastolic diameter 40.8 versus 42.7, septum thickness 9.8 versus 11.6, posterior wall 10.2 versus 11.8, stroke volume cc 53.0 versus 46.6, left atrial volume 25. 8 versus 33.6, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery 27.1 versus 42.0, cardiac output 3.1 versus 4.8, E/Ea ratio 6.4 versus 9.2, and mitral area 3.4 versus 3.0. Comparison of diastolic function between Atahualpa and Mexico was: Type 0; 2 versus 1. Type 1; 96 versus 81. Type 2; 5 versus 20 and Type 3; 0 versus 1. Conclusion: Echocardiographic characteristics that identify adaptive changes of the heart in Atahualpa are coincident with people living at sea level and with good physical activity, and Mexico City, with inhabitants living at high altitudes and exposed to environmental pollution. The systolic function of the left ventricle was similar in both populations, indicating that adaptive changes allow the heart to be effective in different circumstances of the ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Altitude , Mexico
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(5): e20200183, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134896

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is probably systemic, has a major respiratory component, and is transmitted by person-to-person contact, via airborne droplets or aerosols. In the respiratory tract, the virus begins to replicate within cells, after which the host starts shedding the virus. The individuals recognized as being at risk for an unfavorable COVID-19 outcome are those > 60 years of age, those with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, those with hypertension, and those with chronic lung diseases, as well as those using chemotherapy, corticosteroids, or biological agents. Some studies have suggested that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with other risk factors, such as smoking, external environmental pollution, and certain climatic conditions. The purpose of this narrative review was to perform a critical assessment of the relationship between COVID-19 and these potential risk factors.


RESUMO A doença denominada COVID-19, causada pelo vírus altamente contagioso denominado SARS-CoV-2, é uma doença provavelmente sistêmica com importante componente respiratório e é transmitida pelo contato com uma pessoa infectada por meio de gotículas e/ou aerossóis. Após atingir o trato respiratório, o vírus inicia a multiplicação intracelular e, a seguir, sua semeadura. Os grupos de risco reconhecidos para uma evolução desfavorável são indivíduos com idade > 60 anos, portadores de doenças crônicas, como diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e/ou doenças pulmonares crônicas, assim como aqueles em uso de quimioterápicos, corticosteroides ou imunobiológicos. Alguns estudos mostram uma possível associação do SARS-CoV-2 com outros fatores de risco, como tabagismo, poluição ambiental externa e determinadas condições climáticas. O objetivo desta revisão narrativa foi avaliar criticamente a relação entre COVID-19 e esses possíveis fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
7.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(1): 154-159, jan.-mar. 2019. tabs, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-968592

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento e comportamento autorreferidos sobre o descarte domiciliar de medicamentos. Método: Estudo transversal tipo survey, com dados coletados por meio de um questionário em maio de 2017, na cidade de Picos­PI, com amostra de 153 residências. Resultados: Sobre o conhecimento autorreferido, apesar de 139 (90,8%) afirmarem ter ciência sobre o risco ambiental, 144 (94,1%) relataram não ter conhecimento sobre local adequado de realizar o descarte,104 (68,0%) admitiram que o modo como descarta os medicamentos no ambiente traz algum risco individual e 118 (77,1%) perceberam a existência de risco coletivo. Quanto ao comportamento, 107 (69,9%) afirmaram já ter descartado medicamento devido ao fato do prazo de validade vencido, e a maioria afirmou realizar o descarte dentro da embalagem original e no lixo doméstico, 124 (81,0%). Conclusão: O conhecimento e comportamento autorreferidos demonstram fragilidades que comprometem a saúde pública e ambiental


Objective: To analyze the self-reported knowledge and behavior on the disposal of medicines. Method: A cross-sectional study with data collected through a questionnaire in May 2017, in the city of Picos-PI, with a sample of 153 residences. Results: Regarding the selfreported knowledge, 139 (90.8%) stated that they had knowledge about environmental risk, 144 (94.1%) reported having no knowledge of the appropriate disposal site. 104 (68.0%) admit that the way they dispose of medicines in the environment poses some individual risk and 118 (77.1%) perceive the existence of a collective risk. Regarding the behavior, 107 (69.9%) stated that they had discarded medication due to the fact that the expiration date had expired, and the majority stated that they disposed of 124 (81.0%) in the original packaging and household waste. Conclusion: Self-reported knowledge and behavior demonstrate fragilities that compromise public and environmental health


Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento y el comportamiento autorreferidos sobre el descarte domiciliar de medicamentos. Método: Estudio transversal tipo survey, con datos recogidos por medio de un cuestionario en mayo de 2017, en la ciudad de Picos-PI, con muestra de 153 residencias. Resultados: Sobre el conocimiento autorreferido a pesar de 139 (90,8%) afirmar tener ciencia sobre el riesgo ambiental, 144 (94,1%) relató no tener conocimiento sobre el lugar adecuado de realizar el descarte. (68,0%) admite que el modo en que descarta los medicamentos en el ambiente trae algún riesgo individual y 118 (77,1%) percibe la existencia de riesgo colectivo. En cuanto al comportamiento, 107 (69,9%) afirmaron ya haber descartado medicamento debido al hecho del plazo de validez vencido, y la mayoría afirmó realizar el descarte dentro del embalaje original y en la basura doméstica, 124 (81,0%). Conclusión: El conocimiento y comportamiento autorreferidos demuestran fragilidades que comprometen la salud pública y ambiental


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Refuse Disposal/methods , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Hazards , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Health Risk Behaviors
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 481-489, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973849

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Methods: We investigated the ocular surfaces of thirty patients with Sjögren's syndrome and thirty healthy volunteers (control group) living in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We used nitrogen dioxide as an indicator of exposure to air pollution. An ocular symptoms questionnaire was answered by all subjects, who also underwent a complete ocular surface ophthalmic examination-including an Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, biomicroscopy, tear breakup time, Schirmer 1 test, corneal and conjunctival vital staining with fluorescein and lissamine green, tear lysozyme concentration, and impression cytology. Results: In almost all ocular surface test findings, we found a positive and significant correlation between higher levels of exposure to air pollution and higher levels of ocular surface damage in both the control group and Sjögren's syndrome patients. In Sjögren's syndrome patients, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear breakup time, vital staining and impression cytology showed a significant correlation between high levels of air pollution and ocular surface disease. In the control group, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear breakup time, and impression cytology showed a significant correlation between high levels of air pollution and ocular surface disease. Conclusions: Here we demonstrated that in patients with dry eye syndrome associated with Sjögren, abnormalities of the ocular surface and eye irritation related to air pollution are more severe than those in the control group. We believe that measuring air quality should be not only an integral part of the evaluation of ocular surface disease but also a therapeutic consideration.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da poluição do ar na superfície ocular de pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren. Métodos: Foram investigadas as superfícies oculares de trinta pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren e trinta voluntários saudáveis (grupo controle) residentes na Região Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Usamos o dióxido de nitrogênio como um indicador de exposição à poluição do ar. Um questionário de sintomas oculares foi respondido por todos os indivíduos, que também foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico completo da superfície ocular - incluindo um questionário do Índice da Doença da Superfície Ocular, biomicroscopia, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, teste de Schirmer 1, coloração da córnea e conjuntiva com fluoresceína e lissamina verde, concentração de lisozima lacrimal e citologia de impressão. Resultados: Em quase todos os achados do teste de superfície ocular, encontramos uma correlação positiva e significativa entre níveis mais altos de exposição à poluição do ar e níveis mais elevados de danos na superfície ocular tanto no grupo controle quanto nos pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren. Em pacientes com síndrome de Sjögren, o questionário do Índice da Doença da Superfície Ocular, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, coloração vital e citologia de impressão mostraram uma correlação significativa entre altos níveis de poluição do ar e doença da superfície ocular. No grupo controle, o questionário do Índice de Doenças da Superfície Ocular, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal e citologia de impressão mostraram uma correlação significativa entre altos níveis de poluição do ar e doença da superfície ocular. Conclusões: Aqui demonstramos que, pacientes com síndrome de olho seco associada a Sjögren, as anormalidades da superfície ocular e a irritação ocular relacionadas à poluição do ar são mais graves do que aquelas no grupo controle. Acreditamos que a medição da qualidade do ar não deve ser apenas uma parte integral da avaliação da doença da superfície ocular, mas também uma consideração terapêutica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sjogren's Syndrome/chemically induced , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Argentina , Tears/chemistry , Severity of Illness Index , Dry Eye Syndromes/complications , Muramidase/chemistry , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Surveys and Questionnaires , Conjunctiva/chemistry , Cornea/chemistry , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
9.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(5): 1629-1646, set.-oct. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1043121

