Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 171
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 553-562, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011281


As enzimas fibrinolíticas podem ser obtidas de micro-organismos por meio de processos fermentativos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção e extração integrada da protease fibrinolítica de Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 usando sistema de duas fases aquosas (SDFA). O processo integrado foi realizado para avaliar a produção, partição e recuperação da protease fibrinolítica, segundo planejamento experimental 23, utilizando como variáveis independentes a massa molar do polietileno glicol (PEG), a concentração do PEG e a concentração do sulfato de sódio. A maior atividade fibrinolítica (15,40U/mL) foi obtida na fase rica em sulfato de sódio no ensaio composto por 10% de sal e 18% de PEG 8000 (g/mol). Recuperações superiores a 80% foram obtidas. A protease fibrinolítica apresentou pH ótimo 7,0, estabilidade entre os pH 6,0 e 8,5, temperatura ótima 50°C, sendo estável de 10°C a 50°C. A enzima foi classificada como uma serino protease, com massa molecular de 52kDa. Como resultado, o processo é notavelmente eficaz para pré-purificar a protease fibrinolítica com baixo custo e rapidez significativa. Quando comparada a outras técnicas de produção e purificação isoladas, a fermentação extrativa é um processo digno a ser substituto das etapas iniciais de separação convencionais.(AU)

Fibrinolytic enzymes can be obtained from microorganisms through fermentative processes. The study aimed to evaluate the fibrinolytic protease production and integrated extraction from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 by extractive fermentation using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems (ATPS). The integrated process was carried out to assess the production, partition and fibrinolytic enzyme recovery, according to a 2 3 -experimental design, using as independent variables Polyethylene glycol (PEG) molar mass, PEG and sodium sulphate concentration, concentration. The highest fibrinolytic activity (15.40U/mL) was obtained in sodium sulfate rich phase in the assay comprising of 10% of salt and 18% of PEG 8000 (g/mol). Yield greater than 80% was obtained. The fibrinolytic protease presented optimum pH 7.0 and stability between pH 6.0 and 8.5, and optimum temperature 50°C, stable between 10°C to 50°C. The enzyme was classified as a serine-protease with 52kDa of molecular weight. As a result, the process is remarkably effective to pre-purify the fibrinolytic protease with a low cost and significantly faster processing time. When compared to other isolated production and purification techniques the extractive fermentation is worthy of being a candidate to replace the initial stages of conventional separation processes.(AU)

Fibrin/antagonists & inhibitors , Fibrinolytic Agents/isolation & purification , Mucor/enzymology , Enzyme Induction , Fermentation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6980, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889067


Hormones regulate hepatic gene expressions to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has been thought to interfere with insulin signaling. To determine its potential role in the regulation of metabolism, we analyzed its gene (Enpp1) expression in the liver of rats experiencing fasting and refeeding cycles, and in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with insulin and dexamethasone using northern blot and real-time PCR techniques. Hepatic Enpp1 expression was induced by fasting and reduced by refeeding in the rat liver. In primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells, insulin reduced Enpp1 mRNA abundance, whereas dexamethasone induced it. Dexamethasone disrupted the insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression in primary hepatocytes. This is in contrast to the responses of the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene to the same hormones, where insulin reduced it significantly in the process. In addition, the dexamethasone-induced Enpp1 gene expression was attenuated in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatic Enpp1 is regulated in the cycle of fasting and refeeding, a process that might be attributed to insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression. This insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression might play a role in the development of complications in diabetic patients.

Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Pyrophosphatases/biosynthesis , Pyrophosphatases/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Fasting/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2707-2717, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886861


ABSTRACT 6-Gingerol is the major active constituent of ginger. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of 6-Gingerol on hair growth. Mice were randomly divided into five groups; after hair depilation (day 0), mice were treated with saline, or different concentrations of 6-Gingerol for 11 days. The histomorphological characteristics of the growing hair follicles were examined after hematoxylin and eosin staining. The results indicated that 6-Gingerol significantly suppressed hair growth compared with that in the control group. And choose the concentration of 6-Gingerol at 1 mg/mL to treated with mice. Moreover, 6-Gingerol (1 mg/mL) significantly reduced hair re-growth ratio, hair follicle number, and hair follicle length, which were associated with increased expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, the growth factors, such as EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF-1 and TGF-β participate in the hair follicle cycle regulation and regulate hair growth. We then measured the concentrations of them using ELISA assays, and the results showed that 6-Gingerol decreased EGF, KGF, VEGF, and IGF-1 concentrations, and increased TGF-β concentration. Thus, this study showed that 6-Gingerol might act as a hair growth suppressive drug via induction of MMP2 and MMP9 expression, which could interfere with the hair cycle.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Catechols/pharmacology , Hair Follicle/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/biosynthesis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/biosynthesis , Fatty Alcohols/pharmacology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/biosynthesis , Random Allocation , Enzyme Induction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/biosynthesis , Hair Follicle/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/biosynthesis , Fibroblast Growth Factor 7/biosynthesis , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812042


