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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 26-32, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360553


Abstract Objective: To assess intra- and interobserver agreement among non-expert pathologists in identifying features of the eosinophilic esophagitis histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) in pediatric patients. Patients and methods: The authors used 50 slides from patients (aged 1-15 years; 72% male) with EoE. EoEHSS evaluates eosinophilic inflammation and other features including epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, eosinophilic abscesses, eosinophil surface layering, dilated intercellular spaces, surface epithelial alteration, dyskeratotic epithelial cells, and lamina propria fibrosis. Grade and stage of abnormalities are scored using a 4-point scale (0 normal; 3 maximum change). Four pathologists determined EoEHSS findings on two occasions. Intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed using Kappa (κ) statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophil counts ≥ 15/high power field (HPF) was excellent, however varied when assessing additional features of the EoEHSS. For the more experienced pathologist, agreement for most EoEHSS items and the composite scores was substantial to excellent. For the less experienced pathologists, intraobserver agreement ranged from absent to substantial for individual features and ranged from moderate to substantial for the composite scores. Conclusion: Most items of the EoEHSS had substantial to excellent reliability when assessed by a pathologist experienced in the diagnosis of EoE but presented lower repeatability among less experienced pathologists. These findings suggest that specific training of pathologists is required for the identification of EoEHSS characteristics beyond eosinophil count, as these features are considered useful in the evaluation of response to treatment and correlation with clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/drug therapy , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Eosinophils/pathology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 831-841, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139378


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, induced by food allergens, clinically characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Pathologically there is a predominant eosinophilic inflammation. This disease is relatively new, and its definitions have evolved over time. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing and causes clinical problems both in children and adults. Its symptoms include food impaction, dysphagia, symptoms that resemble gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and vomiting. It can also have extra-digestive symptoms such as rhinosinusitis, chronic cough, recurrent croup and hoarseness. EoE can be associated with other atopic conditions, such as asthma, eczema and food allergies. The diagnosis is made by the analysis of endoscopic biopsies (> 15 eosinophils per high power field). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently accepted as a treatment for EoE. The clinical and pathological improvement with the use PPIs ceased to be a criterion to define Esophageal eosinophilia responsive to PPIs as a differential diagnosis, since this condition is currently considered within the EoE spectrum. There are three main treatment approaches for EoE: diet, drugs and dilation. Its diagnosis and early treatment are key to avoid or delay its complications, such as stenosis and severe esophageal dysfunction.

Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 151-154, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019451


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is performed by the detection of 15 or more eosinophils per field in an esophageal biopsy sample, but the endoscopic findings alone are not validated for a diagnosis of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the endoscopic findings and histopathological diagnosis in patients with suspected EoE in endoscopy. METHODS: A retrospective study of 24 patients with suspicion of EoE during endoscopy was held. The information was collected from databases of Endoscopy and Pathology services of the Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, Universidade Federal do Ceará, from March 2012 to April 2018. The patients were divided into a group with positive biopsy (>15 Eosinophils/field, N=8) and a group with negative biopsy (<15 Eosinophils/field, N=16), and the endoscopic findings were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: From a total of 24 patients, 79.1% had longitudinal grooves, 20.8% white exudates, 33.3% mucosal pallor or loss of vascularity and 45.8% had more than one endoscopic finding. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the evaluation of the finding of mucosal pallor or decreased vasculature alone among the groups. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the presence of more than one endoscopic findings for the diagnosis of EoE was 54% and 84%, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was a low association between the presence of endoscopic findings and histopathological confirmation of the disease, which indicates that endoscopic findings alone are not reliable for the diagnosis of EoE.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O diagnóstico da esofagite eosinofílica é realizado através da detecção, em amostra de biópsia esofágica, de 15 ou mais eosinófilos por campo, sendo que os achados endoscópicos isolados não são validados para o diagnóstico da doença. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre os achados endoscópicos com o diagnóstico histopatológico em pacientes com suspeita de esofagite eosinofílica na endoscopia. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 24 pacientes com suspeita de esofagite eosinofílica durante endoscopia digestiva alta. As informações foram colhidas de bancos de dados dos serviços de Endoscopia e Patologia do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio da Universidade Federal do Ceará, no período de março de 2012 a abril de 2018. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupo com biópsia positiva (>15 eosinófilos/campo, N=8) e grupo com biópsia negativa (<15 eosinófilos/campo, N=16), sendo comparados os achados endoscópicos entre os dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Do total de 24 pacientes, 79,1% tinham a presença de sulcos longitudinais, 20,8% exsudatos brancos, 33,3% palidez de mucosa ou perda da vascularização e 45,8% apresentaram mais de um achado endoscópico. Houve diferença significativa (P<0,05) na avaliação do achado de palidez ou perda da vascularização, isoladamente, entre os grupos. O valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da presença de mais de um achado endoscópico para o diagnóstico de esofagite eosinofílica foi de 54% e 84%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve uma baixa associação entre a presença de achados endoscópicos e a confirmação histopatológica da doença, o que faz com que os achados endoscópicos isolados não sejam confiáveis para o diagnóstico de esofagite eosinofílica.