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica constituye un problema de salud en el Hospital Territorial "Julio Miguel Aristegui Villamil" en Cárdenas de la provincia de Matanzas, siendo una de las causas de ingresos frecuentes en sus unidades de atención al grave, las cuales en ocasiones presentan una evolución desfavorable. El tabaquismo, la contaminación ambiental y otros factores son los elementos que hacen crecer esta enfermedad con complicaciones que prolongan la estadía y elevan la mortalidad. Objetivo: determinar los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica en pacientes ingresados en unidades de atención al grave. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo para describir esta enfermedad en los pacientes ingresados en las unidades de atención al grave en el hospital de Cárdenas durante el periodo de enero del 2015 a diciembre del 2016. La muestra coincide con el universo. Las variables empleadas fueron sexo, edad, antecedentes patológicos personales y factores de riesgo. Resultados: predominó el grupo etáreo de 65-74 años (43.8%), el sexo masculino fue el más representado, los factores de riesgo más significativo el tabaquismo (86%) y las enfermedades cardiovasculares (69.8%). Conclusiones: en la última década la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica ha comenzado a preocupar a la comunidad médica internacional por su relación directa con el tabaquismo, dada la tendencia al aumento de este hábito (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a problem in the Territorial Hospital "Julio Miguel Aristegui Villamil" in Cardenas, province of Matanzas. It is a cause of frequent admission in its units of care to seriously ill patients, having sometimes an unfavorable development. Tobacco smoking, environmental contamination and other factors are the elements making this disease to boost with longest staying and increased mortality. Objective: to determine the COPD's risk factors in in-patients of units of care to seriously ill patients. Materials and methods: a retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive study was carried out to describe this disease in the in-patients in the units of care to seriously ill patients in the hospital of Cardenas during the period from January 2015 to December 2016. The sample coincides with universe. The studied variables were sex, age, personal pathological antecedents. A card for collecting the information was used as database. Results: the 65-70-4 years-old age group predominated (43.8 %). the male sex was the most represented one; the most significant risk factors were tobacco smoking (86 %) and cardiovascular diseases (69.8 %). Conclusions: the COPD has began to worry the international medical community in the last decade due to its direct relation to smoking and given the tendency of this habit to increase (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Patients , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
10.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(2): 57-64, set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-989212

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la exposición crónica al benceno y tolueno produce alteraciones sobre la médula ósea y el sistema nervioso central, entre otros. En orina, el ácido trans, trans mucónico (t, t-MA) es uno de los biomarcadores de exposición al benceno y el o-cresol (oCre) al tolueno. Objetivo: analizar los resultados de los niveles de t, t-MA y oCre urinarios en una población infanto-juvenil residente en Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y Conurbano Bonaerense potencialmente expuesta a benceno y tolueno ambiental. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de los resultados de t, t-MA y oCre urinarios. Las muestras de orina ingresaron al laboratorio con solicitud de t, t-MA (n=1519) y oCre (n=1447) durante el período 2011-2017 (rango etario entre 0 a 19 años). El t, t-MA se cuantificó por UFLC con detector de arreglo de diodos y el oCre por CG con detector de ionización por llama. Resultados: la edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 4,8 años y la mediana 4,6 años.Las concentraciones de t, t-MA urinario fueron: menor de 50 μg/l (44,8%); entre 50-500 μg/l (52,1%) y mayores de 500 μg/l (3,1%). Expresadas por gramo de creatinina: entre 15-163 μg/g creatinina (60,4%) y mayores de 163 μg/g creatinina (39,6%). El límite de cuantificación de t, t-MA fue de 50 μg/l. Las concentraciones de oCre urinario fueron: menor de 0,20 mg/l (97,7%) y entre 0,20-0,50 mg/l (2,3%) y mayor de 0,50 mg/l (0%). Expresadas por gramo de creatinina: menor de 0,30 mg/g creatinina en el 0,8% y mayores de 0,30 mg/g creatinina en el 1,5%. El límite de cuantificación de oCre fue de 0,20 mg/l. Conclusiones: los resultados del trabajo podrían indicar una contaminación ambiental persistente, en especial en el Conurbano Bonaerense, donde debería continuarse el monitoreo de algunas zonas. Pero, por otro lado, es de vital importancia tener en cuenta los factores de confusión, tales como la dieta, la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental (fumador pasivo) y la tasa de excreción renal que llevarían a una sobre-estimación de los resultados y a una incorrecta toma de decisiones.


