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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4694-4707, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008051

ABSTRACT

β-glucosidase has important applications in food, pharmaceutics, biomass conversion and other fields, exploring β-glucosidase with strong adaptability and excellent properties thus has received extensive interest. In this study, a novel glucosidase from the GH1 family derived from Cuniculiplasma divulgatum was cloned, expressed, and characterized, aiming to find a better β-glucosidase. The amino acid sequences of GH1 family glucosidase derived from C. divulgatum were obtained from the NCBI database, and a recombinant plasmid pET-30a(+)-CdBglA was constructed. The recombinant protein was induced to express in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The enzymatic properties of the purified CdBglA were studied. The molecular weight of the recombinant CdBglA was 56.0 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature were 5.5 and 55 ℃, respectively. The enzyme showed good pH stability, 92.33% of the initial activity could be retained when treated under pH 5.5-11.0 for 1 h. When pNPG was used as a substrate, the kinetic parameters Km, Vmax and Kcat/Km were 0.81 mmol, 291.99 μmol/(mg·min), and 387.50 s-1 mmol-1, respectively. 90.33% of the initial enzyme activity could be retained when CdBglA was placed with various heavy metal ions at a final concentration of 5 mmol/L. The enzyme activity was increased by 28.67% under 15% ethanol solution, remained unchanged under 20% ethanol, and 43.68% of the enzyme activity could still be retained under 30% ethanol. The enzyme has an obvious activation effect at 0-1.5 mol/L NaCl and can tolerate 0.8 mol/L glucose. In conclusion, CdBglA is an acidic and mesophilic enzyme with broad pH stability and strong tolerance to most metal ions, organic solvents, NaCl and glucose. These characteristics may facilitate future theoretical research and industrial production.


Subject(s)
beta-Glucosidase , Sodium Chloride , Temperature , Glucose , Ethanol/chemistry , Ions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Enzyme Stability , Substrate Specificity
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2126-2140, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981194

ABSTRACT

ω-transaminase (ω-TA) is a natural biocatalyst that has good application potential in the synthesis of chiral amines. However, the poor stability and low activity of ω-TA in the process of catalyzing unnatural substrates greatly hampers its application. To overcome these shortcomings, the thermostability of (R)-ω-TA (AtTA) from Aspergillus terreus was engineered by combining molecular dynamics simulation assisted computer-aided design with random and combinatorial mutation. An optimal mutant AtTA-E104D/A246V/R266Q (M3) with synchronously enhanced thermostability and activity was obtained. Compared with the wild- type (WT) enzyme, the half-life t1/2 (35 ℃) of M3 was prolonged by 4.8-time (from 17.8 min to 102.7 min), and the half deactivation temperature (T1050) was increased from 38.1 ℃ to 40.3 ℃. The catalytic efficiencies toward pyruvate and 1-(R)-phenylethylamine of M3 were 1.59- and 1.56-fold that of WT. Molecular dynamics simulation and molecular docking showed that the reinforced stability of α-helix caused by the increase of hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction in molecules was the main reason for the improvement of enzyme thermostability. The enhanced hydrogen bond of substrate with surrounding amino acid residues and the enlarged substrate binding pocket contributed to the increased catalytic efficiency of M3. Substrate spectrum analysis revealed that the catalytic performance of M3 on 11 aromatic ketones were higher than that of WT, which further showed the application potential of M3 in the synthesis of chiral amines.


Subject(s)
Transaminases/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Amines/chemistry , Pyruvic Acid/metabolism , Enzyme Stability
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38039, Jan.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395957

ABSTRACT

Enzymes of the archaea living in extreme environments are resistant to the challenging conditions. Lipase is among the important enzymes used in the industry and agriculture. In this study, the extracellular lipase from extremely halophilic archaeon Halolamina sp. was characterized for the first time. Optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was determined as 70oC, optimum pH was 7.0, and the optimum salt concentration was 3.6 M. Additionally, more than 70% of the enzyme activity was remained between pH 3.0-10.0 for 48 h as well as incubation of the enzyme at 70oC for 30 min increased its activity for 44%, and no activity loss was observed after incubation at 80oC. Also, presence of the metals increased the enzyme activity up to 88%. The enzyme was highly resistant to the organic solvents acetone, methanol, and DMSO while strong inhibition was caused by n-butanol. Among the detergents, the enzyme kept its activity substantially in the presence of SDS; however, other detergents caused inhibition of the enzyme activity. This characterization study showed that the lipase from the haloarchaeon Halolamina sp. is highly stable at the wide ranges of temperature and pH values as well as in the presence of diverse inhibitors. This enzyme is promising to be used in biotechnological applications.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Stability , Halobacteriales , Archaea , Lipase
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244496, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278474