Humans , Male , Female , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/pathology , Biopsy , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy , Middle Aged
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 275-281, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012612


Abstract Objective: The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the practical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to eosinophilic esophagitis and to increase the visibility of the disease among pediatricians. Sources: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and recent consensus statements and guidelines were performed. Summary of the findings: The definition of eosinophilic esophagitis is based on symptoms and histology. It is important to rule out other diseases associated with esophageal eosinophil-predominant inflammation. It is not yet clear whether the increased prevalence is due to a real increase in incidence or a result of increased awareness of the disease. Various options for management have been used in pediatric patients, including proton pump inhibitors, dietary restriction therapies, swallowed topical steroids, and endoscopic dilations. More recently, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis have been contemplated on the same spectrum, and proton pump inhibitors should be considered the initial step in the treatment of these patients. Conclusions: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a relatively new disease with a remarkable progression of its incidence and prevalence in the past two to three decades, and diagnostic criteria that are constantly evolving. It is important to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, the predisposing factors, the natural history, and the categorization of varying phenotypes to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that meet the clinical needs of patients.

Resumo Objetivo: Fornecer uma visão geral do diagnóstico e do tratamento da esofagite eosinofílica na prática clínica e aumentar a visibilidade da doença entre os pediatras. Fontes dos dados: Foi feita uma busca na literatura relevante nos bancos de dados Medline, Embase, CINAHL e consensos e diretrizes recentes foram revisados. Síntese dos dados: A definição de esofagite eosinofílica é baseada nos sintomas e na histologia. É importante excluir outras doenças associadas com inflamação esofágica predominantemente eosinofílica. Ainda não está claro se o aumento na prevalência é devido a um real aumento da incidência ou se é o resultado da maior suspeição diagnóstica. Várias opções para tratamento, inclusive inibidores de bomba de prótons, restrições dietéticas, esteroides tópicos deglutidos e dilatações endoscópicas têm sido usadas em pacientes pediátricos. Mais recentemente a eosinofilia esofágica responsiva a inibidores de bomba de prótons e a esofagite eosinofílica têm sido contempladas no mesmo espectro e os inibidores de bomba de prótons devem ser considerados como opção inicial no tratamento desses pacientes. Conclusões: A esofagite eosinofílica é uma doença relativamente nova com uma notável progressão da incidência e prevalência nas últimas 2-3 décadas e critérios diagnósticos estão em evolução constante. É importante entender melhor a patogênese dessa doença, os fatores predisponentes, a história natural e a categorização dos diferentes fenótipos para desenvolver estratégias diagnósticas e terapêuticas que vão ao encontro das necessidades clínicas dos pacientes.