Introduction: Chronic exposure to benzene and toluene produces alterations in the bone marrow and the central nervous system, among other effects. In urine, trans, trans muconic acid (t, t-MA) is one of the biomarkers of exposure to benzene and o-cresol (oCre), to toluene. Objective: To analyze the results of urinary t, t-MA and oCre levels in an infant-juvenile population resident in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and the Conurbano Bonaerense, potentially exposed to environmental benzene and toluene. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of urinary t, t-MA and oCre results was performed. The urine samples entered the laboratory with the request of t, t-MA (n = 1519) and oCre (n = 1447) during the period 2011- 2017. The age range of the population was between 0 and 19 years. The t, t-MA was quantified by UFLC with diode array detector and the oCre by GC with flame ionization detector. Results: The average age of the patients was 4.8 years and the median age was 4.6 years. The urinary concentrations of t, t-MA were: below 50 μg/l (44.8%); between 50-500 μg/l (52.1%) and above 500 μg/l (3.1%). Expressed per gram of creatinine: between 15-163 μg/g creatinine (60.4%) and greater 163 μg/g creatinine (39.6%). The limit of quantification of t, t-MA was 50 μg/l. The urinary oCre concentrations were: less than 0.20 mg/l (97.7%) and between 0.20-0.50 mg/l (2.3%). Expressed per gram of creatinine: less than 0.30 mg/g creatinine in 0.8% and greater than 0.30 mg/g creatinine in 1.5%. The limit of quantification of oCre was 0.20mg/l. Conclusions: The results of the study could indicate persistent environmental contamination, especially in the Conurbano Bonaerense, where monitoring of some areas should be continued. However, it is of vital importance to take into account the confounding factors, such as diet, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (passive smoking) and the rate of renal excretion, which would lead to an over-estimation of the results and to incorrect decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Toluene/poisoning , Toluene/urine , Benzene/poisoning , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/urine , Argentina/epidemiology , Urban Area , Chemical Compound Exposure , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(10): 3281-3293, Out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890161

ABSTRACT

Resumo O uso de agrotóxicos na agricultura brasileira é um problema de saúde pública, dadas as contaminações no ambiente, em alimentos e as intoxicações na saúde humana. Objetivou-se apresentar a distribuição espacial da área plantada de lavouras, consumo de agrotóxicos e agravos à saúde relacionados, como estratégia de Vigilância em Saúde. Obteve-se dados de área plantada de 21 culturas predominantes, indicadores de consumo de agrotóxicos por hectare para cada cultura e agravos à saúde. Espacializou-se o consumo de agrotóxicos nos municípios brasileiros e correlacionou-se às incidências de intoxicações por agrotóxicos: aguda, subaguda e crônica. Constatou-se predomínio dos cultivos de soja, milho e cana, que juntos corresponderam a 76% da área plantada no Brasil em 2015. Pulverizou-se 899 milhões de litros de agrotóxicos nessas lavouras, com Mato Grosso, Paraná e Rio Grande Sul tendo utilizado as maiores quantidades. Os agravos à saúde apresentaram correlações positivas e significativas com o uso de agrotóxicos. A estratégia metodológica possibilitou identificar municípios prioritários para a Vigilância em Saúde e o desenvolvimento de ações intersetoriais de prevenção e mitigação dos impactos dos agrotóxicos na saúde e ambiente.