ABSTRACT

Enzymes immobilized onto substrates with excellent selectivity and activity show a high stability and can withstand extreme experimental conditions, and their performance has been shown to be retained after repeated uses. Applications of immobilized enzymes in various fields benefit from their unique characteristics. Common methods, including adsorption, encapsulation, covalent attachment and crosslinking, and other emerging approaches (e.g., MOFs) of enzyme immobilization have been developed mostly in recent years. In accordance with these immobilization methods, the present review elaborates the application of magnetic separable nanoparticles and functionalized SBA-15 and MCM-41 mesoporous materials used in the immobilization of enzymes.


Enzimas imobilizadas em substratos com excelente seletividade e atividade apresentam alta estabilidade e podem suportar condições experimentais extremas, e seu desempenho foi mantido após repetidos usos. As aplicações de enzimas imobilizadas em vários campos se beneficiam de suas características únicas. Métodos comuns, incluindo adsorção, encapsulamento, ligação covalente e reticulação, e outras abordagens emergentes (por exemplo, MOFs) de imobilização de enzima, foram desenvolvidos principalmente nos últimos anos. De acordo com esses métodos de imobilização, a presente revisão elabora a aplicação de nanopartículas magnéticas separáveis e materiais mesoporosos funcionalizados SBA-15 e MCM-41 usados na imobilização de enzimas.


Subject(s)
Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Enzyme Stability , Adsorption , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1537-1553, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927799

ABSTRACT

Proteus mirabilis lipase (PML) features tolerance to organic solvents and great potential for biodiesel synthesis. However, the thermal stability of the enzyme needs to be improved before it can be used industrially. Various computational design strategies are emerging methods for the modification of enzyme thermal stability. In this paper, the complementary algorithm-based ABACUS, PROSS, and FoldX were employed for positive selection of PML mutations, and their pairwise intersections were further subjected to negative selection by PSSM and GREMLIN to narrow the mutation library. Thereby, 18 potential single-point mutants were screened out. According to experimental verification, 7 mutants had melting temperature (Tm) improved, and the ΔTm of K208G and G206D was the highest, which was 3.75 ℃ and 3.21 ℃, respectively. Five mutants with activity higher than the wild type (WT) were selected for combination by greedy accumulation. Finally, the Tm of the five-point combination mutant M10 increased by 10.63 ℃, and the relative activity was 140% that of the WT. K208G and G206D exhibited certain epistasis during the combination, which made a major contribution to the improvement of the thermal stability of M10. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that new forces were generated at and around the mutation sites, and the rearrangement of forces near G206D/K208G might stabilize the Ca2+ binding site which played a key role in the stabilization of PML. This study provides an efficient and user-friendly computational design scheme for the thermal stability modification of natural enzymes and lays a foundation for the modification of PML and the expansion of its industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Stability , Lipase/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Proteus mirabilis/metabolism , Solvents/chemistry
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4644-4657, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970337