Humans , Child , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Esophagoscopy , Dilatation , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 642-651, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976008


Abstract Objectives: To translate and culturally adapt the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (version 2.0), a tool used to assess pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis symptoms reported by patients and/or their parents/caregivers. Methods: The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was translated through the following stages: initial translation, back-translation, and consensus of independent reviewers through the Delphi technique. The pre-final version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score was applied to five 8-to-18-year-old patients and to ten parents of two-to-18-year-old patients from an outpatient pediatric gastroenterology service (pre-test). Results: During the translation process, no translations presenting with difficult consensus in the review process or grammar inconsistencies were observed. During the pre-test, difficulties in comprehension of some unconventional terms, e.g., "náusea", were observed. Adverbs of frequency, such as "quase nunca" were also identified as being of difficult understanding by patients and parents, and the substitution by the term "raramente" was suggested. Such difficulties may be inherent to the pediatric age group. Age 8 years or above should be considered adequate for the self-reporting of symptoms. Conclusions: The study presents the Brazilian version of the Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score, which is adapted to the Brazilian culture. This version may be introduced as a clinical and research tool for the assessment of patients with esophagic disease symptoms. The Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score is a breakthrough in the evaluation of symptoms of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis, since it reinforces the importance of self-reporting by patients who experience this disease.

Resumo Objetivo: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente a Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (versão 2.0), um instrumento usado para identificar os sintomas relatados pelos pacientes ou seus pais/responsáveis para a avaliação da esofagite eosinofílica pediátrica. Método: Realizamos o processo de tradução a partir da tradução inicial, retrotradução, seguida da etapa de obtenção de consenso por revisores independentes por meio da técnica Delphi. Aplicamos a versão pré-final a cinco pacientes de 8 a 18 anos e dez pais de pacientes de 2 a 18 anos no Serviço de Gastroenterologia Pediátrica (pré-teste). Resultados: No processo de tradução, não encontramos traduções de difícil consenso no processo de revisão ou discordâncias gramaticais. No pré-teste, identificamos dificuldades de entendimento de termos pouco convencionais, como "náusea", com sugestão de substituição para o termo "enjoo". Outra dificuldade encontrada relacionou-se aos advérbios de frequência da escala, como, por exemplo, "quase nunca", foi sugerida a substituição pelo termo "raramente". Essas dificuldades podem ser inerentes à faixa etária pediátrica. A idade dos pacientes a partir de oito anos deve ser considerada adequada para o uso de escores de autorrelato. Conclusões: A tradução do escore de sintomas da esofagite eosinofílica pediátrica produziu uma escala adaptada à cultura brasileira, que poderá ser introduzida como instrumento de investigação clínica e de pesquisa em pacientes com sintomas sugestivos de doenças esofágicas. É um importante avanço na avaliação dos sintomas, já que valoriza o relato dos próprios pacientes que convivem com essa doença.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Translations , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Self Report/standards , Parents , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Caregivers
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(3): 192-196, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888196