Abstract The intensive use of pesticides in Brazilian agriculture is a public health issue due to contamination of the environment, food and human health poisoning. The study aimed to show the spatial distribution of the planted area of agricultural crops, the use of pesticides and related health problems, as a Health Surveillance strategy. We obtained data from the planted area of 21 predominant crops, indicators of the consumption of pesticides per hectare for each crop and health problems. The amount of pesticides used in the Brazilian municipalities was spatially distributed and correlated with the incidence of pesticides poisoning: acute, sub-acute and chronic. There was a predominance of soybean, corn and sugar cane crops, which together accounted for 76% of the area planted in Brazil in 2015. Some 899 million liters of pesticides were sprayed in these crops, and Mato Grosso, Paraná and Rio Grande Sul used the largest quantities, respectively. The health problems showed positive and significant correlations with pesticide use. The methodological strategy facilitated the identification of priority municipalities for Health Surveillance and the development of intersectoral actions to prevent and mitigate the impacts of pesticides on health and the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Health , Public Health , Pesticides/poisoning , Brazil/epidemiology , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2681-2692, Ago. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890409

ABSTRACT

Resumo A toxicidade do benzeno é conhecida e os tipos de doenças a ele ligadas vêm se ampliando. Foi recuperada a trajetória e as descobertas relacionadas às doenças combinadas com o deslocamento das atividades dos países centrais para os periféricos. Neste processo há correlações na prevenção da exposição ao benzeno. No Brasil foram analisadas as aplicações das regulações para identificar seu impacto, pois as informações sobre contaminação ambiental e doenças é bastante precária. Prevaleceram legislações formais sem registro de sua aplicação. Somente quando houve mobilização de trabalhadores e técnicos ocorreram avanços.


Abstract The toxicity of benzene is widely known, and types of illnesses linked to it have been increasing. This article traces the historical trajectory and the findings related to the diseases, combined with the displacement of industrial activities from central countries to peripheral ones. In this process, there are correlations in prevention of benzene exposure. In Brazil, the application of regulations was analyzed to identify their impact because information on environmental contamination and diseases is very precarious. Formal legislation prevailed without records of its application. Only when workers and technicians mobilized did advances occur.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzene/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Brazil , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Environmental Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(3): 85-89, jul. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998957

ABSTRACT

It has been shown that there is an association between air pollution and cardiovascular mortality. In bone pathology, studies show that air pollution is associated with a risk of developing osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture associated with MP2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). The aim of our study was to determine whether or not there is an association between air pollution and osteoporotic disease, associating the incidence of femoral neck fracture in individuals aged 50 years or more and the contamination present in the several cities. Our results showed no statistically significant association between air pollution, evaluated using PM10 and PM2.5 as indicators, and the average annual incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture, comparing the most polluted cities and the less polluted cities of Chile


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Femoral Neck Fractures/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Femoral Neck Fractures/etiology
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(3): 640-649, may.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1121292

ABSTRACT

Los sonidos indeseados constituyen el estorbo público más generalizado en la sociedad actual. La contaminación sonora, representa un problema ambiental para el hombre por las afectaciones a la salud que pueden ocasionar, los peligros por ruido actualmente están identificados como un gran problema a resolver por la salud ambiental, son las formas de energía potencialmente nocivas en el ambiente, que pueden resultar en peligrosidad inmediata o gradual de adquirir un daño cuando se transfiere en cantidades suficientes a individuos expuestos. La liberación de energía física puede ser súbita y no controlada, como el caso de un ruido fuerte explosivo o mantenido y más o menos bajo control como en las condiciones de trabajo con la exposición a largo plazo a niveles inferiores de ruido constante. Con la vigencia de la actualización de los lineamientos de la política económica y social del partido y la Revolución para el período 2016-2021, los autores se han motivado a incursionar en la problemática haciendo una valoración del ruido como uno de los ejemplos más comunes de peligro físico que ocasiona efectos en la salud (AU).


Unwanted sounds are the most generalized public hindrance in the current society. Sound contamination is an environmental problem for people because of the health disorders it could cause. Dangers by noise are nowadays identified as a big problem to solve for the environmental health because they are the forms of energy potentially noxious in the environment that could result in an immediate or gradual risk of causing damage when they are transferred to the exposed individuals in enough quantity. The physical energy release could be unexpected and non-controlled as in the case of a strong explosive noise, or sustained and more or less under control as in working conditions with the long-term exposition to lower levels of constant noise. In force of the Party and Revolution social and economic politics up-dating for the period 2016-2021, the authors have been motivated to deal with this problem, stating that noise is one of the most common examples of physical danger causing effects on human health (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Noise/prevention & control , Damage Assessment , Environmental Imbalance , Environment , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/history , Noise/adverse effects
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 27-37, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780032