The present study was designed to explore the influence of water extracts of Atractylodes lancea rhizomes on the toxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of triptolide (TP). A water extract was prepared from A. lancea rhizomes and co-administered with TP in C57BL/6 mice. The toxicity was assayed by determining serum biochemical parameters and visceral indexes and by liver histopathological analysis. The hepatic CYP3A expression levels were detected using Western blotting and RT-PCR methods. The data showed that the water extract of A. lancea rhizomes reduced triptolide-induced toxicity, probably by inducing the hepatic expression of CYP3A. The anti-inflammatory effects of TP were evaluated in mice using a xylene-induced ear edema test. By comparing ear edema inhibition rates, we found that the water extract could also increase the anti-inflammatory effects of TP. In conclusion, our results suggested that the water extract of A. lancea rhizomes, used in combination with TP, has a potential in reducing TP-induced toxicity and enhancing its anti-inflammatory effects.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Atractylodes , Chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Genetics , Diterpenes , Toxicity , Edema , Pathology , Enzyme Induction , Epoxy Compounds , Toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation , Herb-Drug Interactions , Liver , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phenanthrenes , Toxicity , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Water , Chemistry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173852


BACKGROUND: Rice bran is the outer layer of the rice grain, and contains high amounts of bioactive phytochemicals. Here, we investigated and compared chemopreventive properties of purple and white rice bran extracts. METHODS: Rice bran was extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. Chemical constituents in the extracts were analyzed by colorimetric assay and high performance liquid chromatography. The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extracts were determined via the Salmonella mutation assay. The anticarcinogenic enzyme induction and antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined using Hepa1c1c7 cells and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, respectively. RESULTS: The methanol extracts of rice bran contained high amounts of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phytic acid, whereas large amounts of γ-oryzanol and vitamin E were presented in the dichloromethane extract. None of the extracts were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. All rice bran extracts had strong antimutagenic effects against aflatoxin B1- and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline-induced mutagenesis. The inhibitory effect against 2-aminofluorene-induced mutagenesis was found in the dichloromethane extract, while only the methanol extract of purple rice bran exhibited antimutagenic effects against benzo(a)pyrene. None of the extracts induced quinone reductase activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Additionally, the greatest antioxidant capacity was found in the methanol extract of purple rice bran. CONCLUSIONS: The methanol extract of purple rice bran containing high amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phytic acid showed the most effective antioxidant and antimutagenic activities by inhibiting mutagenic metabolizing enzymes and/or scavenging free radicals. These results demonstrate the nutritional and medical value of Thai rice for cancer prevention.

Aflatoxins , Anthocyanins , Antimutagenic Agents , Asians , Benzo(a)pyrene , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme Induction , Flavonoids , Free Radicals , Humans , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Mutagenesis , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) , Phenol , Phytic Acid , Phytochemicals , Salmonella , Salmonella typhimurium , Vitamin E , Vitamins
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4543, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951657


High plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) promote the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanism by which Hcy mediates neurotoxicity has not been elucidated. We observed that upon incubation with Hcy, the viability of a neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a declined in a dose-dependent manner, and apoptosis was induced within 48 h. The median effective concentration (EC50) of Hcy was approximately 5 mM. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) nuclear translocation and acylation has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. We found that nuclear translocation and acetylation of GAPDH increased in the presence of 5 mM Hcy and that higher levels of acetyltransferase p300/CBP were detected in Neuro2a cells. These findings implicate the involvement of GAPDH in the mechanism whereby Hcy induces apoptosis in neurons. This study highlights a potentially important pathway in neurodegenerative disorders, and a novel target pathway for neuroprotective therapy.

Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Homocysteine/pharmacology , Acetylation , Acetyltransferases/analysis , Time Factors , Cell Count , Cell Extracts/chemistry , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cell Survival/physiology , Enzyme Induction , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Apoptosis/physiology , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Line, Tumor , p300-CBP Transcription Factors/metabolism , Homocysteine/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(1): 16-23, 01/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732876


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o hábito alimentar e nutricional de mulheres na pós-menopausa e compará-los com o perfil antropométrico, faixa etária e tempo de menopausa. MÉTODOS: No período de junho a agosto de 2011, 148 mulheres na pós-menopausa residentes no Estado de São Paulo (região Sudeste do Brasil) foram avaliadas com um questionário estruturado contendo dados socioeconômicos, clínicos, antropométricos e alimentares. Avaliou-se nível de atividade física, variáveis bioquímicas, Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC), circunferência abdominal (CA) e consumo alimentar (energia, proteínas, carboidratos e gorduras, fibra, colesterol, vitaminas A e C, minerais, cálcio e ferro) de acordo com a faixa etária e o tempo de pós-menopausa (TPM). RESULTADOS: A média de IMC foi 29,0±5,6 kg/m2 e da CA, 95,7±12,9 cm. O consumo médio calórico diário atingiu 1.406,3±476,5 kcal. A ingestão e a adequação calórica foram significantemente mais apropriadas entre as mulheres eutróficas e com CA<88 cm. O mesmo ocorreu quanto ao consumo de proteínas (p<0,001 e p=0,006, respectivamente). Na análise por faixa etária ou TPM não houve diferenças significantes, exceto a média do consumo proteico, maior no grupo com 5 anos ou menos de menopausa (p=0,048). CONCLUSÃO: O perfil antropométrico de mulheres na pós-menopausa mostrou predominância de sobrepeso ou obesidade. O consumo alimentar apresentou-se adequado quanto às calorias e percentuais de macronutrientes, entre as eutróficas e com CA<88 cm. .

PURPOSE: To evaluate eating in postmenopausal women and its relation to anthropometry, age and time since menopause in São Bernardo do Campo residents. METHODS: During the period from June to August of 2011, 148 postmenopausal women residents in state of São Paulo (Southeast region of Brazil) were evaluated using a structured questionnaire containing socioeconomic, clinical, anthropometric and food data. The level of physical activity, biochemical variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC) and dietary intake (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fats, fiber, cholesterol, vitamins A and C, minerals, calcium and iron) were analyzed according to age and time after menopause. RESULTS: Mean BMI was 29.0≤5.6 kg/m2 and abdominal circumference was 95.7±12.9 cm. The average daily caloric consumption was 1,406.3±476.5 kcal. The calorie intake was significantly more appropriate in normal-weight women and women with AC<88 cm. The same was observed for protein intake (p<0.001 and p=0.006, respectively). No association was observed with age or duration of the postmenopausal period, except for average protein consumption that was higher in the group with five years or less of menopause (p=0.048). CONCLUSION: The anthropometry of postmenopausal women showed a predominance of overweight and obesity. Dietary intake was adequate in relation to the percentage of calories and macronutrients and calories among most normal-weight women and women with AC<88 cm. .

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Floxuridine/therapeutic use , Picibanil/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Thymidine Phosphorylase/biosynthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Enzyme Induction , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Gastrectomy , Gene Expression , Interleukin-1/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Picibanil/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/physiopathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950773


BACKGROUND: Various health benefits have been attributed to Er-Miao-San (EMS), a traditional Chinese herbal formulation that contains equal amounts of cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht) and rhizoma atractylodis (Atractylodes lancea D.C). However, its effect on the anti-inflammatory activity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and the mechanism underlying this effect are unknown. RESULTS: This study investigated the effects of EMS on TNF-α-induced MMP-1 expression in HDFs. Our data show that EMS inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, EMS maintained IkB content without inhibiting the phosphorylation of MAPKs, which are well-established upstream kinases of NF-kB. Moreover, EMS reduced the level of nuclear p65 protein in HDFs. Luciferase assay revealed that EMS inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-kBbystabilizing IkB. Our results show that EMS exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-kB-regulated genes such as IL-1ß and IL-8. Moreover, EMS effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced expression of MMP-1 via the NF-kBpathway. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest that EMS could potentially be used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging treatment.

Humans , Aging/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Dermis/cytology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/biosynthesis , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fibroblasts/enzymology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86468


Drug metabolism mostly occurs in the liver. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a drug-metabolizing enzyme that is responsible for many important drug metabolism reactions. Recently, the US FDA and EU EMA have suggested that CYP enzyme induction can be measured by both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression. However, these experiments are time-consuming and their inter-assay variability can lead to misinterpretations of the results. To resolve these problems and establish a more powerful method to measure CYP induction, we determined CYP induction by using luminescent assay. Luminescent CYP assays link CYP enzyme activity to firefly luciferase luminescence technology. In this study, we measured the induction of CYP isozymes (1A2, 2B6, 2C9, and 3A4) in cryopreserved human hepatocytes (HMC424, 478, and 493) using a luminometer. We then examined the potential induction abilities (unknown so far) of mesalazine, a drug for colitis, and mosapride citrate, which is used as an antispasmodic drug. The results showed that mesalazine promotes CYP2B6 and 3A4 activities, while mosapride citrate promotes CYP1A2, 2B6, and 3A4 activities. Luminescent CYP assays offer rapid and safe advantages over LC-MS/MS and qRT-PCR methods. Furthermore, luminescent CYP assays decrease the interference between the optical properties of the test compound and the CYP substrates. Therefore, luminescent CYP assays are less labor intensive, rapid, and can be used as robust tools for high-throughput CYP screening during early drug discovery.