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Mast cells exert a substantial role in gastrointestinal allergic diseases. Therefore, it is reasonable to presume that mast cell may aid diagnosis in eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether mast cell count in the esophageal epithelium can discriminate eosinophilic esophagitis, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Retrospectively we reviewed the files of 53 consecutive patients (age: 7.8 years; range: 8-14 years) with definitive diagnose established during clinical follow up in a universitary outpatient clinic as follow: eosinophilic esophagitis (N=23), PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis (N=15) and gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis (N=15). Eosinophil count in the esophageal epithelium in slides stained with H-E was reviewed and immunohistochemistry for mast cell tryptase was performed. RESULTS: Count of eosinophils/high-power field (HPF) higher than 15 were found in 14 out of 15 reflux esophagitis patients. The mean count of eosinophils/HPF was similar in eosinophilic esophagitis patients and in those with PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis (42 and 39 eosinophils/HPF, respectively, P=0.47). Values of mast cell tryptase (+) were higher in eosinophilic esophagitis [median: 25 mast cells/HPF; range (17-43) ] and in PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis patients [25 (16-32) ], compared to reflux esophagitis [4 (2-14) ], P<0.001. There was no difference between the mean count of mast cells/HPF in the esophageal epithelium of eosinophilic esophagitis patients and PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis patients, respectively, 26 and 24 mast cells/HPF, P=0.391. CONCLUSION: Tryptase staining of mast cells differentiates eosinophilic esophagitis from reflux esophagitis.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os mastócitos detêm papel fundamental na resposta imuno-alérgica gastrintestinal. Assim, é razoável admitir que essas células sejam úteis no diagnóstico diferencial das gastroenteropatias eosinofílicas. OBJETIVO: Determinar se a análise quantitativa de mastócitos na mucosa esofágica permite discernir esofagite eosinofílica, esofagite eosinofílica responsiva ao inibidor de bomba de prótons e esofagite péptica por doença de refluxo gastroesofágico. MÉTODOS: Revisamos retrospectivamente os prontuários 53 crianças (idade: 7,8 anos; variação: 8-14 anos), atendidas consecutivamente, num serviço terciário e cujos diagnósticos definitivos estabelecidos após seguimento clínico foram esofagite eosinofílica (N=23), esofagite eosinofílica responsiva ao inibidor de bomba de prótons (N=15) e esofagite péptica por doença de refluxo gastroesofágico (N=15). As amostras histológicas foram revisadas quanto à contagem de eosinófilos na coloração de H-E e processadas para imunoistoquímica da triptase de mastócitos. RESULTADOS: Valores de eosinófilos/campo de maior aumento (CMA; 400X) >15 foram encontrados em 14 dos 15 pacientes com refluxo gastroesofágico. A média de eosinófilos/CMA foi similar nos pacientes com esofagite eosinofílica e com esofagite eosinofílica responsiva ao inibidor de bomba de prótons, respectivamente, 42 e 39 eosinófilos/CMA, P=0,47). Os valores de mastócitos triptase (+) foram superiores no epitélio esofágico dos pacientes com esofagite eosinofílica [mediana: 25 mastócitos/CMA; variação (17- 43) ] e na esofagite eosinofílica responsiva ao inibidor de bomba de prótons [25 (16-32) ], comparados aos pacientes com refluxo gastroesofágico [4(2-14) ], P<0,001. Não houve diferença entre a média de mastócitos/CMA nos pacientes com esofagite eosinofílica comparados aos com esofagite eosinofílica responsiva ao inibidor de bomba de prótons, respectivamente, 26 e 24 mastócitos/CMA, P=0,391. CONCLUSÃO: A coloração para mastócitos pela imunoistoquímica da triptase diferencia as esofagites eosinofílicas da esofagite péptica.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Mast Cells/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/etiology , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/pathology
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(supl.1): S31-S34, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120621


Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammation of the esophagus, causing dysfunction and fibrosis. Dysphagia or food impaction are common symptoms, that do not respond to proton pump inhibitors. Initial management must include an evaluation for food allergies .Emerging data in adults suggest that the elimination of six types of food from the diet can improve symptoms and esophageal eosinophilia. Pharmacological therapy should start with topical use of fluticasone, if lack of response is observed; budesonide is a good next step. The combination of steroids with proton pump inhibitors is reasonable if reflux is suspected to be contributing to symptoms. Further research will be necessary to find the best combination of tailored diets, proton pump inhibitors and steroids to achieve better control of the disease.

La esofagitis eosinofílica es una inflamación del esófago que causa disfunción y fibrosis. La presencia de disfagia o impactación alimentaria son síntomas comunes que no responden al uso de inhibidores de bomba de protones. El manejo inicial debe incluir una evaluación para alergias alimentarias. Datos emergentes en adultos sugieren que una dieta con eliminación de seis alimentos puede mejorar los síntomas y la eosinofilia esofágica. El tratamiento farmacológico debería comenzar con fluticasona tópica; si hay falta de respuesta a esta opción un paso siguiente adecuado es la budesonida. La combinación de esteroides con inhibidores de la bomba de protones es razonable si se sospecha que el reflujo contribuye a la sintomatología. Se requiere conocimiento adicional para encontrar la mejor combinación de dietas individualizadas, esteroides e inhibidores de bomba de protones para conseguir el mejor control de la enfermedad.

Humans , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diet therapy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Esophagus/pathology , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165885


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease, with eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophagus. A minority of EoE patients respond well to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy alone, and that condition is labelled PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). The prevalence of PPI-REE among EoE cases is unknown. We aimed to identify clinical manifestations of PPI-REE, and the proportion of PPI-REE among all EoE cases. METHODS: We reviewed pathology of the 4,075 patients who underwent esophageal biopsy at an institution from March 2003 to July 2015. EoE was diagnosed based on esophageal symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophagus, with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field. We collected endoscopic and pathologic findings, and clinical features for these patients. RESULTS: Thirteen (0.3%) patients were diagnosed with EoE. Clinical manifestations were dysphagia (30.8%), foreign body sensation (23.1%), regurgitation (23.1%), cough (15.4%), heartburn (15.4%), nausea (7.7%), dyspepsia (7.7%). The endoscopic findings noted were polypoid lesion (23.1%), whitish plaque or exudate (23.1%), linear furrow (7.7%), concentric ring (7.7%), nodularity (7.7%), erosion (7.7%), and normal (30.8%). Of these patients, five had a favorable course with PPI as monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of EoE among all patients undergoing endoscopic biopsy was 0.3%. Of those, PPI-REE comprised 38%. Most of the endoscopic findings were atypical or normal when compared to the typical findings in EoE. In conclusion, patients who present with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction need esophageal biopsy, regardless of the endoscopic findings. Moreover, patients diagnosed with EoE need to be treated first with PPI alone.

Adult , Aged , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Esophagus/pathology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
GED gastroenterol. endosc. dig ; 33(2): 37-44, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763850


A esofagite eosinofílica (EoE) é uma doença inflamatória crônica caracterizada por sintomas de disfunção esofagiana e infiltração predominantemente eosinofílica. Objetivo: correlacionar os achados obtidos na endoscopia digestiva alta (EDA) com os achados histológicos de pacientes avaliados em um centro de referência na cidade de Cascavel, região oeste do Paraná. Métodos: entre julho de 2011 e julho de 2012, foram avaliados inicialmente 35 prontuários eletrônicos, mas foram incluídos apenas 18, com idade entre 14 e 79 anos, retrospectivamente, com diagnóstico endoscópico, histológico e sintomatologia clínica compatível com EoE. A fim de graduar o acometimento da mucosa esofágica, foi utilizada a classificação endoscópica proposta por Hirano e colaboradores, permitindo a divisão da amostra em cinco grupos com achados semelhantes para posterior comparação com o estudo anatomopatológico. Resultados: dentre as características da amostra, 72,2% eram do sexo masculino e 27,7% do sexo feminino. A média de idade no momento do diagnóstico foi de 31,7 anos ± 14,2. Os achados endoscópicos foram os seguintes: anéis esofágicos 44,4%, exsudados 88,8%, estenoses 11,1% e sulcos longitudinais em 100%. Comparativamente não houve correlação proporcional entre as características endoscópicas, avaliadas com base na classificação de Hirano, em relação à infiltração eosinofílica nos estudos anatomopatológicos, heterogeneidade dos dados dentro dos grupos variou de 41-64%. Conclusão: os critérios histológicos foram válidos para o diagnóstico da EoE, porém não houve correlação entre a classificação endoscópica proposta por Hirano e os parâmetros histológicos avaliados. Portanto, sugerimos a análise dos compartimentos submucosos para quantificação do processo inflamatório crônico, uma vez que este não foi avaliável em nossa amostra, seja através de biópsias mais profundas ou da ecoendoscopia, com a finalidade de direcionar o acompanhamento do paciente e avaliar a eficácia terapêutica.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and predominantly eosinophilic infiltration. Objective: to correlate the findings obtained in endoscopy (EDA) with histological findings of patients evaluated at a referral center in the city of Cascavel, Paraná west. Methods: between July 2011 and July 2012, it was evaluated 35 electronic medical records, but just 18 were included, which had aged between 14 and 79 years old, retrospectively, with endoscopic, histological diagnosis and compatible symptoms with EoE. In order to scale the involvement of the esophageal mucosa it was used a classification system proposed by Hirano and colleagues, allowing the division of the sample into five groups, with similar findings, for later comparison with histopathology. Results: among the characteristics of the sample, 72.2% were male and 27.7% female. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.2 ± 31.7 years old. In general, endoscopic findings were as follows: 44.4% transient esophageal rings, exudates 88.8%, 11.1% stenosis and longitudinal furrows in 100%. Comparatively, there was no proportional correlation between the endoscopic features, evaluated based on Hiranos classification, and eosinophilic infiltration on histopathology. Conclusion: the histological criteria have been valid for the diagnosis of EoE, though there was no correlation between endoscopic classification proposed by Hirano and histological parameters evaluated. Therefore, we suggest the analysis of the tissue deeper than epithelium for quantification of chronic inflammatory process, that was not available in our sample, either through deeper biopsy specimens or endoscopic ultrasound, with the purpose of to direct the patient follow-up and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Endoscopy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Histology , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis
J. bras. med ; 101(4): 37-41, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699663