ABSTRACT

β-glucosidase has important applications in food, medicine, biomass conversion and other fields. Therefore, exploring β-glucosidase with strong stability and excellent properties is a research hotspot. In this study, a GH3 family β-glucosidase gene named Iubgl3 was successfully cloned from Infirmifilum uzonense. Sequence analysis showed that the full length of Iubgl3 was 2 106 bp, encoding 702 amino acids, with a theoretical molecular weight of 77.0 kDa. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the enzymatic properties of purified IuBgl3 were studied. The results showed that the optimal pH and temperature for pNPG hydrolysis were 5.0 and 85 ℃, respectively. The enzyme has good thermal stability, and more than 85% of enzyme activity can be retained after being treated at 80 ℃ for2 h. This enzyme has good pH stability and more than 85% of its activity can be retained after being treated at pH 4.0-11.0 for 1 h. It was found that the enzyme had high hydrolysis ability to p-nitrophenyl β-d-glucoside (pNPG) and p-nitrophenyl β-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX). When pNPG was used as the substrate, the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were 0.38 mmol and 248.55 μmol/(mg·min), respectively, and the catalytic efficiency kcat/Km was 6 149.20 s-1mmol-1. Most metal ions had no significant effect on the enzyme activity of IuBgl3. SDS completely inactivated the enzyme, while EDTA increased the enzyme activity by 30%. This study expanded the β-glucosidase gene diversity of the thermophilic archaea GH3 family and obtained a thermostable acid bifunctional enzyme with good industrial application potential.


Subject(s)
beta-Glucosidase/chemistry , Archaea/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Temperature , Glucosides , Enzyme Stability , Substrate Specificity , Kinetics
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239449, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249271

ABSTRACT

Alpha amylase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of starch is a ubiquitous enzyme with tremendous industrial applications. A 1698 bp gene coding for 565 amino acid amylase was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM465, cloned in pET21a (+) plasmid, expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli and characterized. The recombinant enzyme exhibited molecular weight of 63 kDa, optimum pH 8, optimum temperature 70°C, and KM value of 157.7µM. On pilot scale, the purified enzyme efficiently removed up to 95% starch from the cotton fabric indicating its desizing ability at high temperature. 3D model of enzyme built by Raptor-X and validated by Ramachandran plot appeared as a monomer having 31% α-helices, 15% ß-sheets, and 52% loops. Docking studies have shown the best binding affinity of enzyme with amylopectin (∆G -10.59). According to our results, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276, and Arg175 constitute the potential active site of enzyme.


A alfa-amilase, que catalisa a hidrólise do amido, é uma enzima ubíqua com imensas aplicações industriais. Um gene de 1698 pb que codifica a amilase de 565 aminoácidos foi amplificado por PCR, a partir de Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, clonado no plasmídeo pET21a (+), expresso na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli e caracterizado. A enzima recombinante exibiu peso molecular de 63 kDa, pH ótimo igual a 8, temperatura ótima de 70° C e valor KM de 157,7 µM. Em escala piloto, a enzima purificada removeu com eficiência até 95% de amido do tecido de algodão, indicando sua capacidade de desengomagem em alta temperatura. O modelo 3D da enzima construída por Raptor-X e validada por Ramachandran plot apareceu como um monômero com 31% de hélices alfa, 15% de folhas beta e 52% de loops. Os estudos de docking mostraram melhor afinidade de ligação da enzima com amilopectina (∆G: - 10,59). De acordo com nossos resultados, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276 e Arg175 constituem o sítio ativo potencial da enzima.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , alpha-Amylases/genetics , alpha-Amylases/metabolism , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Cloning, Molecular , Geobacillus , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249280

ABSTRACT

L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G ­ 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G ­ 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Asparaginase/pharmacology , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Escherichia coli/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
9.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 64-71, Jan. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) is known as a kind of prebiotics. Mannanase plays a key role for the degradation of mannan to produce MOS. In this study, the mannanases of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 5 Man5HJ14 and GH26 ManAJB13 were employed to prepare MOS from locust bean gum (LBG) and palm kernel cake (PKC). The prebiotic activity and utilization of MOS were assessed in vitro using the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain. RESULTS: Galactomannan from LBG was converted to MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannoheptose by Man5HJ14 and ManAJB13. Mannoheptose was got from the hydrolysates produced by Man5HJ14, which mannohexaose was obtained from LBG hydrolyzed by ManAJB13. However, the same components of MOS ranging in size from mannose up to mannotetrose were observed between PKC hydrolyzed by the mannanases mentioned above. MOS stability was not affected by high-temperature and high-pressure condition at their natural pH. Based on in vitro growth study, all MOS from LBG and PKC was effective in promoting the growth of L. plantarum CICC 24202, with the strain preferring to use mannose to mannotriose, rather than above mannotetrose. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mannanases and mannan difference on MOS composition was studied. All of MOS hydrolysates showed the stability in adversity condition and prebiotic activity of L. plantarum, which would have potential application in the biotechnological applications.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/metabolism , beta-Mannosidase/metabolism , Plant Gums/chemistry , Mannans , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme Stability , Sphingomonas , Prebiotics , Fermentation
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2936-2946, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887855