Citric Acid , Colitis , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Drug Discovery , Enzyme Induction , Fireflies , Hepatocytes , Humans , Isoenzymes , Liver , Luciferases , Luminescence , Luminescent Measurements , Mass Screening , Mesalamine , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 502-507, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732258


This aim of this study was to assess the ability of manual or rotary instrumentation associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) to reduce Enterococcus faecalis using three combinations of light/photosensitizers: toluidine blue O/laser, fuchsin/halogen light and fuchsin/LED. Twenty deciduous molars were selected and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis (McFarland 0.5 scale). Working length determination was performed by visual method. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups: G1 (n=10): manual instrumentation (Kerr-type files) and G2 (n=10): rotary instrumentation (ProTaper system). The bacteria were collected three times using sterile paper cones compatible with the anatomic diameter of the root canal for 30 s before and after instrumentation and after PDT. The samples were diluted in peptone water, seeded on blood agar plates and incubated in an oven at 37 °C for colony-forming units counting. The decrease of E. faecalis counts after instrumentation and after PDT was compared using the Wilcoxon test, t-test and Kruskal Wallis test. A significant reduction of E. faecalis occurred after manual and rotary instrumentation and after PDT using the three combinations of light/photosensitizer (p<0.05). It may be concluded that both rotary and manual instrumentation reduced E. faecalis. Fuchsin with halogen light or LED irradiation and toluidine blue O with laser irradiation can be used to reduce E. faecalis in root canals of primary molars. PDT can be used as an adjuvant to conventional endodontic treatment.

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a redução de Enterococcus faecalis após instrumentação manual ou rotatória associada à terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) utilizando 3 combinações luz/fotossensibilizante: azul de toluidina O/laser, fucsina/luz halógena e fucsina/LED. Foram selecionados 20 molares decíduos que foram contaminados com Enterococcus faecalis (escala 0,5 de McFarland). A odontometria foi feita através do método visual. Os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G1 (n=10): instrumentação manual (limas tipo Kerr) e G2 (n=10): instrumentação rotatória (sistema ProTaper). Foram realizadas coletas com cone de papel estéril compatível com o diâmetro anatômico do canal durante 30 s antes e após a instrumentação e a PDT. As amostras foram diluídas em água peptonada, semeadas em placas de agar-sangue e incubadas em estufa a 37 °C para contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias. As comparações antes da redução de E. faecalis após a instrumentação e após a realização da PDT foram realizadas pelo teste de Wilcoxon, teste t e Kruskal Wallis. Houve redução significante de E. faecalis após a instrumentação manual ou rotatória e após realização da PDT com as três combinações de luz/fotossensibilizante (p<0,05). Pode-se concluir que a instrumentação rotatória e manual acarretou a redução de E. faecalis. A fucsina irradiada com luz halógena ou led e o azul de toluidina irradiado com laser podem ser utilizados para redução de E. faecalis do sistema de canais radiculares de molares decíduos. A terapia fotodinâmica pode ser utilizada como coadjuvante ao tratamento endodôntico convencional.

Animals , Mice , Acid Phosphatase/biosynthesis , Cathepsin B/biosynthesis , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Melanoma, Experimental/enzymology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Pepstatins/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Induction , Leucine/pharmacology , Subcellular Fractions/drug effects , Subcellular Fractions/enzymology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 936-941, Nov-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732811


Pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória descritiva, que objetivou conhecer a percepção dos receptores sanguíneos quanto ao processo transfusional. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma unidade de hemoterapia de um município da região sul do Brasil e os dados foram analisados por meio do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Foram entrevistados, por meio de instrumento semiestruturado, onze pacientes, homens e mulheres entre 30 e 95 anos, em recuperação pós-cirúrgica de cirurgia cardíaca, submetidos à transfusão sanguínea. Emergiram quatro Ideias Centrais: Perda e reposição sanguínea; Preservação da vida; Reconhecimento do processo transfusional e Segurança transfusional. A percepção sobre a mudança que os pós-transfundidos começam a vivenciar a partir do processo transfusional traz à tona uma ressignificação da própria vida. Este estudo mostrou que os pacientes transfundidos percebem o processo transfusional como uma alternativa de sobrevivência e, mesmo tendo conhecimento sobre o processo e seus significados, permanecem receios e angústias que podem ser minimizados pela equipe multiprofissional.