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Cyrtocymura scorpioides (sin. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.), Piracá é utilizada popularmente para tratamento de úlceras, traumatismos, candidíase, processos inflamatórios e dores musculares. Objetivou-se verificar nas plantas cultivadas na Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas e Urbanova em São José dos Campos - SP, a influência da poluição veicular nos rendimentos da matéria seca (folhas), no óleo essencial, e no extrato bruto, bem como a ação citotóxica em células HEP-2 e L929, e identificar os componentes do óleo essencial e ação fungicida em Candida albicans. As estacas (54) foram cultivadas durante 6 meses em solo + adubo (2:1) na Universidade do Vale do Paraíba - UNIVAP, e distribuídas nas estações Dutra (E1 - tráfego intenso), Teotônio (E2 - tráfego médio) e Urbanova (E3 - tráfego baixo), onde 18 mudas foram cultivadas durante 6 meses, sendo 3 repetições de 6 plantas. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação e seus componentes identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (CG-MS), através de indice de similaridade com a base de espectros Wiley L. O extrato bruto foi concentrado por rotavapor. A ação fúngica foi avaliada pelo teste de difusão em disco e a citotoxicidade pelo teste MTT. Em Urbanova (E3) verificouse maior rendimento da matéria seca, do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial. Identificou-se no óleo essencial: ß-cariofileno, α-cariofileno, germacreno D, delta-cadineno e cariofileno. O Óleo Essencial possui possui baixa ação fungicida em C. albicans, enquanto o extrato hidroalcóolico se mostrou citotóxico para L929 e HEp-2.


ABSTRACT Cyrtocymura scorpioides (syn. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.), known as Piracá, is popularly used for the treatment of ulcers, trauma, candidiasis, inflammatory disorders, and muscle pain. This study aimed to assess the influence of vehicular pollution on the yield of dry matter (leaves), essential oil, and crude extract, and the cytotoxic action in HEP-2 and L929 cells. This study also aimed to identify the components of the essential oil, and verify its fungicidal action against Candida albicans in plants grown in Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas, and Urbanova, São José dos Campos - SP, Brazil. The seedlings (54) were grown in soil + fertilizer (2:1) at the Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, and distributed to different stations, Dutra (E1 - heavy traffic), Teotônio (E2 - medium traffic), and Urbanova (E3 - low traffic), where 18 seedlings were cultivated for 6 months, with 3 replicates of 6 plants. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and its components were identified by by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with a similarity index computed using the Wiley L spectra. The crude extract was concentrated in a Buchi Rotary Evaporator R-114, the fungicidal action and cytoptoxicity were evaluated using the disk diffusion method and the MTT test, respectively. In Urbanova (E3), high yields of dry matter, crude extract, and essential oil were obtained. The following components were identified in the oil: ß-caryophyllene, α -caryophyllene, germacrene D, delta-cardinene, and caryophyllene oxide. The oil was found to have low fungicidal action against C. albicans, while the hydroalcoholic extract was cytotoxic to L929 and HEP-2.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Vernonia/classification , Cytotoxins/analysis , Oils, Volatile/classification
16.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.845-861.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971572
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 98 p. ilus, mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782427

ABSTRACT

Este estudo determinou a concentração de vários metais no solo e na água da microbacia do distrito industrial do Pequiá, Açailândia-MA, e investigou a variação das concentrações dos metais no solo em função da distância às indústrias. Os metais investigados os metais foram Arsênio (As), Cádmio (Cd), Manganês (Mn), Mercúrio (Hg), Chumbo (Pb) e Níquel (Ni), que podem acarretar diversos agravos na saúde em virtude da sua toxicidade em diferentes alvos biológicos. O distrito industrial do Pequiá é caracterizado por indústrias siderúrgicas e rodovias com intenso tráfego de veículos a combustão, o que desperta a necessidade de se conhecer as concentrações ambientais desses metais. Metodologia: Foram coletadas 44 amostras de solo do entorno das indústrias nos período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente, e água de três pontos do córrego Pequiá no período chuvoso. A determinação da concentração de metais em solo foi realizada por Espectrometria de Emissão Atômica por Plasma Acoplado Indutivamente (ICP-OES), e em água por meio de Espectrometria de Massa com Plasma Acoplado Indutivamente (ICP-MS). (...) O único metal detectado em todas as amostras no período seco foi o Hg. A análise de correlação entre as concentrações no solo em cada período revelou correlação positiva estatisticamente significativa entre Pb e Mn no período chuvoso e correlação negativa com significância limítrofe entre Mn e Hg. Em relação ao gradiente de concentração, se observou diminuição apenas da concentração de Pb ao longo da linha reta entre as indústrias e o bairro Pequiá. A diminuição da concentração de Pb com a distância foi estatisticamente significativa, tanto no período chuvoso quanto no seco. Conclusão: Os metais Mn e Pb foram os mais frequentemente encontrados e com as concentrações mais elevadas tanto no solo quanto na água, muito provavelmente devido ao processo de fabricação do ferro gusa e ao intenso tráfego de veículos...


This study determined the concentration of heavy metals in soil and surface water in the industrial district of Pequiá, Açailândia-MA, as well as investigated the variation in concentration of metals in soil with the distance to the industries. Metals investigated were Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb) and Niquel (Ni), which may cause several health effects. The Pequiá industrial district is composed by several steel plants and roads with heavy vehicle traffic. Methods: Soil samples were collected from 44 points around the industrial district in the dry and rainy season, respectively, and water samples were collected at three points of the Pequiá stream during the rainy season. Concentrations of metals in soil were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (...) Hg was the only metal detected in all soil samples in the dry season. Correlation analysis between concentrations of metals in soil showed a statistically significant positive correlation between Pb e Mn in the rainy season. Pb was the only metal showing a reduction in concentration across the straight line between the industries and Pequiá neighborhood. Reduction in Pb concentration with increasing distance was statistically significant in both seasons. Conclusions: Mn e Pb were the metals most frequently found and those presenting the highest concentrations in soil and water, suggesting that the main sources of these metals in the study area may be iron manufacturing process and motor vehicle traffic...


Subject(s)
Humans , Metals/toxicity , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Surface Waters , Soil/chemistry , Arsenic/toxicity , Cadmium/toxicity , Lead/toxicity , Manganese/toxicity , Mercury/toxicity , Nickel/toxicity , Environmental Pollution
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(6): 353-358, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726384

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Little has been discussed about the increased risk of stroke after exposure to air pollutants, particularly in Brazil. The mechanisms through which air pollution can influence occurrences of vascular events such as stroke are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to some air pollutants and risk of death due to stroke. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time series study with data from São José dos Campos, Brazil. METHODS: Data on deaths due to stroke among individuals of all ages living in São José dos Campos and on particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were used. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized additive model of Poisson regression with the Statistica software, in unipollutant and multipollutant models. The percentage increase in the risk of increased interquartile difference was calculated. RESULTS: There were 1,032 deaths due to stroke, ranging from 0 to 5 per day. The statistical significance of the exposure to particulate matter was ascertained in the unipollutant model and the importance of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, in the multipollutant model. The increases in risk were 10% and 7%, for particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify exposure to air pollutants as a risk factor for death due to stroke, even in a city with low levels of air pollution. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Pouco se tem discutido sobre o aumento do risco de acidente vascular cerebral após exposição a poluentes do ar, principalmente no Brasil. Os mecanismos pelos quais a poluição pode influenciar a ocorrência de eventos vasculares, tais como acidente vascular cerebral, ainda são pouco compreendidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a associação entre exposição a alguns poluentes do ar e risco de morte por acidente vascular cerebral. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais com dados de São José dos Campos, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Dados sobre mortes por acidente vascular cerebral em indivíduos de todas as idades que vivem em São José dos Campos e sobre material particulado, dióxido de enxofre e ozônio foram utilizados. A análise estatística utilizou modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson com o software Statistica, em modelos "unipollutant" e "multipollutant". Foi calculado o percentual de aumento no risco para o aumento da diferença interquartil. RESULTADOS: Houve 1.032 mortes por acidente vascular cerebral, que variou de 0 a 5 por dia. A significância estatística da exposição ao material particulado em modelo "unipoluente" e a importância do material particulado e dióxido de enxofre no modelo "multipoluente" foram verificadas. O aumento do risco foi de 10% e 7%, respectivamente para material particulado e dióxido de enxofre. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível identificar exposição a poluentes do ar como um fator de risco para morte por acidente vascular cerebral, mesmo em uma cidade com baixos níveis de poluição do ar. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Stroke/etiology , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cities , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Time Factors
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