ABSTRACT

A stable Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF, UiO-66-NH2) synthesized via micro-water solvothermal method was used to immobilize amidase by using the glutaraldehyde crosslinking method. The effect of immoblization conditions on enzyme immoblization efficiency was studied. An activity recovery rate of 86.4% and an enzyme loading of 115.3 mg/g were achieved under the optimal conditions: glutaraldehyde concentration of 1.0%, cross-linking time of 180 min, and the weight ratio of MOF to enzyme of 8:1. The optimal temperature and optimal pH of the immobilized amidase were determined to be 40 °C and 9.0, respectively, and the Km, Vmax and kcat of the immoblized amidase were 58.32 mmol/L, 16.23 μmol/(min·mg), and 1 670 s⁻¹, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was used for (S)-4-fluorophenylglycine synthesis and the optimal reaction conditions were 300 mmol/L of N-phenylacetyl-4-fluorophenylglycine, 10 g/L of immobilized enzyme loading, and reacting for 180 min at pH 9.0 and 40 °C. A conversion rate of 49.9% was achieved under the optimal conditions, and the conversion rate can be increased to 99.9% under the conditions of enantiomeric excess. The immobilized enzyme can be repeatedly used, 95.8% of its original activity can be retained after 20 cycles.


Subject(s)
Amidohydrolases , Enzyme Stability , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Temperature
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 580-592, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878583

ABSTRACT

A novel β-glucosidase BglD2 with glucose and ethanol tolerant properties was screened and cloned from the deep-sea bacterium Bacillus sp. D1. The application potential of BglD2 toward polydatin-hydrolyzing was also evaluated. BglD2 exhibited the maximal β-glucosidase activity at 45 °C and pH 6.5. BglD2 maintained approximately 50% of its origin activity after incubation at 30 °C and pH 6.5 for 20 h. BglD2 could hydrolyze a variety of substrates containing β (1→3), β (1→4), and β (1→6) bonds. The activity of β-glucosidase was enhanced to 2.0 fold and 2.3 fold by 100 mmol/L glucose and 150 mmol/L xylose, respectively. BglD2 possessed ethanol-stimulated and -tolerant properties. At 30 °C, the activity of BglD2 enhanced to 1.2 fold in the presence of 10% ethanol and even remained 60% in 25% ethanol. BglD2 could hydrolyze polydatin to produce resveratrol. At 35 °C, BglD2 hydrolyzed 86% polydatin after incubation for 2 h. Thus, BglD2 possessed glucose and ethanol tolerant properties and can be used as the potential candidate of catalyst for the production of resveratrol from polydatin.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Stability , Glucose , Glucosides/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Xylose , beta-Glucosidase/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4415-4429, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921517

ABSTRACT

The zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101) derived from Clonostachys rosea can effectively degrade the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) present in grain by-products and feed. However, the low thermal stability of ZHD101 hampers its applications. High throughput screening of variants using spectrophotometer is challenging because the reaction of hydrolyzing ZEN does not change absorbance. In this study, we used ZHD101 as a model enzyme to perform computation-aided design followed by experimental verification. By comparing the molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of ZHD101 at different temperatures, 32 flexible sites were selected. 608 saturated mutations were introduced into the 32 flexible sites virtually, from which 12 virtual mutants were screened according to the position specific score and enzyme conformation free energy calculation. Three of the mutants N156F, S194T and T259F showed an increase in thermal melting temperature (ΔTm>4 °C), and their enzyme activities were similar to or even higher than that of the wild type (relative enzyme activity 95.8%, 131.6% and 169.0%, respectively). Molecular dynamics simulation analysis showed that the possible mechanisms leading to the improved thermal stability were NH-π force, salt bridge rearrangement, and hole filling on the molecular surface. The three mutants were combined iteratively, and the combination of N156F/S194T showed the highest thermal stability (ΔTm=6.7 °C). This work demonstrated the feasibility of engineering the flexible region to improve enzyme performance by combining virtual computational mutations with experimental verification.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Edible Grain , Enzyme Stability , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hypocreales/enzymology , Protein Engineering , Zearalenone
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4303-4313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921507