Qualitative research, descriptive exploratory, aimed to know the perception of blood transfusion recipients as to the process. The research was carried out at a blood bank in a city in southern Brazil, and the data were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. Were interviewed using a semistructured instrument, eleven patients, men and women between 30 and 95 years, post-surgical recovery of cardiac surgery, underwent blood transfusion. Four central ideas emerged: loss and blood replacement; Preservation of life; Recognition of the transfusion process; and transfusion safety. The perception about the change that post-transfusion begin to live from the transfusion process raises a reframing of life itself. This study showed that transfused patients perceive the transfusion process as a means of survival, and even having knowledge about the process and their meanings, there is the permanence of fears and anxieties that can be minimized by the multidisciplinary team.

Investigación cualitativa, de tipo exploratorio descriptivo, con el objetivo de conocer la percepción de los receptores de transfusiones de sangre en cuanto al proceso. La investigación se llevó a cabo en un banco de sangre en una ciudad en el sur de Brasil, y los datos fueron analizados utilizando el Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. Fueron entrevistados mediante un instrumento semi-estructurado, once pacientes, hombres y mujeres de entre 30 y 95 años de recuperación post-quirúrgica de la cirugía cardíaca, se sometió a una transfusión de sangre. Cuatro ideas centrales surgieron: la pérdida y reemplazo de sangre; La preservación de la vida; Reconocimiento del proceso de transfusión; y seguridad de las transfusiones. La percepción sobre el cambio que después de la transfusión comenzar a vivir desde el proceso de transfusión plantea una reformulación de la vida misma. Este estudio mostró que los pacientes transfundidos perciben el proceso de transfusión como un medio de supervivencia, e incluso tener conocimiento sobre el proceso y sus significados, no es la permanencia de los temores y ansiedades que pueden minimizarse por el equipo multidisciplinario.

Coenzyme A Ligases/biosynthesis , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , Pseudomonas/enzymology , Aerobiosis , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Enzyme Induction , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Kinetics , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Pseudomonas/growth & development
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 881-885, Nov-Dec/2014.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732816


Interdisciplinary collaboration is widely recognized and considered essential for optimizing the development of knowledge and practice. However, interdisciplinarity is commonly accepted as an unquestioned good; rarely examined as both a source of benefit as well as difficulty for nursing and other disciplines. The aim of this article is to critically examine the opportunities and challenges that interdisciplinarity can provide for research in nursing and other disciplines. Based on a North American perspective, I describe the emergence of uni-disciplinary nursing research and the knowledge exchanges that occurred between nursing and other disciplines. I discuss the rise of interdisciplinary research, outline several examples of nursing participation in interdisciplinarity, and highlight the prominent benefits and difficulties associated with interdisciplinary research. I argue that authentic collaboration is required to conduct meaningful interdisciplinary research and describe how this can be promoted.

Colaboração interdisciplinar é amplamente reconhecida e considerada essencial para a otimização do desenvolvimento do conhecimento e prática. No entanto, a interdisciplinaridade é comumente aceita como um bem inquestionável, raramente examinado tanto como uma fonte de benefícios, bem como dificuldade para a enfermagem e outras disciplinas. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar criticamente as oportunidades e desafios que a interdisciplinaridade pode oferecer para a pesquisa em enfermagem e outras disciplinas. Com base em uma perspectiva norte-americana, descreve-se o surgimento de pesquisas em enfermagem unidisciplinar e as trocas de conhecimento que ocorreram entre a enfermagem e outras disciplinas. Discute-se a ascensão da pesquisa interdisciplinar, delineiam-se vários exemplos de participação da enfermagem na interdisciplinaridade, e destacam-se os benefícios proeminentes e dificuldades associadas com a pesquisa interdisciplinar. Defende-se que a colaboração autêntica é necessária para conduzir a pesquisa interdisciplinar significativa e descreve-se como isso pode ser promovido.

La colaboración interdisciplinaria es ampliamente reconocida y considerada esencial para optimizar el desarrollo del conocimiento y la práctica. Sin embargo, la interdisciplinariedad es comúnmente aceptada como un bien incuestionable; rara vez examinada tanto como una fuente de beneficio, así como de dificultad para la enfermería y otras disciplinas. El objetivo de este artículo es examinar críticamente las oportunidades y desafíos que la interdisciplinariedad puede proporcionar para la investigación en enfermería y otras disciplinas. Sobre la base de una perspectiva norteamericana, describe-se el surgimiento de la investigación en enfermería unidisciplinaria y los intercambios de conocimientos que se produjeron entre la enfermería y otras disciplinas. Se discute el aumento de la investigación interdisciplinaria, esbozan-se varios ejemplos de la participación de enfermería en la interdisciplinariedad, y destacan-se los beneficios y las dificultades asociadas con la investigación interdisciplinaria. Argumenta-sé que se requiere auténtica colaboración para llevar a cabo la investigación interdisciplinaria significativa y describe-se la forma en que esto puede ser promovido. .