A esofagite eosinofílica (EoE), primeiramente descrita em 1978 como uma doença rara, vem, nos últimos anos, sendo cada vez mais diagnosticada em pacientes com disfagia, impactação alimentar e/ou pirose. Há controvérsia quanto ao aumento de incidência da EoE. Ele é atribuído, em algumas séries, ao maior conhecimento da doença por parte dos médicos (maior número de diagnósticos), embora alguns defendam que ocorre um aumento real do número de casos.

Eosinophilic esophagitis that was first described in 1978 as a rare disease, it has been increasingly diagnosed in patients with dysphagia, food impaction and/or heartburn. There is controversy regarding the increased incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. In some cases, it is attributed to a greater knowledge about the disease by doctors (large number of diagnostics), however some people support that it occurs a real increase number of cases.

Humans , Male , Female , Allergens/immunology , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/physiopathology , Food Hypersensitivity , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Deglutition Disorders , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Histological Techniques , Immunologic Factors , Leukotriene Antagonists , Manometry
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 24(3): 121-131, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-763446


Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a clinicopathologic primary disease of the esophagus, characterized by dense eosinophilic infiltration and it is currently identified as an emerging global entity capable of producing dysphagia and food impaction in adults. Objective: Review of the literature and analysis of the current evidence related to eosinophilic esophagitis in adults. Methods: An electronic search was performed in PubMed to identify relevant literature regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of EE. The MeSH terms: ‘Eosinophilic esophagitis’ AND ‘adults’, were used including studies from 1975 to 2012, in English and Spanish written papers. Results: A total of 467 articles were identified in PubMed, where 374 correspond to adults. Eighty percent of the papers were published during the last six years, being mostly case reports or series. Although the pathogenesis is unknown, our review suggests a multifactorial cause, with an altered immune response and genetic component associated to it. At the same time, it was found that adult patients often have a long history of intermittent dysphagia or food impaction. Currently, there is no established consensus for histological diagnosis; however, eosinophilic infiltration of 15 per high power field is accepted. The most commonly used treatment in adults is topical corticosteroids. Although EE is a chronic disease, it does not seem to have a significant impact on morbimortality. Conclusions: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with immunoallergic compromise, which requires clinical and histological diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach to understand its natural history is suggested, thus developing future therapeutic approaches.

Introducción: La esofagitis eosinofílica (EE) es una enfermedad clínico-patológica primaria del esófago, caracterizada por infiltración eosinofílica densa y actualmente identificada como una entidad emergente a nivel mundial, capaz de producir disfagia e impactación alimentaria en adultos. Objetivo: Revisión de la literatura y análisis de la evidencia actual de EE en el adulto. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en PubMed para identificar literatura relevante sobre epidemiología, patogenia, presentación clínica,diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico. Se utilizaron los términos MeSH: ‘Eosinophilic esophagitis’ AND ‘adults’, incluyendo estudios publicados desde 1975 a 2012, en idiomas inglés y español. Resultados: Un total de 467 artículos se identificaron en PubMed, donde 374 corresponden a adultos. Durante los últimos seis años se publicó el 80 por ciento de ellos, siendo en su mayoría informes de casos o series de casos. Aunque la patogenia es desconocida, la presente revisión sugiere que es multifactorial, con alteración de la respuesta inmune y componente genético. Se encontró que los pacientes adultos presentan frecuentemente una larga historia de disfagia o impactación alimentaria. Actualmente, no existe un consenso establecido para el diagnóstico histológico, sin embargo, la infiltración eosinofílica de 15/campo de gran aumento es aceptada. El tratamiento más comúnmente indicado en adultos son los corticoesteroides tópicos. Aunque la EE es una patología crónica, no parece impactar significativamente la morbimortalidad. Conclusiones: La EE es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica con compromiso inmunoalérgico, que requiere un diagnóstico clínico e histológico. Se sugiere un enfoque multidisciplinario con el fin de comprender su historia natural, desarrollando así futuros enfoques terapéuticos.