ABSTRACT

D-allulose-3-epimerase (DPEase) is the key enzyme for isomerization of D-fructose to D-allulose. In order to improve its thermal stability, short amphiphilic peptides (SAP) were fused to the N-terminal of DPEase. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heterologously expressed DPEase folded correctly in Bacillus subtilis, and the protein size was 33 kDa. After incubation at 40 °C for 48 h, the residual enzyme activity of SAP1-DSDPEase was 58%. To make the recombinant B. subtilis strain reusable, cells were immobilized with a composite carrier of sodium alginate (SA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The results showed that 2% SA, 2% CaCl2, 0.03% glutaraldehyde solution and a ratio of TiO2 to SA of 1:4 were optimal for immobilization. Under these conditions, up to 82% of the activity of immobilized cells could be retained. Compared with free cells, the optimal reaction temperature of immobilized cells remained unchanged at 80 °C but the thermal stability improved. After 10 consecutive cycles, the mechanical strength remained unchanged, while 58% of the enzyme activity could be retained, with a conversion rate of 28.8% achieved. This study demonstrated a simple approach for using SAPs to improve the thermal stability of recombinant enzymes. Moreover, addition of TiO2 into SA during immobilization was demonstrated to increase the mechanical strength and reduce cell leakage.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Carbohydrate Epimerases/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Fructose , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Racemases and Epimerases , Temperature
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 381-389, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126135

ABSTRACT

El género Pseudomonas es una fuente importante de proteasas; sin embargo, su uso está restringido en la industria alimentaria. El clonaje permite aprovechar la capacidad catalítica de estas enzimas mediante su producción en microorganismos inocuos. Por otro lado, las leguminosas son fuentes ricas en proteínas, a partir de las cuales se pueden obtener compuestos con valor agregado mediante procesos de hidrólisis enzimática. En este estudio, se produjo y caracterizó una proteasa recombinante (PT4) alcalina y termoestable de Pseudomonas aeruginosa M211, para la obtención de hidrolizados proteicos de leguminosas. Para ello, el gen de la proteasa se clonó en el vector pJET1.2/blunt utilizando E. coli DHalfa como hospedero. El análisis de la secuencia nucleotídica parcial de la proteasa indicó un 99 % de similitud con Peptidasas de la Familia M4 de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. La enzima recombinante presentó un peso molecular de 80 kDa, demostró ser activa y estable en condiciones alcalinas y termófilas con un pH y temperatura óptimos de 8 y 60 °C, respectivamente, y fue inhibida por EDTA. Además, hidrolizó proteínas de semillas de Glycine max, Phaseolus lunatus, Lupinus mutabilis y Erythrina edulis, obteniéndose fracciones peptídicas menores a 40 kDa. Esta proteasa recombinante se podría utilizar en la elaboración de hidrolizados proteicos funcionales a partir proteínas de distintas fuentes y residuos agroalimentarios.


The genus Pseudomonas is an important source of proteases; however, in the food industry the use of this bacterium is restricted. Cloning allows for the use of the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas proteases through their production in innocuous microorganisms. Leguminous are protein-rich sources from which value-added compounds can be obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, an alkaline and thermostable recombinant protease (PT4) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa M211 was cloned and characterized in order to obtain protein hydrolysates from leguminous. Therefore, protease gene was cloned into the pJET1.2 / blunt vector using E. coli DHalpha as a host. Analysis of protease partial nucleotide sequence showed 99% homology with Peptidases M4 Family from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme was 80 kDa, it was active and stable under alkaline and thermophilic conditions, presented an optimum pH and temperature of 8 and 60 °C, respectively, and was inhibited by EDTA. In addition, it hydrolysed Glycine max, Phaseolus lunatus, Lupinus mutabilis y Erythrina edulis proteins, obtaining peptide fractions less than 40 kDa. This recombinant protease could be used in the elaboration of functional hydrolysates using protein from different sources and agricultural waste.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Hydrolysates/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Cloning, Molecular , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Fabaceae
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 1-7, Jan. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087520