Humans , Female , Catechol O-Methyltransferase/biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Placenta/enzymology , Pregnancy/metabolism , Steroid Hydroxylases/biosynthesis , Xenobiotics/pharmacology , Butylated Hydroxyanisole/pharmacology , Carcinogens , Coumarins/pharmacology , Enzyme Induction , Naphthols/pharmacology , Pregnancy Trimester, First
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(2): 207-217, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712403


Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. Both sham and ischemic rats were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) or carboxymethylcellulose (placebo) by gavage at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-reperfusion. We analyzed the immunoreactivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in the globus pallidus, caudate putamen and substantia nigra. Results: We observed neurological damage and cell loss in the caudate putamen following ischemia. We also found an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata, as well as a decrease in glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the lateral globus pallidus in ischemic animals treated with a placebo. However, atorvastatin treatment was able to reverse these effects, significantly decreasing tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata and significantly increasing glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the lateral globus pallidus. Conclusion: Our data suggest that post-ischemia treatment with atorvastatin can have neuro-protective effects in exofocal regions far from the ischemic core by modulating the GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations in the nigrostriatal system, which could be useful for preventing neurological disorders.

Introducción. La isquemia cerebral es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad permanente en el mundo. La atorvastatina es un fármaco neuroprotector prometedor para el tratamiento de la apoplejía; sin embargo, su acción sobre las poblaciones neuronales del sistema nigroestriatal después de la isquemia aún se desconoce. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la atorvastatina sobre poblaciones gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas en regiones exofocales en un modelo de oclusión transitoria de la arteria cerebral media. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 28 ratas Wistar macho de ocho semanas de edad. Los ejemplares con isquemia simulada y los ejemplares sometidos a isquemia fueron tratados con atorvastatina (10 mg/kg) y carboximetilcelulosa (placebo) administrados por medio de sonda a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas después de la reperfusión. Se analizó la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico y de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido, el putamen caudado y la sustancia negra. Resultados. Los datos confirmaron el daño neurológico y la pérdida celular en el putamen caudado. Se incrementó la inmunorreacción de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata , disminuyendo la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral de los animales isquémicos tratados con placebo; sin embargo, el tratamiento con atorvastatina pudo revertirla, lo que logró una disminución significativa de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata y aumentando los niveles de descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral. Conclusión. Nuestros datos sugieren que la atorvastatina en el tratamiento posterior a la isquemia ejerce neuroprotección en las zonas exofocales, modulando las poblaciones neuronales gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas del sistema nigroestriatal, lo que podría prevenir trastornos neurológicos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , GABAergic Neurons/drug effects , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Substantia Nigra/drug effects , Behavior, Animal , Corpus Striatum/blood supply , Corpus Striatum/pathology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Dopaminergic Neurons/enzymology , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , GABAergic Neurons/enzymology , GABAergic Neurons/pathology , Glutamate Decarboxylase/biosynthesis , Glutamate Decarboxylase/genetics , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Movement Disorders/etiology , Movement Disorders/prevention & control , Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Sensation Disorders/prevention & control , Substantia Nigra/blood supply , Substantia Nigra/pathology , /biosynthesis , /genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299585


<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Efavirenz is an inducer of drug metabolism enzymes. We studied the effect of efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir on serum unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin, as probes for UGT1A1 and bile transporters.</p><p><b>MATERIALS AND METHODS</b>Healthy volunteers were enrolled in a clinical trial. There were 3 periods: Period 1, 10 days of darunavir 900 mg with ritonavir 100 mg once daily; Period 2, 14 days of efavirenz 600 mg with darunavir/ritonavir once daily; and Period 3, 14 days of efavirenz 600 mg once daily. Serum bilirubin (conjugated and unconjugated) concentrations were obtained at baseline, at the end of each phase and at exit.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We recruited 7 males and 5 females. One subject developed grade 3 hepatitis on efavirenz and was excluded. Mean serum unconjugated bilirubin concentrations were 6.09 μmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.99 to 7.19) at baseline, 5.82 (95% CI, 4.88 to 6.76) after darunavir/ritonavir, 4.00 (95% CI, 2.92 to 5.08) after darunavir/ritonavir with efavirenz, 3.55 (95% CI, 2.58 to 4.51) after efavirenz alone and 5.27 (95% CI, 3.10 to 7.44) at exit (P <0.01 for the efavirenz phases). Mean serum conjugated bilirubin concentrations were 3.55 μmol/L (95% CI, 2.73 to 4.36) at baseline, 3.73 (95% CI, 2.77 to 4.68) after darunavir/ritonavir, 2.91 (95% CI, 2.04 to 3.78) after darunavir/ritonavir with efavirenz, 2.64 (95% CI, 1.95 to 3.33) after efavirenz alone and 3.55 (95% CI, 2.19 to 4.90) at exit (P <0.05 for the efavirenz phases).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Efavirenz decreased unconjugated bilirubin by 42%, suggesting UGT1A1 induction. Efavirenz also decreased conjugated bilirubin by 26%, suggesting induction of bile efflux transporters. Ritonavir-boosted darunavir had no effect on bilirubin concentrations. These results indicate that efavirenz may reduce concentrations of drugs or endogenous substances metabolized by UGT1A1 or excreted by bile efflux transporters.</p>