Humans , Adult , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/pathology , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Review Literature as Topic
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 23(2): S11-S15, abr.-jun. 2012. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-661605


Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinico pathologic entity that has been increasingly recognized over the past two decades. It affects all ages, preferably men, with a history of atopy and is characterized by eating disorders, dysphagia and heartburn. It has elements in common with gastroesophageal reflux disease and the distinction between them can be a challenge for the clinician. It has several typical endoscopic features, such as longitudinal grooves, rings, plaques and stenosis, but none of them is pathognomonic of the disease. The correlation of history, endoscopic and histology are essential for a correct diagnosis. Management includes a period of use of proton pump inhibitors to rule out concomitant reflux disease. Treatment with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide are successful in the short term, but recurrence is common. Some cases may require endoscopic dilatation. Data is still insufficient to establish optimal management at short and long-term, therefore therapeutic decisions should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

La esofagitis eosinofílica es una entidad clínico patológica que ha sido reconocida en forma cada vez más frecuente en las últimas dos décadas. Afecta a todas las edades, de preferencia a hombres con antecedentes de atopia y se caracteriza por presentar trastornos alimentarios, disfagia y pirosis. Presenta elementos comunes con la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico y la distinción entre ellas puede ser un desafío para el médico. Tiene varias características endoscópicas típicas, como los surcos longitudinales, anillos, placas y estenosis, pero ninguna de ellas es patognomónica de la enfermedad. La correlación de la historia, imagen endoscópica e histología son imprescindibles para el diagnóstico correcto. El manejo incluye un período de uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones para descartar una enfermedad por reflujo concomitante. El tratamiento con corticoides tópicos como la fluticasona y budesonida da buenos resultados a corto plazo, pero la recidiva es frecuente. Algunos casos pueden requerir dilatación endoscópica. Faltan datos para establecer un manejo óptimo a corto y largo plazo, por lo que las decisiones terapéuticas deben ser evaluadas caso a caso.

Humans , Male , Female , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/therapy , Androstadienes/administration & dosage , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227521


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with adults, as a new disease emerging during the last decade, is a clinicopathologic disorder of the esophagus characterized by a dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration and typical esophageal symptoms. As numerous studies about EoE had been reported during last several years, updated consensus of EoE was reported in July 2011. The conceptual definition of EoE is coming. EoE is defined as a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominat inflammation. Other important addition is genotyping feature that implicates thymic stromal lymphopoietin genes or filagrrin as EoE susceptibility genes. The majority of patients has the concurrent allergic disease, especially food or aeroallergen sensitization. Main therapeutic options include topical steroids and dietary modification. Recent issues of EoE include a new concept for proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia that it should be excluded to diagnose EoE.

Diet , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Esophagus/surgery , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/metabolism , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Steroids/therapeutic use
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011; 27 (3): 545-548
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123950


To determine the frequency of Eosinophilic Esophagitis [EoE] in patients undergoing upper Gl endoscopy. Patients undergoing upper Gl endoscopy for any indication were subjected to additional esophageal biopsies for derrnination of eosinophilic esophagitis. The additional biopsy protocol was two each from proximal esophagus, distal esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Presence of >15 eosinophils in one high power field was criteria for diagnosis of EoE. Ninety four patients were included according to sample size estimations. Eosinophilic esophagitis was found in 7 [7.4%] of patients undergoing upper Gl endoscopies. Eosinophilic esophagitis should be considered as active diagnosis in presence of suggestive symptoms

Humans , Female , Male , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Deglutition Disorders