ABSTRACT

Background: Textile industry not only plays a vital role in our daily life but also a prominent factor in improving global economy. One of the environmental concern is it releases huge quantities of toxic dyes in the water leading to severe environmental pollution. Bacterial laccase and azoreductase successfully oxidize complex chemical structure of nitrogen group-containing azo dyes. Additionally, the presence of textile dye infuriates bacterial peroxidase to act as a dye degrading enzyme. Our present study deals with three textile dye degrading enzymes laccase, azoreductase, and peroxidase through analyzing their structural and functional properties using standard computational tools. Result: According to the comparative analysis of physicochemical characteristics, it was clear that laccase was mostly made up of basic amino acids whereas azoreductase and peroxidase both comprised of acidic amino acids. Higher aliphatic index ascertained the thermostability of all these three enzymes. Negative GRAVY value of the enzymes confirmed better water interaction of the enzymes. Instability index depicted that compared to laccase and preoxidase, azoreductase was more stable in nature. It was also observed that the three model proteins had more than 90% of total amino acids in the favored region of Ramachandran plot. Functional analysis revealed laccase as multicopper oxidase type enzyme and azoreductase as FMN dependent enzyme, while peroxidase consisted of α-ß barrel with additional haem group. Conclusion: Present study aims to provide knowledge on industrial dye degrading enzymes, choosing the suitable enzyme for industrial set up and to help in understanding the experimental laboratory requirements as well.


Subject(s)
Azo Compounds/metabolism , Peroxidase/chemistry , Laccase/chemistry , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/chemistry , Temperature , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Textile Industry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Computer Simulation , Enzyme Stability , Peroxidase/metabolism , Lactase/metabolism , Coloring Agents/metabolism , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 920-931, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826884

ABSTRACT

The capacity for thermal tolerance is critical for industrial enzyme. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to endow wild-type enzymes with higher catalytic activity or thermostability using gene engineering and protein engineering strategies. In this study, a recently developed SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, mediated by isopeptide bond-ligation, was used to modify a rumen microbiota-derived xylanase XYN11-6 as cyclized and stable enzyme C-XYN11-6. After incubation at 60, 70 or 80 ℃ for 10 min, the residual activities of C-XYN11-6 were 81.53%, 73.98% or 64.41%, which were 1.48, 2.92 or 3.98-fold of linear enzyme L-XYN11-6, respectively. After exposure to 60-90°C for 10 min, the C-XYN11-6 remained as soluble in suspension, while L-XYN11-6 showed severely aggregation. Intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS)-binding fluorescence analysis revealed that C-XYN11-6 was more capable of maintaining its conformation during heat challenge, compared with L-XYN11-6. Interestingly, molecular cyclization also conferred C-XYN11-6 with improved resilience to 0.1-50 mmol/L Ca²⁺ or 0.1 mmol/L Cu²⁺ treatment. In summary, we generated a thermal- and ion-stable cyclized enzyme using SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, which will be of particular interest in engineering of enzymes for industrial application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclization , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Metabolism , Enzyme Stability , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Microbiota , Protein Engineering , Rumen , Microbiology , Temperature
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 932-941, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826883

ABSTRACT

Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase is used widely in the glycobiology studies and industries. In this study, a new endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, designated as Endo SA, was cloned from Streptomyces alfalfae ACCC 40021 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The purified recombinant Endo SA exhibited the maximum activity at 35 ºC and pH 6.0, good thermo/pH stability and high specific activity (1.0×10⁶ U/mg). It displayed deglycosylation activity towards different protein substrates. These good properties make EndoSA a potential tool enzyme and industrial biocatalyst.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Enzyme Stability , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Gene Expression , Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase , Genetics , Metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Streptomyces , Genetics
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 60-71, sept. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087169

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this work was to purify and characterize exo-ß-1,3-glucanase, namely, TtBgnA, from the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris Co3Bag1 and to identify the purified enzyme. Results: The thermophilic biomass-degrading fungus T. terrestris Co3Bag1 displayed ß-1,3-glucanase activity when grown on 1% glucose. An exo-ß-1,3-glucanase, with an estimated molecular mass of 129 kDa, named TtBgnA, was purified from culture filtrates from T. terrestris Co3Bag1. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 70°C and half-lives (t1/2) of 54 and 37 min at 50 and 60°C, respectively. Substrate specificity analysis showed that laminarin was the best substrate studied for TtBgnA. When laminarin was used as the substrate, the apparent KM and Vmax values were determined to be 2.2 mg mL-1 and 10.8 U/mg, respectively. Analysis of hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that TtBgnA displays an exo mode of action. Additionally, the enzyme was partially sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the results suggested that TtBgnA from T. terrestris Co3Bag1 could be classified as a member of the GH-31 family. Conclusions: This report thus describes the purification and characterization of TtBgnA, a novel exo-ß-1,3-glucanase of the GH-31 family from the thermophilic fungus T. terrestris Co3Bag1. Based on the biochemical properties displayed by TtBgnA, the enzyme could be considered as a candidate for potential biotechnological applications.


Subject(s)
Sordariales/enzymology , Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase/chemistry , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Cellulases , Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Enzyme Assays , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 91-97, may. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipases are extensively exploited in lots of industrial fields; cold-adapted lipases with alkali-resistance are especially desired in detergent industry. Penicillium cyclopium lipase I (PCL) might be suitable for applications of detergent industry due to its high catalytic efficiency at low temperature and relatively good alkali stability. In this study, to better meet the requirements, the alkali stability of PCL was further improved via directed evolution with error-prone PCR. RESULTS: The mutant PCL (N157F) with an improved alkali stability was selected based on a high-throughput activity assay. After incubating at pH 11.0 for 120 min, N157F retained 70% of its initial activity, which was 23% higher than that of wild type PCL. Combined with the three-dimensional structure analysis, N157F exhibited an improved alkali stability under the high pH condition due to the interactions of hydrophilicity and ß-strand propensity. Conclusions: This work provided the theoretical foundation and preliminary data for improving alkali stability of PCL to meet the industrial requirements, which is also beneficial to improving alkali-tolerance ability of other industrial enzymes via molecular modification.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/enzymology , Enzyme Stability , Detergent Industry , Lipase/metabolism , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cold Temperature , Alkalies , Biocatalysis , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipase/genetics , Mutation
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 995-1002, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to clone and characterize the oxiranedicarboxylate hydrolase (ORCH) from Labrys sp. WH-1.@*METHODS@#Purification by column chromatography, characterization of enzymatic properties, gene cloning by protein terminal sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequence analysis by secondary structure prediction and multiple sequence alignment were performed.@*RESULTS@#The ORCH from Labrys sp. WH-1 was purified 26-fold with a yield of 12.7%. It is a monomer with an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.57 and molecular mass of 30.2 kDa. It was stable up to 55 °C with temperature at which the activity of the enzyme decreased by 50% in 15 min (T5015) of 61 °C and the half-life at 50 °C (t1/2, 50 °C) of 51 min and was also stable from pH 4 to 10, with maximum activity at 55 °C and pH 8.5. It is a metal-independent enzyme and strongly inhibited by Cu2+, Ag+, and anionic surfactants. Its kinetic parameters (Km, kcat, and kcat/Km) were 18.7 mmol/L, 222.3 s-1, and 11.9 mmol/(L·s), respectively. The ORCH gene, which contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 825 bp encoding 274 amino acid residues, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the enzyme activity was 33 times higher than that of the wild strain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The catalytic efficiency and thermal stability of the ORCH from Labrys sp. WH-1 were the best among the reported ORCHs, and it provides an alternative catalyst for preparation of L(+)-2,3-dihydrobutanedioic acid.


Subject(s)
Alphaproteobacteria/enzymology , Cloning, Molecular , Dicarboxylic Acids/metabolism , Enzyme Stability , Epoxide Hydrolases/metabolism
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