Adult , Aged , Anti-HIV Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Benzoxazines , Pharmacology , Biological Transport , Confidence Intervals , Darunavir , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Induction , Female , Glucuronosyltransferase , Blood , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Membrane Transport Proteins , Metabolism , Middle Aged , Ritonavir , Pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Pharmacology , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14963


The incidence of cardiovascular disease is predicted to increase as the population ages. There is accumulating evidence that arginase upregulation is associated with impaired endothelial function. Here, we demonstrate that arginase II (ArgII) is upregulated in aortic vessels of aged mice and contributes to decreased nitric oxide (NO) generation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling. Inhibiting ArgII with small interfering RNA technique restored eNOS coupling to that observed in young mice and increased NO generation and decreased ROS production. Furthermore, enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxation responses to acetylcholine in aged vasculature were markedly improved following siRNA treatment against ArgII. These results might be associated with increased L-arginine bioavailability. Collectively, these results suggest that ArgII may be a valuable target in age-dependent vascular diseases.

15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid/pharmacology , Aging , Animals , Aorta/enzymology , Arginase/genetics , Endothelium, Vascular/enzymology , Enzyme Induction , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Vasoconstriction/drug effects
Medical Principles and Practice. 2011; 20 (3): 291-293
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110231


We describe recurrent and reversible hepatopathy in a girl with multiple sclerosis [MS] after glucocorticoid pulse therapy, to point out the possibility that glucocorticoid may harm the liver. An 11-year-old girl with MS, who was treated with high-dose methylprednisolone succinate pulse therapy, developed elevation of liver enzymes. The episodes of hepatopathy occurred 1-5 weeks after the therapy and disappeared within several weeks. The examination for antinuclear antibody and viruses which can cause hepatitis produced negative results. The present case emphasizes the possible effects of high-dose glucocorticoids in the induction of liver enzymes and the importance of follow-up liver tests after pulse therapy

Humans , Female , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/etiology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Liver Function Tests , Follow-Up Studies
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3154-3158, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319182


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Increasing evidence suggests that, by the production of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), dendritic cells (DC) may reduce the activity of T lymphocytes and inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation-induced immune tolerance. One promising way is inspired by increasing IDO expression in DC cells for immune tolerance after transplantation. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on the expression of IDO by DC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Spleen-derived rat DCs were cultured and induced by cytokines, and the expression of OX62 and surface molecules CD80 and CD86 were measured with flow cytometry. After the DCs were induced by IFN-γ at different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500 U/ml), the expression levels of IDO mRNA were measured with real-time PCR, and the expression levels of IDO protein in DCs were measured with Western blotting. The allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) was used to test the effects of DCs incubated with different concentrations of IFN-γ on allogeneic T lymphocyte proliferation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Under the microscope, the DCs induced by IFN-γ showed a typical dendritic morphology. The expression rate of OX62 was above 80% and the positive expression rates of CD80 and CD86 were both about 80%. The expressions of IDO mRNA and IDO protein increased gradually with the increase of IFN-γ concentration, showing statistical significance in the differences between the groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the control DC, the DC incubated with IFN-γ had a notable decrease in allostimulatory activity (P < 0.05). With the increasing IFN-γ concentration, the T lymphocyte proliferation decreased, and the difference between the groups was also statistically significant (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The highly purified spleen derived rat DCs can be successfully acquired through the improved adhesion in-vitro method. IFN-γ can induce increased expression of IDO in spleen-derived rat DCs and reduce the spleen DCs' capacity to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic T cells.</p>

Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Dendritic Cells , Cell Biology , Enzyme Induction , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spleen , Cell Biology , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48418


Biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA), an enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, has recently emerged as a key regulator of the cellular redox cycle. However, the role of BLVRA in the aging process remains unclear. To study the role of BLVRA in the aging process, we compared the stress responses of young and senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 markedly induced BLVRA activity in young HDFs, but not in senescent HDFs. Additionally, depletion of BLVRA reduced the H2O2-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in young HDFs, but not in senescent cells, suggesting an aging-dependent differential modulation of responses to oxidative stress. The role of BLVRA in the regulation of cellular senescence was confirmed when lentiviral RNAitransfected stable primary HDFs with reduced BLVRA expression showed upregulation of the CDK inhibitor family members p16, p53, and p21, followed by cell cycle arrest in G0-G1 phase with high expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. Taken together, these data support the notion that BLVRA contributes significantly to modulation of the aging process by adjusting the cellular oxidative status.

Age Factors , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Cell Cycle , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme Induction , Fibroblasts/physiology , G1 Phase , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , beta-Galactosidase/genetics
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 656-663, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348904


The present study was performed to investigate the effect of bicyclol on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, as well as gene and protein expressions in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH). Bicyclol (300 mg x kg(-1)) was given to rats subjected to 70% hepatectomy three times before operation. At 6 and 48 h after PH, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for the measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatic microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA) and total hepatic CYP content. The activities of four CYP isozymes were detected with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the gene and protein expressions were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting assay. As a result, bicyclol pretreatment markedly inhibited the elevation of serum ALT and hepatic microsomal MDA, and prevented the decrease of total hepatic CYP content in PH rats. In addition, bicyclol significantly attenuated the reduction of CYP2C6 activity and mRNA expression, as well as the reduction of CYP2C11 activity in PH rats. Bicyclol can inhibit the decrease of CYP3A1/2 activity, and up-regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of CYP3A1 and CYP2E1. These results showed that bicyclol pretreatment might ameliorate abnormality in CYP450 isoforms during liver regeneration after PH, and this protective effect was likely due to its anti-oxidative property and enzyme induction.

Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases , Genetics , Metabolism , Biphenyl Compounds , Pharmacology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Cytochrome P450 Family 2 , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Induction , Hepatectomy , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase , Genetics , Metabolism , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase , Genetics , Metabolism
Invest. clín ; 51(4): 561-571, dic. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-630913


La adenosin deaminasa (ADA), es una enzima del metabolismo de las purinas que ha sido objeto de mucho interés debido a que el defecto congénito de esta enzima causa el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia combinada severa. Una de las tres isoformas de la enzima (ecto-ADA) es capaz de unirse a la glicoproteína CD26 y a los receptores de adenosina A1 y A2B. La interacción ADA-CD26 produce una señal coestimuladora en los eventos de activación de las células T y en la secreción de IFN-g, TNF-a e IL-6. Durante dicha activación la actividad de la enzima está regulada de manera positiva por IL-2 e IL-12 y negativamente por IL-4, basado en un mecanismo de translocación. Diversos estudios señalan que los niveles séricos y plasmáticos de ADA se elevan en algunas enfermedades causadas por microorganismos que infectan principalmente a los macrófagos; así como en trastornos hipertensivos, lo cual podría representar un mecanismo compensatorio como consecuencia de la elevación de los niveles de adenosina y la liberación de mediadores hormonales e inflamatorios estimulados por la hipoxia.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism which has been the subject of much interest because the congenital defect of this enzyme causes severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. One of the three isoforms of the enzyme (ecto-ADA) is capable of binding to the glycoprotein CD26 and adenosine receptors A1 and A2B. ADA-CD26 interaction produces a costimulatory signal in the events of T cell activation and secretion of IFN-g, TNF-a and IL-6. During this activation, the enzyme activity is regulated positively by IL-2 and IL-12 and negatively by IL-4, based on the mechanism of translocation. Diverse studies suggest that seric and plasmatic levels of ADA rise in some diseases caused by microorganisms infecting mainly the macrophages and in hypertensive disorders, which may represent a compensatory mechanism resulting from increased adenosine levels and the release of hormones and inflammatory mediators estimulated by hipoxia.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Adenosine Deaminase/physiology , Immunity, Cellular , Adenosine Deaminase/blood , Adenosine Deaminase/deficiency , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Adenosine/physiology , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Cell Hypoxia , Communicable Diseases/enzymology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Dendritic Cells/enzymology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , /physiology , Enzyme Induction , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/enzymology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/immunology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/enzymology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/physiopathology , Immunological Synapses , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon-gamma , Interleukins , Isoenzymes/physiology , Lymphocyte Activation , Receptors, Purinergic P1/physiology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/genetics , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha